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Adaptation to Climate Change

Adaptation to Climate Change
  • Author : Mark Pelling
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-10-18
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 9781134022014
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Summary : The impacts of climate change are already being felt. Learning how to live with these impacts is a priority for human development. In this context, it is too easy to see adaptation as a narrowly defensive task – protecting core assets or functions from the risks of climate change. A more profound engagement, which sees climate change risks as a product and driver of social as well as natural systems, and their interaction, is called for. Adaptation to Climate Change argues that, without care, adaptive actions can deny the deeper political and cultural roots that call for significant change in social and political relations if human vulnerability to climate change associated risk is to be reduced. This book presents a framework for making sense of the range of choices facing humanity, structured around resilience (stability), transition (incremental social change and the exercising of existing rights) and transformation (new rights claims and changes in political regimes). The resilience-transition-transformation framework is supported by three detailed case study chapters. These also illustrate the diversity of contexts where adaption is unfolding, from organizations to urban governance and the national polity. This text is the first comprehensive analysis of the social dimensions to climate change adaptation. Clearly written in an engaging style, it provides detailed theoretical and empirical chapters and serves as an invaluable reference for undergraduate and postgraduate students interested in climate change, geography and development studies.

Adaptation to Climate Change through Water Resources Management

Adaptation to Climate Change through Water Resources Management
  • Author : Dominic Stucker,Elena Lopez-Gunn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-27
  • Total pages :446
  • ISBN : 9781136200397
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Summary : The impacts of human-induced climate change are largely mediated by water, such as alterations in precipitation and glacial melt patterns, variations in river flow, increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and sea level rise in densely populated coastal areas. Such phenomena impact both urban and rural communities in developed, emerging, and developing countries. Taking a systems approach, this book analyzes evidence from 26 countries and identifies common barriers and bridges for local adaptation to climate change through water resources management. It includes a global set of case studies from places experiencing increased environmental and social pressure due to population growth, development and migration, including in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America. All chapters consider the crosscutting themes of adaptive capacity, equity, and sustainability. These point to resilient water allocation policies and practices that are capable of protecting social and environmental interests, whilst ensuring the efficient use of an often-scarce resource.

Canada’s Top Climate Change Risks

Canada’s Top Climate Change Risks
  • Author : The Expert Panel on Climate Change Risks and Adaptation Potential
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-04
  • Total pages :88
  • ISBN : 9781926522678
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Summary : Canada’s Top Climate Change Risks identifies the top risk areas based on the extent and likelihood of the potential damage, and rates the risk areas according to society’s ability to adapt and reduce negative outcomes. These 12 major areas of risk are: agriculture and food, coastal communities, ecosystems, fisheries, forestry, geopolitical dynamics, governance and capacity, human health and wellness, Indigenous ways of life, northern communities, physical infrastructure, and water. The report describes an approach to inform federal risk prioritization and adaptation responses. The Panel outlines a multi-layered method of prioritizing adaptation measures based on an understanding of the risk, adaptation potential, and federal roles and responsibilities.

Adaptation in the Face of Climate Change - When Resistance Is Futile

Adaptation in the Face of Climate Change - When Resistance Is Futile
  • Author : John Morton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-12-15
  • Total pages :210
  • ISBN : 012815747X
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Summary : Adaptation in the Face of Climate Change demonstrates climate change adaptation strategies that step beyond conventional land and species management, focused on facilitating ecological trajectories rather than static goals based on historical baselines. Current conservative approaches are too timid to address likely ecological outcomes of climate emission scenarios that have already been exceeded and are inadequate to ameliorate the 6th extinction. This book closely examines the commonalities and differences among three locations, spanning from Maryland, the Pacific Islands and Alaska, to highlight the idea that there are no optimal choices in a world of non-analog futures and disequilibrium, only reasonable ones that accommodate continual change. Based on real-world considerations, the book discusses the implementation of adaptation strategies in the face of political obstacles. This book is essential to anyone interested in effective climate change adaptation, such as Environmental Planners, Ecologists, Geographers, and Biologists. Features real world cases of successful adaptation to climate change across diverse ecosystems and species, including animal ecology, forest and coastal ecosystems Includes data on climate change and its impact on the environment has been incorporated in each example Provides an understanding of the types of socio-political constraints environmental managers face, with true examples of successfully navigating them in order create a positive environmental impacts

Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Management Options

Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Management Options
  • Author : James M. Vose,Kier D. Klepzig
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-05
  • Total pages :492
  • ISBN : 9781466572751
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Summary : Forest land managers face the challenges of preparing their forests for the impacts of climate change. However, climate change adds a new dimension to the task of developing and testing science-based management options to deal with the effects of stressors on forest ecosystems in the southern United States. The large spatial scale and complex interactions make traditional experimental approaches difficult. Yet, the current progression of climate change science offers new insights from recent syntheses, models, and experiments, providing enough information to start planning now for a future that will likely include an increase in disturbances and rapid changes in forest conditions. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Management Options: A Guide for Natural Resource Managers in Southern Forest Ecosystems provides a comprehensive analysis of forest management options to guide natural resource management in the face of future climate change. Topics include potential climate change impacts on wildfire, insects, diseases, and invasives, and how these in turn might affect the values of southern forests that include timber, fiber, and carbon; water quality and quantity; species and habitats; and recreation. The book also considers southern forest carbon sequestration, vulnerability to biological threats, and migration of native tree populations due to climate change. This book utilizes the most relevant science and brings together science experts and land managers from various disciplines and regions throughout the south to combine science, models, and on-the-ground experience to develop management options. Providing a link between current management actions and future management options that would anticipate a changing climate, the authors hope to ensure a broader range of options for managing southern forests and protecting their values in the future.

Climatopolis

Climatopolis
  • Author : Matthew E. Kahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-09-07
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780465022656
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Summary : "Climatopolis documents the thinking of a first-rate economist on one of the most pressing issues of our time" --Nature We have released the genie from the bottle: climate change is coming, and there's no stopping it. The question, according to environmental economist Matthew E. Kahn, is not how we're going to avoid a hotter future but how we're going to adapt to it. In Climatopolis, Kahn argues that cities and regions will adapt to rising temperatures over time, slowly transforming our everyday lives as we change our behaviors and our surroundings. Taking the reader on a tour of the world's cities- from New York to Beijing to Mumbai--Kahn's clear-eyed, engaging, and optimistic message presents a positive yet realistic picture of what our urban future will look like.

Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies
  • Author : Ganpat, Wayne,Isaac, Wendy-Ann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-25
  • Total pages :406
  • ISBN : 9781522516088
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Summary : The existence of the human race has created inevitable effects on our surrounding environment. To prevent further harm to the world’s ecosystems, it becomes imperative to assess mankind’s impact on and create sustainability initiatives to maintain the world’s ecosystems. Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies is a pivotal reference source for the latest scholarly material on the scientific, technical, and socio-economic factors related to climate change assessment. Providing a comprehensive overview of perspectives on sustainability protection of environmental resources, this book is ideally designed for policy makers, professionals, government officials, upper-level students, and academics interested in emerging research on climate change.

Municipal Planning in the Face of Climate Change

Municipal Planning in the Face of Climate Change
  • Author : Aftab Erfan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :112
  • ISBN : OCLC:252574123
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Summary :

Ethical Adaptation to Climate Change

Ethical Adaptation to Climate Change
  • Author : Allen Thompson,Jeremy Bendik-Keymer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-03-09
  • Total pages :360
  • ISBN : 9780262300780
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Summary : An analytically precise and theoretically probing exploration of the challenge to our values and virtues posed by climate change. Predictions about global climate change have produced both stark scenarios of environmental catastrophe and purportedly pragmatic ideas about adaptation. This book takes a different perspective, exploring the idea that the challenge of adapting to global climate change is fundamentally an ethical one, that it is not simply a matter of adapting our infrastructures and economies to mitigate damage but rather of adapting ourselves to realities of a new global climate. The challenge is to restore our conception of humanity—to understand human flourishing in new ways—in an age in which humanity shapes the basic conditions of the global environment. In the face of what we have unintentionally done to Earth's ecology, who shall we become? The contributors examine ways that new realities will require us to revisit and adjust the practice of ecological restoration; the place of ecology in our conception of justice; the form and substance of traditional virtues and vices; and the organizations, scale, and underlying metaphors of important institutions. Topics discussed include historical fidelity in ecological restoration; the application of capability theory to ecology; the questionable ethics of geoengineering; and the cognitive transformation required if we are to “think like a planet.”

Policies of Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

Policies of Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries
  • Author : Philipp Alvares de Souza Soares
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-07-21
  • Total pages :17
  • ISBN : 9783640379910
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Summary : Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject Economy - Environment economics, grade: 9, University of Marburg (Institute for Co-operation in Developing Countries), course: Climate Change, Economic Challenges, and the Economics of Stabilization in Developing Countries – The “Stern Review” and beyond, language: English, abstract: Climate change is happening, even if it isn ́t induced by greenhouse gas emissions. This fact is by now relatively undoubted. One possible answer is to mitigate emissions which is already tried through the Kyoto protocol for example. But even if these measures are successful, they will be effective only with a considerable time lag. Accordingly the world will inevitably face changed climate conditions and is already facing them today. This led to the realization that adaptation to climate change is necessary. This fact is particularly from importance to developing countries. Current observations and projections show that they are the ones most affected by the impacts of climate change even though they are the least prepared. Adaptation policies designed especially for developing countries are necessary to enable them to withstand the adverse effects of a changing climate the best way possible. This paper will focus on how those adaptation policies should look like and what needs to be considered. In the beginning a general introduction to adaptation will be given including its role and perspective in respect of climate change. Then I will continue by discussing the relationship between developing countries and climate change in general. Afterwards I will investigate in the main part what policies of adaptation are needed in developing countries and what should be considered when integrating adaptation into other policies. The paper ends with a summarizing conclusion.

Climate Savvy

Climate Savvy
  • Author : Lara J. Hansen,Jennifer Ruth Hoffman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :245
  • ISBN : 9781597266864
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Summary : Climate change demands a change in how we envision, prioritize, and implement conservation and management of natural resources. Addressing threats posed by climate change cannot be simply an afterthought or an addendum, but must be integrated into the very framework of how we conceive of and conduct conservation and management. In Climate Savvy, climate change experts Lara Hansen and Jennifer Hoffman offer 18 chapters that consider the implications of climate change for key resource management issues of our time—invasive species, corridors and connectivity, ecological restoration, pollution, and many others. How will strategies need to change to facilitate adaptation to a new climate regime? What steps can we take to promote resilience? Based on collaboration with a wide range of scientists, conservation leaders, and practitioners, the authors present general ideas as well as practical steps and strategies that can help cope with this new reality. While climate change poses real threats, it also provides a chance for creative new thinking. Climate Savvy offers a wide-ranging exploration of how scientists, managers, and policymakers can use the challenge of climate change as an opportunity to build a more holistic and effective philosophy that embraces the inherent uncertainty and variability of the natural world to work toward a more robust future.

Climate Change, Justice and Sustainability

Climate Change, Justice and Sustainability
  • Author : Ottmar Edenhofer,Johannes Wallacher,Hermann Lotze-Campen,Michael Reder,Brigitte Knopf,Johannes Müller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-06-25
  • Total pages :382
  • ISBN : 9789400745407
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Summary : Analysing and synthesising vast data sets from a multitude of disciplines including climate science, economics, hydrology and agricultural research, this volume seeks new methods of combining climate change mitigation, adaptation, development, and poverty reduction in ways that are effective, efficient and equitable. A guiding principle of the project is that new alliances of state and non-state sector partners are urgently required to establish cooperative responses to the threats posed by climate change. This volume offers a vital policy framework for linking our response to this change with progressive principles of global justice and sustainable development.

Biodiversity and Health in the Face of Climate Change

Biodiversity and Health in the Face of Climate Change
  • Author : Melissa R. Marselle,Jutta Stadler,Horst Korn,Katherine N. Irvine,Aletta Bonn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-11
  • Total pages :481
  • ISBN : 9783030023188
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Summary : This open access book identifies and discusses biodiversity’s contribution to physical, mental and spiritual health and wellbeing. Furthermore, the book identifies the implications of this relationship for nature conservation, public health, landscape architecture and urban planning – and considers the opportunities of nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation. This transdisciplinary book will attract a wide audience interested in biodiversity, ecology, resource management, public health, psychology, urban planning, and landscape architecture. The emphasis is on multiple human health benefits from biodiversity - in particular with respect to the increasing challenge of climate change. This makes the book unique to other books that focus either on biodiversity and physical health or natural environments and mental wellbeing. The book is written as a definitive ‘go-to’ book for those who are new to the field of biodiversity and health.

Organizational and Institutional Issues in Climate Change Adaptation and Risk Management

Organizational and Institutional Issues in Climate Change Adaptation and Risk Management
  • Author : Catherine Ragasa,Yan Sun,Elizabeth Bryan,Caroline Abate,Atlaw Alemu,Mahamadou Namori Keita
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-17
  • Total pages :64
  • ISBN : 1230987654XX
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Summary : Climate change places demand on existing governance structures to reform and work more effectively than in the past. In response, greater attention to and funding for climate change adaptation—including the efforts of National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs), the Least Developed Country Fund, the Special Climate Change Fund, the Adaptation Fund, and the E.U. Global Climate Change Alliance—provide an opportunity for institutional, organizational, and human-capacity strengthening. This study was conducted to explore the challenges and opportunities for building human, organizational, and institutional capacity for more effective climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is part of a larger research project titled “Enhancing Women’s Assets to Manage Risk under Climate Change: Potential for Group-Based Approaches,” which is being conducted to help organizations better understand ways in which development projects can assist rural households in adapting to and managing the effects of climate change. This report provides some reflections and insights on the level of awareness, practices, and organizational and institutional issues being faced by countries as they adapt to climate change, based on interviews with 87 practitioners working in government agencies, local organizations, international organizations, and think thanks reporting involvement in climate change adaptation. Data were collected in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Mali using both an e-survey platform and face-to-face interviews. Responses reveal active work within these organizations on climate change adaptation and emphasize their important role in the countries’ efforts to address and adapt to climate change. Responses also reveal strong awareness among these organizations of different aspects of climate change adaptation along the different stages in a climate change adaptation project cycle, which may be a reflection of the active discussions and awareness campaigns during NAPA development in these countries. However, despite the awareness and presence of national strategies and action plans, there seem to be no explicit and clearly defined policy and strategy within these organizations outlining their role in and contribution to the national and collective efforts and, more importantly, no explicit and measurable targets and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to track progress and outcomes over time. Reported capacity gaps can be grouped into two categories: training needs and institutional challenges. In many organizations, there is limited awareness of and emphasis on the need for participation of target groups and beneficiaries during design and planning of climate change adaptation projects. In addition, many respondents reported a need for greater attention to issues related to profitability, financial sustainability, and market access from climate change project design to M&E. Finally, respondents emphasized that climate change projects should pay greater attention to gender, social, political, and cultural issues in their design and implementation. Reflections of respondents also highlighted the need for organizational capacity strengthening for those local organizations working in and providing services to rural communities, and for promoting a culture of impact and M&E within these organizations, in addition to the reported training needs in climate change management and in gender and social analysis. While this report provides some insights, further empirical analyses are needed to discover more details on strategies that could help trigger mind-set and organizational culture change and to capture the complexity of organizational and institutional issues hindering climate change adaptation efforts that aim at reducing vulnerability and contributing to development outcomes.

Loss and Damage from Climate Change

Loss and Damage from Climate Change
  • Author : Reinhard Mechler,Laurens Bouwer,Thomas Schinko,Swenja Surminski,JoAnne Linnerooth-Bayer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-11
  • Total pages :557
  • ISBN : 9783319720265
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Summary : This book provides an authoritative insight on the Loss and Damage discourse by highlighting state-of-the-art research and policy linked to this discourse and articulating its multiple concepts, principles and methods. Written by leading researchers and practitioners, it identifies practical and evidence-based policy options to inform the discourse and climate negotiations. With climate-related risks on the rise and impacts being felt around the globe has come the recognition that climate mitigation and adaptation may not be enough to manage the effects from anthropogenic climate change. This recognition led to the creation of the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage in 2013, a climate policy mechanism dedicated to dealing with climate-related effects in highly vulnerable countries that face severe constraints and limits to adaptation. Endorsed in 2015 by the Paris Agreement and effectively considered a third pillar of international climate policy, debate and research on Loss and Damage continues to gain enormous traction. Yet, concepts, methods and tools as well as directions for policy and implementation have remained contested and vague. Suitable for researchers, policy-advisors, practitioners and the interested public, the book furthermore: • discusses the political, legal, economic and institutional dimensions of the issue• highlights normative questions central to the discourse• provides a focus on climate risks and climate risk management• presents salient case studies from around the world.

Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change

Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change
  • Author : Ian Burton,Elizabeth Malone,Saleemul Huq
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-11-15
  • Total pages :268
  • ISBN : 052161760X
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Summary : Adaptation is a process by which individuals, communities and countries seek to cope with the consequences of climate change. The process of adaptation is not new; the idea of incorporating future climate risk into policy-making is. While our understanding of climate change and its potential impacts has become clearer, the availability of practical guidance on adaptation has not kept pace. The development of the Adaptation Policy Framework (APF) is intended to help provide the rapidly evolving process of adaptation policy-making with a much-needed roadmap. Ultimately, the purpose of the APF is to support adaptation processes to protect - and enhance - human well-being in the face of climate change. This volume will be invaluable for everyone working on climate change adaptation and policy-making.

Assessing Coastal Community Adaptation Scenarios in the Face of Climate Change

Assessing Coastal Community Adaptation Scenarios in the Face of Climate Change
  • Author : Eva Lipiec
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :101
  • ISBN : OCLC:914277235
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Summary : Recent coastal disasters (e.g., Hurricane Sandy, Typhoon Haiyan) and chronic issues (e.g., Florida's "nuisance flooding") provide numerous examples of coastal communities struggling to adapt in the face of climate change impacts. Decision-makers and the public alike must reconcile the lack of "fit" between a rapidly changing environment and the effects of sea level rise, changes to storminess patterns, and possible variations in the frequency and magnitude of major El Niño events with relatively rigid and static governance structures. Work to reduce the impacts of coastal hazards and climate change has occurred periodically in disjointed and disconnected ways in many coastal communities, including those along the Oregon coast. In this thesis, I describe the efforts of a volunteer knowledge to action network within Tillamook County, Oregon, to comprehensively examine alternative future coastal climate and policy scenarios through the use of extensive stakeholder engagement and the spatially explicit modeling framework Envision. Six co-developed coastal adaptation policy scenarios and three climate change scenarios (with 15 random sub-climate simulations each) are evaluated here through a mixed-methods approach. First, the impacts of policy scenario implementation on stakeholder-identified metrics are statistically assessed in comparison to current land use policies (Status Quo). Next, I characterize the feasibility of implementing policy scenarios by reviewing current federal, Oregon state, Tillamook County, and local regulations and by interviewing relevant coastal organizations. The combination of stakeholder engagement, a powerful modeling framework, and the robust evaluation of policy scenario statistical significance and implementation feasibility provides a compelling opportunity to inform decision-making within the coastal communities of Tillamook County and elsewhere.

Routledge Handbook of the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation

Routledge Handbook of the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation
  • Author : Anil Markandya,Ibon Galarraga,Elisa Sainz de Murieta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-01-03
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9781136212116
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Summary : Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing human kind owing to the great uncertainty regarding future impacts, which affect all regions and many ecosystems. Many publications deal with economic issues relating to mitigation policies, but the economics of adaptation to climate change has received comparatively little attention. However, this area is is critical and a central pillar of any adaptation strategy or plan and is the economic dimension, which therefore merits the increase in attention it is receiving. This book deals with the difficulties that face the economics of adaptation. Critical issues include: uncertainty; baselines; reversibility, flexibility and adaptive management; distributional impacts; discount rates and time horizons; mixing monetary and non-monetary evaluations and limits to the use of cost-benefit analysis; economy-wide impacts and cross-sectoral linkages. All of these are addressed in the book from the perspective of economics of adaptation. Other dimensions of adaptation are also included, such as the role of low- and middle-income countries, technology and the impacts of extreme events. This timely book will prove essential reading for international researchers and policy makers in the fields of natural resources, environmental economics and climate change.

Climate Change Adaptation Plan for Australian Birds

Climate Change Adaptation Plan for Australian Birds
  • Author : Stephen Garnett,Donald Franklin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-05-30
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : 9780643108042
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Summary : This is the first climate change adaptation plan produced for a national faunal group anywhere in the world. It outlines the nature of threats related to climate change for the Australian bird taxa most likely to be affected by climate change, and provides recommendations on what might be done to assist them and approximate costs of doing so. It also features an analysis of how climate change will affect all Australian birds, explains why some species are likely to be more exposed or sensitive to it than others, and explores the theory and practice of conservation management under the realities of a changing climate. Species profiles include maps showing current core habitat and modelled climatic suitability based on historical records, as well as maps showing projected climatic suitability in 2085 in relation to current core habitat. Climate Change Adaptation Plan for Australian Birds is an important reference for policy makers, conservation scientists, land managers, climate change adaptation biologists, as well as bird watchers and advocacy groups.

Climate Change and Tourism

Climate Change and Tourism
  • Author : Susanne Becken,John E. Hay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :279
  • ISBN : 9781849714754
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Summary : The contribution of tourism to climate change, and the likely consequences of climate change for key tourist destinations, has been well reported and discussed. Yet, there is a lack of evidence-based systematic practical advice as to how the tourism industry should respond to the challenge of climate change. Building on a sound conceptual understanding of the links between climate change and tourism, this book shows how the tourism sector might best respond. It not only focuses on the roles of supportive policies and institutions in ensuring a strong "enabling environment" for practical responses, but also on the practical responses themselves. This practical approach is presented through a large number of case studies and examples which illustrate how policy and industry initiatives have been implemented in tourism, and if or why they were successful. The majority of examples come from places such as the Caribbean, Spain, the Maldives, Nepal, and the UK, as well as Australia, New Zealand and other parts of the Pacific. The examples are presented within an overall framework that facilitates the translation of adaptation and mitigation policies into practice. This book offers the tourism industry, students and academics the opportunity to advance from the earlier, more conceptual texts on tourism and climate change by taking a much more practical approach. Its global coverage, through the use of international case studies, fosters a cross-fertilisation of ideas and initiatives. This text provides a detailed analysis of best practices in the face of climate change, across countries and geographically diverse tourist destinations and operations.

America's Climate Choices

America's Climate Choices
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on America's Climate Choices
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-06-11
  • Total pages :134
  • ISBN : 9780309145855
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Summary : Climate change is occurring. It is very likely caused by the emission of greenhouse gases from human activities, and poses significant risks for a range of human and natural systems. And these emissions continue to increase, which will result in further change and greater risks. America's Climate Choices makes the case that the environmental, economic, and humanitarian risks posed by climate change indicate a pressing need for substantial action now to limit the magnitude of climate change and to prepare for adapting to its impacts. Although there is some uncertainty about future risk, acting now will reduce the risks posed by climate change and the pressure to make larger, more rapid, and potentially more expensive reductions later. Most actions taken to reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts are common sense investments that will offer protection against natural climate variations and extreme events. In addition, crucial investment decisions made now about equipment and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse gas emissions for decades to come. Finally, while it may be possible to scale back or reverse many responses to climate change, it is difficult or impossible to "undo" climate change, once manifested. Current efforts of local, state, and private-sector actors are important, but not likely to yield progress comparable to what could be achieved with the addition of strong federal policies that establish coherent national goals and incentives, and that promote strong U.S. engagement in international-level response efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of climate change are best met by applying an iterative risk management framework and making efforts to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions; prepare for adapting to impacts; invest in scientific research, technology development, and information systems; and facilitate engagement between scientific and technical experts and the many types of stakeholders making America's climate choices.