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Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands

Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands
  • Author : Hideki Takebayashi,Masakazu Moriyama
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-03-20
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 9780128176252
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Summary : Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands helps the reader understand the relative performance of these adaptation measures, methods and analysis relating to their creation and maintenance, evaluation methods, and the role of policy and governance in implementing them. A suite of case studies is included on these urban or metropolitan areas that are significantly warmer than their surrounding rural areas due to human activities. In recent years, a suite of adaptation measures have been developed to mitigate the urban heat island phenomena. Provides a range of concrete implementation methods Assesses relative performance of adaptation measures and countermeasure technologies Establishes methods for human thermal environmental interventions Reviews adaptation cities selected for excellent energy performance and thermal comfort indicators

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario
  • Author : Francesco Musco
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-30
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9783319104256
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Summary : Urban heat islands are a new type of microclimatic phenomenon that causes a significant increase in the temperature of cities compared to surrounding areas. The phenomenon has been enforced by the current trend towards climate change. Although experts consider urban heat islands an urgent European Union public health concern, there are too few policies that address it. The EU carried out a project to learn more about this phenomenon through pilot initiatives. The pilots included feasibility studies and strategies for appropriately altering planning rules and governance to tackle the problem of urban heat islands. The pilots were carried out in eight metropolitan areas: Bologna/Modena, Budapest, Ljubljana, Lodz, Prague, Stuttgart, Venice/Padova, and Vienna. The feasibility studies carried out in these pilot areas focused on the specific morphology of EU urban areas, which are often characterised by the presence of historical old towns.

North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment

North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment
  • Author : Markus Quante,Franciscus Colijn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-31
  • Total pages :528
  • ISBN : 9783319397450
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Summary : This book offers an up-to-date review of our current understanding of climate change in the North Sea and adjacent areas, as well as its impact on ecosystems and socio-economic sectors. It provides a detailed assessment of climate change based on published scientific work compiled by independent international experts from climate-related disciplines such as oceanography, atmospheric sciences, marine and terrestrial ecology, using a regional evaluation and review process similar to that of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of our changing climate, discussing a wide range of topics including past, current and future climate change, and climate-related changes in marine, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. It also explores the impact of climate change on socio-economic sectors such as fisheries, agriculture, coastal zone management, coastal protection, urban climate, recreation/tourism, offshore activities/energy, and air pollution.

Improvement Measures of Urban Thermal Environment

Improvement Measures of Urban Thermal Environment
  • Author : Hideki Takebayashi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-27
  • Total pages :42
  • ISBN : 9783319137858
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Summary : Maximizing readers’ insights into urban and architectural environmental planning with consideration for the thermal environment, this work highlights how various urban heat-island strategies have been developed and their effectiveness in urban areas. Specific measures to combat the urban heat-island phenomenon, including improvement of surface cover, reduction of exhaust heat, improvement of ventilation are summarized and various heat-island measurement technologies, which have been proposed in recent years, are organized systematically based on surface- heat budget and surface boundary layer models. With suggestions for the selection of appropriate heat-island technologies depending on the location, this book elucidates the relationship between the thermal environment and urban block form characteristics. Covering the latest research findings, this book is of interest for all those concerned with environmentally friendly urban and architectural planning.

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates
  • Author : Ansar Khan,Soumendu Chatterjee,Yupeng Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-17
  • Total pages :298
  • ISBN : 9780128225585
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Summary : Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates takes into account the different urban physics in tropical environments, presenting a way of UHI scaling for tropical cities. Topics include measuring, modeling and proper mitigation strategies, which account for the surface energy balance of tropics. Tropical cities are more susceptible to the effects of projected global warming because of conditions in tropical climates and the rapid growth of so many cities in this zone. The need for research on measuring, modeling and mitigation of UHI effects in tropical cities is of growing importance. This book walks through the basics of Urban Heat Islands, including causes, measurement and analysis then expands upon issues as well as the novel techniques that can be used to address issues specific to the region. Reviews topics related to understanding the fundamentals of modeling and impacts of urban heat islands Covers many techniques, from remote sensing, to numerical modeling and then applying them to urban climate studies in general, and in tropical cities Describes the scaling of urban heat islands based on long-term seasonal thermal parameters as feature-based classification systems using a probabilistic and fuzzy logic approach, unlike local climate zones (LCZs)

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario
  • Author : Francesco Musco
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-30
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9783319104256
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Summary : Urban heat islands are a new type of microclimatic phenomenon that causes a significant increase in the temperature of cities compared to surrounding areas. The phenomenon has been enforced by the current trend towards climate change. Although experts consider urban heat islands an urgent European Union public health concern, there are too few policies that address it. The EU carried out a project to learn more about this phenomenon through pilot initiatives. The pilots included feasibility studies and strategies for appropriately altering planning rules and governance to tackle the problem of urban heat islands. The pilots were carried out in eight metropolitan areas: Bologna/Modena, Budapest, Ljubljana, Lodz, Prague, Stuttgart, Venice/Padova, and Vienna. The feasibility studies carried out in these pilot areas focused on the specific morphology of EU urban areas, which are often characterised by the presence of historical old towns.

Heat Islands

Heat Islands
  • Author : Lisa Mummery Gartland
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-05-16
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9781136564208
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Summary : Heat islands are urban and suburban areas that are significantly warmer than their surroundings. Traditional, highly absorptive construction materials and a lack of effective landscaping are their main causes. Heat island problems, in terms of increased energy consumption, reduced air quality and effects on human health and mortality, are becoming more pressing as cities continue to grow and sprawl. This comprehensive book brings together the latest information about heat islands and their mitigation. The book describes how heat islands are formed, what problems they cause, which technologies mitigate heat island effects and what policies and actions can be taken to cool communities. Internationally renowned expert Lisa Gartland offers a comprehensive source of information for turning heat islands into cool communities. The author includes sections on cool roofing and cool paving, explains their benefits in detail and provides practical guidelines for their selection and installation. The book also reviews how and why to incorporate trees and vegetation around buildings, in parking lots and on green roofs.

Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques

Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques
  • Author : Mat Santamouris,Denia Kolokotsa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-01-08
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9781317658627
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Summary : The urban climate is continuously deteriorating. Urban heat lowers the quality of urban life, increases energy needs, and affects the urban socio-economy. Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques presents steps that can be taken to mitigate this situation through a series of innovative technologies and examples of best practices for the improvement of the urban climate. Including tools for evaluation and a comparative analysis, this book addresses anthropogenic heat, green areas, cool materials and pavements, outdoor shading structures, evaporative cooling and earth cooling. Case studies demonstrate the success and applicability of these measures in various cities throughout the world. Useful for urban designers, architects and planners, Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques is a step by step tour of the innovative technologies improving our urban climate, providing a holistic approach supported by well-established quantitative examples.

Climate Change Adaptation in Africa

Climate Change Adaptation in Africa
  • Author : Walter Leal Filho,Simane Belay,Jokasha Kalangu,Wuta Menas,Pantaleo Munishi,Kumbirai Musiyiwa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-27
  • Total pages :757
  • ISBN : 9783319495200
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Summary : This collection showcases experiences from research and field projects in climate change adaptation on the African continent. It includes a set of papers presented at a symposium held in Addis Abeba in February 2016, which brought together international experts to discuss “fostering African resilience and capacity to adapt.” The papers introduce a wide range of methodological approaches and practical case studies to show how climate change adaptation can be implemented in regions and countries across the continent. Responding to the need for more cross-sectoral interaction among the various stakeholders working in the field of climate change adaptation, the book fosters the exchange of information on best practices across the African continent.

Geospatial Applications for Climate Adaptation Planning

Geospatial Applications for Climate Adaptation Planning
  • Author : Diana Mitsova,Ann-Margaret Esnard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-18
  • Total pages :332
  • ISBN : 9781351113939
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Summary : Climate adaptation is a timely yet complex topic that does not fit squarely into any one disciplinary realm. Geospatial Applications for Climate Adaptation Planning presents an overview of the range of strategies, tools, and techniques that must be used to assess myriad overlapping vulnerabilities and to formulate appropriate climate-relevant solutions at multiple scales and in varying contexts. Organized into four sections, the book includes 15 chapters. Each chapter is grounded in the literature and presents case studies designed by the authors, as well as many examples from a diverse international group of scholars and entities in the public and private sectors. Areas covered include: Climate Change and Climate Adaptation Planning: Context and Concepts Geospatial Technologies: Fundamentals and Terminology GIS and Climate Vulnerability Assessments Technical Approaches to Formulating Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies Geospatial Applications for Climate Adaptation Planning is aimed at advanced students, researchers, and entities in the public and private sectors. It also provides supplementary reading for courses in planning, public administration, policy studies, and disaster management.

Tropical Urban Heat Islands

Tropical Urban Heat Islands
  • Author : Nyuk Hien Wong,Yu Chen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-08-29
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : 9781134221097
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Summary : Conventional air conditioning is not a sustainable solution to the challenge of a hot or humid climate. The climate problem is compounded in so-called Urban Heat Islands, urban areas where the air can be 3–5°C hotter than its surrounding areas and where pollution levels are consequently raised. Including a colour section with thermal images and maps, this book explores the complex relationships between climate, buildings and plants, especially in urban heat islands. These relationships bear very critically on a range of environmental issues and point to some corresponding solutions. One chapter highlights some of the extensive research work carried out in Singapore, especially investigating the thermal benefits of greenery in buildings in the urban setting. Though several books have been written on urban heat islands, this work uniquely examines the linkages between climate, buildings and plants. It forms a reference for researchers and professionals such as architects, architectural science, landscape architects, building services engineers, urban planners and urban climatologists. It may also be useful for final year undergraduates or graduate students in these disciplines.

Urban Climates

Urban Climates
  • Author : T. R. Oke,G. Mills,A. Christen,J. A. Voogt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-14
  • Total pages :582
  • ISBN : 9780521849500
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Summary : Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.

Climate Change, Hazards and Adaptation Options

Climate Change, Hazards and Adaptation Options
  • Author : Walter Leal Filho,Gustavo J. Nagy,Marco Borga,Pastor David Chávez Muñoz,Artur Magnuszewski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-14
  • Total pages :1084
  • ISBN : 9783030374259
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Summary : This book addresses the issue of climate change risks and hazards holistically. Climate change adaptation aims at managing climate risks and hazards to an acceptable level, taking advantage of any positive opportunities that may arise. At the same time, developing suitable responses to hazards for communities and users of climate services is important in ensuring the success of adaptation measures. But despite this, knowledge about adaptation options, including possible actions that can be implemented to improve adaptation and reduce the impacts of climate change hazards, is still limited. Addressing this need, the book presents studies and research findings and offers a catalogue of potential adaptation options that can be explored. It also includes case studies providing illustrative and inspiring examples of how we can adapt to a changing climate.

Building in Hot and Humid Regions

Building in Hot and Humid Regions
  • Author : Napoleon Enteria,Hazim Awbi,Mat Santamouris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-26
  • Total pages :219
  • ISBN : 9789811375194
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Summary : This book presents an in-depth analysis covering climatic and weather conditions, house and building development history, construction methods and technologies, and environmental conditions. It provides relevant house and building information and highlights recent advances in hot and humid regions, as well as developments in other regions that are relevant to hot and humid climates. The countries in hot and humid regions, which include the tropical countries, the Middle Eastern countries around the Mediterranean, and many countries of Central Asia and Africa, are home to some of the most challenging conditions in the world in terms of house and building design and construction, and in terms of maintaining indoor thermal comfort and air quality in an energy-efficient way. The book’s respective chapters, prepared by expert contributors, cover essential concepts, designs, and construction methodologies for houses and commercial buildings. As such, the book offers a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students in architecture and engineering, house and building designers, and building sciences researchers. Building contractors, manufacturers and distributors of building equipment and devices, and government policymakers and legislators will also benefit from the information provided in this book.

Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas

Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas
  • Author : Nadja Kabisch,Horst Korn,Jutta Stadler,Aletta Bonn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-01
  • Total pages :342
  • ISBN : 9783319560915
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Summary : This open access book brings together research findings and experiences from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas. Emphasis is given to the potential of nature-based approaches to create multiple-benefits for society. The expert contributions present recommendations for creating synergies between ongoing policy processes, scientific programmes and practical implementation of climate change and nature conservation measures in global urban areas. Except where otherwise noted, this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Urban Climate Change Adaptation in Developing Countries

Urban Climate Change Adaptation in Developing Countries
  • Author : Mohsen M. Aboulnaga,Amr F. Elwan,Mohamed R. Elsharouny
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-14
  • Total pages :265
  • ISBN : 9783030054052
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Summary : This book describes the risks, impacts, measures, actions and adaptation policies that have developed globally as a result of the severe impacts of global climate change. In-depth chapters focus on climate change assessment (CCA) in terms of vulnerabilities and reflection on the built environment and measures and actions for infrastructure and urban areas. Adaptation actions specific to developing countries such as Egypt are presented and illustrated. Global Climate change adaptation projects (CCAPs) in developing countries, in terms of their targets and performance, are presented and compared with those existing CCAPs in Egypt to draw learned lessons. Climate change scenarios 2080 using simulations are portrayed and discussed with emphasis on a case-study model from existing social housing projects in hot-arid urban areas in Cairo; in an effort to put forward an assessment and evaluation of current CCA techniques. This book helps researchers realize the global impacts of climate change on the built environment and economic sectors, and enhances their understanding of current climate change measures, actions, policies, projects and scenarios. Reviews and illustrates the impact of global climate change risks; Provides an understanding of global climate change risks in seven continents; Illustrates policies and action plans implemented at the global level and developing countries' level; Discusses climate change assessment and vulnerabilities with emphasis on urban areas; Presents measures and action plans to mitigate climate change scenarios by 2080.

Climate Change and Cities

Climate Change and Cities
  • Author : Cynthia Rosenzweig,William D. Solecki,Patricia Romero-Lankao,Shagun Mehrotra,Shobhakar Dhakal,Somayya Ali Ibrahim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-29
  • Total pages :350
  • ISBN : 9781316603338
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Summary : "Urban Climate Change Research Network, Center for Climate Systems Research, Earth Institute, Columbia University."

Pavement Materials for Heat Island Mitigation

Pavement Materials for Heat Island Mitigation
  • Author : Hui Li
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-19
  • Total pages :388
  • ISBN : 9780128034965
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Summary : About 90 percent of this excessive heat is due to buildings and pavements that absorb and store solar heat (According to the Green Buildings Council). The only reference that focuses specifically on pavements, Pavement Materials for Heat Island Mitigation: Design and Management Strategies explores different advanced paving materials, their properties, and their associated advantages and disadvantages. Relevant properties of pavement materials (e.g. albedo, permeability, thermal conductivity, heat capacity and evaporation rate) are measured in many cases using newly developed methods. Includes experimental methods for testing different types of pavements materials Identifies different cool pavement strategies with their advantages and associated disadvantages Design and construct local microclimate models to evaluate and validate different cool pavement materials in different climate regions

Urban Ecology

Urban Ecology
  • Author : John Marzluff
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-01-03
  • Total pages :808
  • ISBN : 0387734120
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Summary : Urban Ecology is a rapidly growing field of academic and practical significance. Urban ecologists have published several conference proceedings and regularly contribute to the ecological, architectural, planning, and geography literature. However, important papers in the field that set the foundation for the discipline and illustrate modern approaches from a variety of perspectives and regions of the world have not been collected in a single, accessible book. Foundations of Urban Ecology does this by reprinting important European and American publications, filling gaps in the published literature with a few, targeted original works, and translating key works originally published in German. This edited volume will provide students and professionals with a rich background in all facets of urban ecology. The editors emphasize the drivers, patterns, processes and effects of human settlement. The papers they synthesize provide readers with a broad understanding of the local and global aspects of settlement through traditional natural and social science lenses. This interdisciplinary vision gives the reader a comprehensive view of the urban ecosystem by introducing drivers, patterns, processes and effects of human settlements and the relationships between humans and other animals, plants, ecosystem processes, and abiotic conditions. The reader learns how human institutions, health, and preferences influence, and are influenced by, the others members of their shared urban ecosystem.

Planning for Climate Change

Planning for Climate Change
  • Author : Elisabeth M. Hamin Infield,Yaser Abunnasr,Robert L. Ryan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-05
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9781351201094
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Summary : This book provides an overview of the large and interdisciplinary literature on the substance and process of urban climate change planning and design, using the most important articles from the last 15 years to engage readers in understanding problems and finding solutions to this increasingly critical issue. The Reader’s particular focus is how the impacts of climate change can be addressed in urban and suburban environments—what actions can be taken, as well as the need for and the process of climate planning. Both reducing greenhouse gas emissions as well as adapting to future climate are explored. Many of the emerging best practices in this field involve improving the green infrastructure of the city and region—providing better on-site stormwater management, more urban greening to address excess heat, zoning for regional patterns of open space and public transportation corridors, and similar actions. These actions may also improve current public health and livability in cities, bringing benefits now and into the future. This Reader is innovative in bringing climate adaptation and green infrastructure together, encouraging a more hopeful perspective on the great challenge of climate change by exploring both the problems of climate change and local solutions.

The Urban Climate

The Urban Climate
  • Author : Helmut E. Landsberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1981-08-28
  • Total pages :275
  • ISBN : 0080924190
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Summary : The Urban Climate aims to summarize analytical studies directed toward physical understanding of the rural-urban differences in the atmospheric boundary layer. Attempts to quantify conditions have met with some success. There is certainly a clear understanding of the physical relations that create the climatic differences of urbanized areas. Although some of the earlier classical studies are cited here, the emphasis is on the work done during the last decade and a half. This volume comprises 11 chapters, beginning with an introductory chapter discussing the literature surrounding the topic, its historical development, and the problem of local climate modification. The second chapter presents an assessment of the urban atmosphere on a synoptic and local scale, and examines the observational procedures involved. The following chapters then go on to discuss urban air composition; urban energy fluxes; the urban heat island; the urban wind field; models of urban temperature and wind fields; moisture, clouds, and hydrometeors; urban hydrology; special aspects of urban climate; and finally, urban planning. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the fields of meteorology, urban planning, and urban climatology.