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Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : James Shen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780123948366
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Summary : The growth of implant and fixed prosthodontics practices in dentistry has created a rapidly increasing demand for advanced ceramics and ceramic processes. Innovations in ceramics and ceramic processes are vital to ensure reliable and affordable dental-restoration solutions with aesthetically pleasing outcomes. The work aims to engage the bioceramics and engineering communities to meet the challenges of modern dental restoration using advanced ceramics. Incorporating fundamental science, advanced engineering concepts, and clinical outcomes, the work is suitable for bioceramicists, ceramics manufacturers, dental clinicians and biologists. State-of-the-art-coverage encompasses bioresorbable ceramics for bone regeneration and bioactivating surfaces of inert, high-strength ceramics for implantation, keeping research knowledge appropriately updated Discusses transition from the baseline stable and physically stiff ceramics research into engineering of highly coherent laminate composites for prosthetic crowns and bridges Showcases current feasible techniques for producing, in cost-effective and materials-saving ways, long-lasting individualized ceramic components with biocompatibility, complexity and high precision

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Corrado Piconi,Saverio Giovanni Condo,Tomaž Kosmač
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060148
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Summary : This chapter reviews the structure, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of load-bearing ceramics used in dentistry. The development of this class of ceramic biomaterials is traced from the late sixties when alumina was introduced in dentistry. The literature on both polycrystalline and single crystal alumina dental implants is reviewed. The use of alumina declined when zirconia-toughened ceramics were introduced in orthopedics in the eighties. The use of yttria partially-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) in dentistry allowed the production not only of dental implants and abutments, but also a broad range of load-bearing fixed partial dentures, such as multi-unit bridges and crowns, thanks to the development of CAD/CAM technology. Today, the trend is to use alumina and zirconia ceramics for making more aesthetic parts by improving their optical translucency.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Tanja Lube,Robert Danzer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060124
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Summary : Ceramic materials are frequently and increasingly used in dentistry. However, they are very brittle, the tensile strength has a large scatter, and their total fracture strain is very low. The strength depends on the loaded volume and on time under load. These properties cause special needs with respect to design, manufacturing tolerances, and handling, in production as well as in application. In ceramics, strength is limited by small flaws that are either caused by the processing of the material or by the machining of surfaces of specimens and components. This chapter introduces the principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics as the basis for understanding brittle fracture, and then presents fracture statistics. These topics are followed by an example for designing with ceramics. In subsequent sections, several other damage mechanisms and their relevance in dental applications will be discussed. The chapter closes with sections that deal with mechanical testing of ceramics and fractography.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Simon Jegou Saint-Jean
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060155
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Summary : Feldspathic porcelains, leucite, and lithium disilicate glass-ceramics are important materials used in restorative dentistry for their biocompatibility, excellent aesthetic properties, good mechanical strength, and relative ease of use. As a general rule in clinical practice, the choice of material should be dictated by the specific clinical situation. It depends on the space available to build the aesthetic and functional restoration, but also on the nature of the underlying tooth or restorative structure. The best aesthetic results are obtained with feldspathic porcelain restorations directly resin-bonded to the tooth, whereas the best function is obtained with the stronger and tougher fully anatomical or veneered glass-ceramic crowns and bridges. The main limitation with these ceramics is their insufficient strength for use as posterior crowns and bridges. Possible means to obtain aesthetically pleasing and long-term performing posterior restorations are the development of stronger glass-ceramics, the use of translucent colored zirconia, or the use of the new class of more elastic hybrid polymer-ceramic materials.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : James Zhijian Shen,Tomaž Kosmač
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060193
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Summary : Ceramic materials are currently applied to two categories of restorative dentistry, as all-ceramic fixed-partial dentures and as implantable components. While the former demands mainly integrated and balanced properties of mechanical and aesthetic origins, the latter also relies strongly on the material’s bio-oriented properties. This chapter discusses the material demands for solving the problems encountered in current practice that indicate the direction for future developments. This is done by bearing in mind both process restrictions and compatibilities. Focus is placed on developing materials that have the potential for improving aesthetics, for preserving a healthy situation to secure a prolonged treatment survival, and for improving the durability and reliability of the restorations while also simplifying the procedures of materials manufacture and clinical operation. Biomimetic materials and processes related to them are topics of general importance from a long perspective.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Yihong Liu,James Zhijian Shen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060087
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Summary : Fractographic analysis is a useful tool for finding fracture origins that is necessary for improving the reliability of ceramic restorations. The general analysis begins with the determination of fracture patterns and origins. The crack propagation markings found by examination of fracture surfaces allow one to follow crack paths and to trace back to an origin, including fracture mirror, hackle, Wallner line, arrest line, and compression curl. This method is introduced and applied to define the origins of common clinical failures of ceramic dental prostheses. They are classified as several major types, namely, cracking initiated at the margin or at occlusal contacts, and porcelain chipping or delamination. The fracture origin is always found near the spot where the highest tensile stress concentration accumulates, and/or microscopic defects or flaws are located nearby. The fracture of ceramic dental restorations may initiate at micro-defects in the porcelain or ceramic body that are introduced during the materials fabrication process or after clinical adjustment.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Martin Trunec,Karel Maca
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060100
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Summary : The chapter is focused on the processing of bulk advanced ceramics. A general overview of ceramic processes is presented with the focus on processes relevant to advanced ceramics in dentistry. The processing of ceramics is divided into four parts that describe the basic steps: powder treatment, shaping of ceramic green bodies, drying and binder removal, and sintering. The first part discusses the reasons for powder treatment. The causes of powder agglomeration are explained and possible dispersion techniques are given. The principles of the most important methods of dry, wet, and plastic shaping, and consolidation of green bodies are explained. The mechanisms of solvent drying and binder removal from consolidated green bodies are discussed and the potential problems of this processing step are highlighted. The densification of green bodies via sintering is explained and possible sintering techniques are described. Advantages and disadvantages of particular sintering methods are discussed.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : David Salamon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060094
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Summary : This chapter gives an introduction to advanced ceramics from the perspective of restorative dentistry. Fundamentals of composition and functionality are used for defining and classifying advanced ceramics. A historical overview helps differentiate advanced ceramics from traditional ceramics. The focus of the chapter is on linking ceramic properties to their compositions and structures described hierarchically from the atomic level onward.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Dag Henrik Bergsjö,Matts Andersson,Rikard Söderberg,Johan Carlson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060186
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Summary : In the early 1980s the industrialization of products based on the osseointegration principle discovered by Professor Per-Ingvar Brånemark started. The industrialization system has since gone through digitalization and automation, where now computer-aided imprisoning, design, and milling are standard features of a highly flexible production process for customized products. Lab production and central production are two ways of producing dental products. The central production principle offers the potential for better economy of scale and turnover of products, and the local dental lab can offer a higher degree of customization and personal service. Quality of dental products has always been of central importance and continues to grow. New technology and a highly digital treatment process are open for even better quality by the use of production simulations and tolerance analysis in all parts of the manufacturing process.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : James Zhijian Shen,Tomaž Kosmač
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060049
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Summary :

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Erik Adolfsson,James Zhijian Shen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060209
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Summary : The mechanical reliability and aesthetic appearance of ceramic dental prostheses are strongly influenced by the presence of defects. When several processes are used during fabrication of ceramic dental prostheses, additional defects are unavoidably introduced in each process step; these are in addition to the ones that already exist in raw materials. To avoid the degeneration of material performance by the accumulated defect population, process optimization is needed to minimize the defects introduced. Standardized mechanical evaluations are usually performed on samples with carefully prepared surfaces in order to minimize the influence from the defects usually induced by fabrication processes. The results from such mechanical evaluation indicate the strength level that is achievable by the material with the given population of bulk defects. In order to avoid a reduction in the performance of the ceramic material by the additional defects normally induced by the fabrication process, it must be understood how these defects are introduced, and solutions must be found to reduce their size and frequency through modifications of the material and processes. The aim of this chapter is to elucidate the sources of defects that are common for ceramic dental prostheses and to determine how to minimize them.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Jing Zhao,Xinzhi Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060063
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Summary : Tooth defects and missing teeth are common oral diseases that threaten the patient’s health, aesthetics, and self-confidence. Prosthodontics is a dental specialty with a long history of providing artificial prostheses to restore or replace the damaged or missing teeth and dentition of patients. Based on type and degree, there are three main categories of tooth damage: tooth defect, partial edentulism, and complete edentulism. Various prosthetic treatments are available for restoration, and each of them has its specific advantages and limitations. This means thect, the patient’s oral and general health condition, and the individual’s expectation. In thiat the decision to pursue prosthetic treatment should be made by fully understanding the characteristics of the defs chapter, background knowledge of the characteristics of tooth defects and edentulism are introduced in combination with commonly used prostheses. Despite the fact that there are no omnipotent prostheses, some general guidelines of prostheses selection are given.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Saso Sturm,Boštjan Jančar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060117
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Summary : Microstructure characterization of advanced ceramics involves qualitative and quantitative analysis of surface topography, porosity, crystal defects, and interfaces. The structure of the surface controls interaction of ceramics with its surroundings, such as adhesion, gas adsorption, and electron exchange, which play an important role in determining overall properties of a material. Pores in ceramic materials originate from incomplete densification during the sintering process. Their presence interferes with functional properties such as mechanical strength, optical transparency, electrical conductivity, and dielectric response. Crystal defects mostly form either as a result of imperfections during the crystal growth process or as a consequence of structural phase transitions. They generally affect most functional properties of materials. So-called extended defects are interfaces that are boundaries between two solids. The most widespread tools for characterization of ceramic microstructures are microscopic techniques involving optical microscopy, different types of electron microscopy, and various scanning-probe methods. This chapter gives a brief introduction of the features of ceramic microstructure and the corresponding techniques for characterizing them.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Martin Stefanic,Tomaž Kosmač
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060179
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Summary : High-performance bioceramics, such as zirconia, alumina, and their composites, are attractive materials for the fabrication of load-bearing bone implants because of their outstanding mechanical properties, biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and aesthetic quality. However, a lot of additional work is still needed on these ceramics before their full potential as implant materials can be exploited, especially in the area of surface optimization. The two most important issues relating to the surface of ceramic implants that need to be addressed are surface chemistry and topography. They both have an influence on protein adsorption and cell behavior and play a key role in providing sufficient biomechanical stability for the long-term success of implants. Therefore, extensive studies have been performed that are aimed at a better understanding of how specific surface modifications affect the biological response. In this chapter, various surface-modification techniques are described and their potential for improving the osseointegration of ceramic implants is discussed.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Belinda Reinhardt,Thomas Beikler
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060070
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Summary : Titanium and titanium alloys are considered standard materials for dental implants with very well documented, high rates of success and survival. Potential immunologic and aesthetic drawbacks associated with titanium implants have resulted in the development of alternatives like zirconia-based dental implants. Zirconia seems to be a suitable implant material because of its tooth-like color, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and low plaque affinity. However, the use of zirconia in clinical implant dentistry is still controversial. The aim of this chapter is to review clinical and research articles conducted on zirconia dental implants, and to provide information on zirconia dental implant osseointegration, mechanical strength, and microbiology. Compared to titanium-based dental implants zirconia implants show promising results in clinical studies. However, there are a limited number of long-term studies on the outcome of zirconia implants and additional clinical research needs to be done to fully appraise zirconia-based dental implants.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : James Zhijian Shen,Jenny Fäldt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060162
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Summary : Bioactive ceramics are used as bulk, porous bodies, or surface-active layers on dental implants and as morphogenetically active scaffolds inserted into the jawbone. While the former has been popularly applied as artificial dental roots for recovering the function of lost teeth, the latter are increasingly used for regenerating bone tissue. In both cases, the common fundamental basis is to understand how the new bone is formed on the surfaces of introduced foreign bodies, integrated together with the autologous bone through complex biological processes and cell-materials interactions. Efforts are thus made in this chapter to elucidate the biological origins of those phenomenological terms that have often eluded satisfactory scientific definition on this particular topic of practice-motivated science. Bone-growth mechanisms are discussed together with possible characterization and quantification methods. The role of surface morphology and multi-scale structures in promoting bone growth is emphasized. Based on the state-of-the-art understanding all the way down to molecular, cellular, and genetic levels, bioactive ceramics are categorized and presented in relation to their potential applications in dentistry. The design concept of implants for enhancing early healing and for enabling immediate loading is also discussed.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Peter Schüpbach
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060131
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Summary : Titanium-based dental implants and abutments exhibit excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Both early wound healing and bone formation and soft tissue healing towards abutments are well understood. This chapter elucidates whether ceramic surfaces provide appropriate conditions for soft and hard tissue healing.

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Haifeng Chen,Yihong Liu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060056
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Summary : Teeth are vital organs of vertebrates of which the main function is to bite and chew food into pieces. Human teeth are always an essential concern in appearance and beauty, and they play an important role in everything from word pronunciation to the protection of support organs. The right anatomical shape and arrangement of teeth are the basis for these functions. Each tooth contains three hard calcified tissues, including enamel, dentin, and cementum, and one soft tissue, pulp, which contains blood vessels, nerves, and is connected with the periodontal tissue by a narrow root canal. The development, formation, composition, microstructure, optical and mechanical properties, and common defects of and damages to human teeth are reviewed in this chapter. This knowledge is of importance in restorative dentistry for designing preventive treatments to maintain tissue integrity and to replace damaged tissues with synthetic materials (e.g. ceramics, which mimic the natural appearance and performance of teeth).

Customized All-Ceramic Dental Prostheses

Customized All-Ceramic Dental Prostheses
  • Author : Zhijian Shen,Yihong Liu,Hailan Feng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-01
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 0128116579
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Summary : Customized all-ceramic dental prostheses are components that are commonly used in daily practice in dentistry nowadays. Their application for repairing the damaged or restoring the lost teeth of patients comprises many steps of cross-disciplinary nature. Customized All-Ceramic Dental Prostheses: A Graphic Introduction to Advanced Materials and Procedures integrates fundamental understanding with real practices in a manner of photographic illustration. This book presents a full map of a cross-disciplinary topic of customized all-ceramic dental prostheses, containing both the materials processes and clinical procedure, with a unique form of photographic illustration. The photographic illustration can help readers easy to read even for non-specialists. This valuable book can be quoted as a reference not only by dentists, dental technicians, dental students, materials developers and materials students, but also by dental patients. Presents a full map of a cross-disciplinary topic of customized all-ceramic dental prostheses, containing both the materials processes and clinical procedure, presented in a unique form of photographic illustration Discusses transition from the baseline stable and physically stiff ceramics research into engineering of highly coherent laminate composites for prosthetic crowns and bridges Showcases current feasible techniques for producing, in cost-effective and materials-saving ways, long-lasting individualized ceramic components with biocompatibility, complexity and high precision State-of-the-art-coverage encompasses bioresorbable ceramics for bone regeneration and bioactivating surfaces of inert, high-strength ceramics for implantation, keeping research knowledge appropriately updated

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry

Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry
  • Author : Danjela Kuscer,James Zhijian Shen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128060216
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Summary : The additive manufacturing (AM) family of techniques has been developed during the last few decades. The techniques are used in order to fabricate 3D parts, layer-by-layer, directly from CAD data. Instrument development has come to the point where they are now used as production facilities for individually designed components, mostly in the fields of organic polymers and metallic alloys. Application of these techniques to the manufacture of ceramic parts is much more challenging. Its feasibility for the future production of customized ceramic parts in restorative dentistry will be determined by the progress in control of dimensional tolerance, the residual stress, and their characteristic heterogeneous microstructures. This chapter introduces the basic principles of the AM family of techniques.

Customized All-Ceramic Dental Prostheses

Customized All-Ceramic Dental Prostheses
  • Author : Zhijian Shen,Yihong Liu,Hailan Feng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-01
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128116586
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Summary : Customized All-Ceramic Dental Prostheses: A Graphic Introduction to Advanced Materials and Procedures presents a full, cross-disciplinary map to customized, all-ceramic, dental prostheses commonly used in dentistry nowadays. Their application for repairing damaged teeth or restoring the lost teeth of patients comprises many steps of a cross-disciplinary nature. The book explores materials processes and clinical procedures, and integrates fundamental understanding with real practices. A unique approach to photographic illustration makes the book easy to understand, even for non-specialists. This valuable reference is suitable for dentists, dental technicians, dental students, materials developers and students, and dental patients alike. Presents a cross-disciplinary map to customized all-ceramic dental prostheses, containing both the materials processes and clinical procedure Employs a unique form of photographic illustration Discusses the transition from baseline stable and physically stiff ceramics research into engineering of highly coherent laminate composites for prosthetic crowns and bridges Showcases current techniques for producing cost-effective, long-lasting, individualized ceramic components with biocompatibility, complexity, and high precision Encompasses state-of-the-art bioresorbable ceramics for bone regeneration and bioactivating surfaces of inert, high-strength ceramics for implantation