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Advanced Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon

Advanced Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon
  • Author : Michio Inagaki,Feiyu Kang,Masahiro Toyoda,Hidetaka Konno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780124078383
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Summary : Carbon materials are exceptionally diverse in their preparation, structure, texture, and applications. In Advanced Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon, noted carbon scientist Michio Inagaki and his coauthors cover the most recent advances in carbon materials, including new techniques and processes, carbon materials synthesis, and up-to-date descriptions of current carbon-based materials, trends and applications. Beginning with the synthesis and preparation of nanocarbons, carbon nanotubes, and graphenes, the book then reviews recently developed carbonization techniques, such as templating, electrospinning, foaming, stress graphitization, and the formation of glass-like carbon. The last third of the book is devoted to applications, featuring coverage of carbon materials for energy storage, electrochemical capacitors, lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, and adsorptive storage of hydrogen and methane for environmental protection, photocatalysis, spilled oil recovery, and nuclear applications of isotropic high-density graphite. A progression from synthesis through modern carbonization techniques to applications gives you a thorough understanding of carbon materials Covers a wide range of precursor materials, preparation techniques, and characteristics to inspire your own development of carbonization techniques, carbon materials and applications Applications-oriented chapters include timely content on hot topics such as the engineering of carbon nanofibers and carbon materials for various energy-related applications

Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon: Fundamentals

Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon: Fundamentals
  • Author : Michio Inagaki,Feiyu Kang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-06
  • Total pages :542
  • ISBN : 9780128011522
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Summary : Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon: Fundamentals provides a comprehensive introduction to carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the universe. The contents are organized into two main parts. Following a brief introduction on the history of carbon materials, Part 1 focuses on the fundamental science on the preparation and characterization of various carbon materials, and Part 2 concentrates on their engineering and applications, including hot areas like energy storage and environmental remediation. The book also includes up-to-date advanced information on such newer carbon-based materials as carbon nanotubes and nanofibers, fullerenes and graphenes. Through review on fundamental science, engineering and applications of carbon materials Overview on a wide variety of carbon materials (diamond, graphite, fullerene, carbon nanotubes, graphene, etc.) based on structure and nanotexture Description on the preparation and applications of various carbon materials, in the relation to their basic structure and properties

Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon

Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon
  • Author : Michio Inagaki,Feiyu Kang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :542
  • ISBN : 012800858X
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Summary : Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon: Fundamentals provides a comprehensive introduction to carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the universe. The contents are organized into two main parts. Following a brief introduction on the history of carbon materials, Part 1 focuses on the fundamental science on the preparation and characterization of various carbon materials, and Part 2 concentrates on their engineering and applications, including hot areas like energy storage and environmental remediation. The book also includes up-to-date advanced information on such newer carbon-based materials as carbon nanotubes and nanofibers, fullerenes and graphenes. Through review on fundamental science, engineering and applications of carbon materials. Overview on a wide variety of carbon materials (diamond, graphite, fullerene, carbon nanotubes, graphene, etc.) based on structure and nanotexture. Description on the preparation and applications of various carbon materials, in the relation to their basic structure and properties.

Carbon Materials Science and Engineering

Carbon Materials Science and Engineering
  • Author : Michio Inagaki
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :610
  • ISBN : 7302133018
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Summary :

Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon

Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon
  • Author : Michio Inagaki,Feiyu Kang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-07
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : 9780128054680
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Summary : Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon: Characterization discusses 12 characterization techniques, focusing on their application to carbon materials, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray small-angle scattering, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, image analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, magnetoresistance, electrochemical performance, pore structure analysis, thermal analyses, and quantification of functional groups. Each contributor in the book has worked on carbon materials for many years, and their background and experience will provide guidance on the development and research of carbon materials and their further applications. Focuses on characterization techniques for carbon materials Authored by experts who are considered specialists in their respective techniques Presents practical results on various carbon materials, including fault results, which will help readers understand the optimum conditions for the characterization of carbon materials

Carbon Materials: Science And Applications

Carbon Materials: Science And Applications
  • Author : Chung Deborah D L
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-18
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9789813221925
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Summary : Elemental carbon materials take numerous forms including graphite, carbon fiber, carbon nanotube, graphene, carbon black, activated carbon, fullerene and diamond. These forms differ greatly in the structure, properties, fabrication method, and applications. The applications of these carbon forms include electronic, electromagnetic, electrochemical, environmental and biomedical applications. Carbon materials are a subject of intense research, with strong relevance to both science and technology.This book provides a tutorial-style and up-to-date coverage of the carbon forms. In addition to an introductory chapter on carbon materials, the book includes chapters on graphite, graphene, carbon black, activated carbon, carbon fibers, and carbon nanofibers/nanotubes. For example, the chapter on graphite covers various materials in the graphite family, including polycrystalline graphite, pyrolytic graphite, turbostratic carbon, intercalated graphite, graphite oxide, exfoliated graphite and flexible graphite, in addition to their electronic and mechanical properties.This book is suitable for use as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in science and engineering, and as a reference book for professionals. It is dedicated to the memory of the author's PhD thesis advisor, Professor M S Dresselhaus (1930-2017) of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology

Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology
  • Author : Ashutosh Tiwari,S. K. Shukla
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-01-28
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 9781118686232
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Summary : The expansion of carbon materials is multidisciplinary and is related to physics, chemistry, biology, applied sciences and engineering. The research on carbon materials has mostly focused on aspects of fundamental physics as they unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties applicable for the range of applications. The electrons in graphene and other derived carbon materials behave as dirac fermions due to their interaction with the ions of the lattice. This direction has led to the discovery of new phenomena such as Klein tunneling in carbon based solid state systems and the so-called half-integer quantum Hall effect. Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology presents cutting-edge chapters on the processing, properties and technological developments of graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, carbon particles and other carbon based structures including multifunctional graphene sheets, graphene quantum dots, bulky balls, carbon balls, and their polymer composites. This book brings together respected international scholars writing on the innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in carbon materials research area including Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of carbon nanotubes and graphene Surface modification of graphene Carbon based nanostructured materials Graphene and carbon nanotube based electrochemical (bio)sensors for environmental monitoring Carbon catalysts for hydrogen storage materials Optical carbon nanoobjects Graphene and carbon nanotube based biosensors Carbon doped cryogel films Bioimpact of carbon nanomaterials Photocatalytic nature of carbon nanotube based composites Engineering behavior of ash fills Fly ash syntactic foams microstructure

Radiation Technology for Advanced Materials:

Radiation Technology for Advanced Materials:
  • Author : Guozhong Wu,Maolin Zhai,Mozhen Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-26
  • Total pages :340
  • ISBN : 9780128140185
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Summary : Radiation Technology for Advanced Materials presents a range of radiation technology applications for advanced materials. The book aims to bridge the gap between researchers and industry, describing current uses and future prospects. It describes the mature radiation processing technology used in preparing heat shrinkable materials and in wire and cable materials, giving commercial cases. In addition, the book illustrates future applications, including high-performance fibers, special self-lubricating materials, special ultra-fine powder materials, civil fibers, natural polymeric materials, battery separator membranes, special filtration materials and metallic nanomaterials. Chapters cover radiation technology in high-performance fiber and functional textiles, radiation crosslinking and typical applications, radiation crosslinking for polymer foaming material, radiation degradation and application, radiation emulsion polymerization, radiation effects of ionic liquids, radiation technology in advanced new materials, and future prospects. Presents a range of radiation technology applications and their application to advanced materials Covers the mature radiation processing technology used to prepare heat shrinkable materials and wire cable materials, describing real-world commercial applications Shows the promising application of radiation technology in preparing high-performance Si and carbon fibers Describes the radiation degradation/radiation effect used to prepare fine powder materials Discusses radiation modification and radiation grafting techniques used to synthesize materials, such as civil fibers, natural polymeric materials and others

Carbon Materials for Advanced Technologies

Carbon Materials for Advanced Technologies
  • Author : T.D. Burchell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-07-22
  • Total pages :540
  • ISBN : 9780080528540
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Summary : The inspiration for this book came from an American Carbon Society Workshop entitled "Carbon Materials for Advanced Technologies" which was hosted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1994. Chapter 1 contains a review of carbon materials, and emphasizes the structure and chemical bonding in the various forms of carbon, including the four allotropes diamond, graphite, carbynes, and the fullerenes. In addition, amorphous carbon and diamond films, carbon nanoparticles, and engineered carbons are discussed. The most recently discovered allotrope of carbon, i.e., the fullerenes, along with carbon nanotubes, are more fully discussed in Chapter 2, where their structure-property relations are reviewed in the context of advanced technologies for carbon based materials. The synthesis, structure, and properties of the fullerenes and nanotubes, and modification of the structure and properties through doping, are also reviewed. Potential applications of this new family of carbon materials are considered. The manufacture and applications of adsorbent carbon fibers are discussed in Chapter 3. The manufacture, structure and properties of high performance fibers are reviewed in Chapter 4, and the manufacture and properties of vapor grown fibers and their composites are reported in Chapter 5. The properties and applications of novel low density composites developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are reported in Chapter 6. Coal is an important source of energy and an abundant source of carbon. The production of engineering carbons and graphite from coal via a solvent extraction route is described in Chapter 7. Applications of activated carbons are discussed in Chapters 8-10, including their use in the automotive arena as evaporative loss emission traps (Chapter 8), and in vehicle natural gas storage tanks (Chapter 9). The application of activated carbons in adsorption heat pumps and refrigerators is discussed in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 reports the use of carbon materials in the fast growing consumer electronics application of lithium-ion batteries. The role of carbon materials in nuclear systems is discussed in Chapters 12 and 13, where fusion device and fission reactor applications, respectively, are reviewed. In Chapter 12 the major technological issues for the utilization of carbon as a plasma facing material are discussed in the context of current and future fusion tokamak devices. The essential design features of graphite moderated reactors, (including gas-, water- and molten salt-cooled systems) are reviewed in Chapter 13, and reactor environmental effects such as radiation damage and radiolytic corrosion are discussed. The fracture behaviour of graphite is discussed in qualitative and quantitative terms in Chapter 14. The applications of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics and Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics to graphite are reviewed and a study of the role of small flaws in nuclear graphites is reported.

Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials

Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials
  • Author : R. E. Smallman,A.H.W. Ngan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-02-24
  • Total pages :672
  • ISBN : 9780080552866
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Summary : Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials is the latest edition of the classic book previously published as Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition is developed from its predecessor by including detailed coverage of the latest topics in metallurgy and material science. It emphasizes the science, production and applications of engineering materials and is suitable for all post-introductory materials science courses. This book provides coverage of new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation. It also boasts an updated coverage of sports materials, biomaterials and nanomaterials. Other topics range from atoms and atomic arrangements to phase equilibria and structure; crystal defects; characterization and analysis of materials; and physical and mechanical properties of materials. The chapters also examine the properties of materials such as advanced alloys, ceramics, glass, polymers, plastics, and composites. The text is easy to navigate with contents split into logical groupings: fundamentals, metals and alloys, nonmetals, processing and applications. It includes detailed worked examples with real-world applications, along with a rich pedagogy comprised of extensive homework exercises, lecture slides and full online solutions manual (coming). Each chapter ends with a set of questions to enable readers to apply the scientific concepts presented, as well as to emphasize important material properties. Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials is intended for senior undergraduates and graduate students taking courses in metallurgy, materials science, physical metallurgy, mechanical engineering, biomedical engineering, physics, manufacturing engineering and related courses. Renowned coverage of metals and alloys, plus other materials classes including ceramics and polymers. Updated coverage of sports materials, biomaterials and nanomaterials. Covers new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation. Easy to navigate with contents split into logical groupings: fundamentals, metals and alloys, nonmetals, processing and applications. Detailed worked examples with real-world applications. Rich pedagogy includes extensive homework exercises.

Science and Technology of Polymers and Advanced Materials

Science and Technology of Polymers and Advanced Materials
  • Author : Omari V. Mukbaniani,Tamara N. Tatrishvili,Marc J. M. Abadie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-02
  • Total pages :442
  • ISBN : 9780429757600
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Summary : Increasing interest in lightweight and high-performance materials is leading to significant research activity in the area of polymers and composites. One recent focus is to develop multifunctional materials that have more than one property tailored as to the specified design requirements, in addition to achieving low density. The possibility of simultaneously tailoring several desired properties is attractive but very challenging, and it requires significant advancement in the science and technology of high-performance functional polymers and composites. This volume presents a selection of new approaches in the field of composites and nanomaterials, polymer synthesis and applications, and materials and their properties. Some composites/nanocomposites and interfaces are explored as well, some with medical applications. The authors also look at simulations and modeling, synthesis involving photochemistry, self-assembled hydrogels, and sol-gel processing.

Advances in Materials Science and Engineering

Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
  • Author : Chander Prakash,Sunpret Singh,Grzegorz Krolczyk,B.S. Pabla
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-21
  • Total pages :289
  • ISBN : 9789811540592
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Summary : This book presents the select proceedings of the International Conference on Functional Material, Manufacturing and Performances (ICFMMP) 2019. The book provides the state-of-the-art research, development, and commercial prospective of recent advances in materials science and engineering. The contents cover various synthesis and fabrication routes of functional and smart materials for applications in mechanical engineering, manufacturing, metrology, nanotechnology, physics, chemical and biological sciences, civil engineering, food science among others. It also provides the evolutionary behavior of materials science for industrial applications. This book will be a useful resource for researchers as well as professionals interested in the highly interdisciplinary field of materials science.

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering
  • Author : Jason Rowe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-02-21
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9780857095466
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Summary : The automotive industry is under constant pressure to design vehicles capable of meeting increasingly demanding challenges such as improved fuel economy, enhanced safety and effective emission control. Drawing on the knowledge of leading experts, Advanced materials in automotive engineering explores the development, potential and impact of using such materials. Beginning with a comprehensive introduction to advanced materials for vehicle lightweighting and automotive applications, Advanced materials in automotive engineering goes on to consider nanostructured steel for automotive body structures, aluminium sheet and high pressure die-cast aluminium alloys for automotive applications, magnesium alloys for lightweight powertrains and automotive bodies, and polymer and composite moulding technologies. The final chapters then consider a range of design and manufacturing issues that need to be addressed when working with advanced materials, including the design of advanced automotive body structures and closures, technologies for reducing noise, vibration and harshness, joining systems, and the recycling of automotive materials. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Advanced materials in automotive engineering is an invaluable guide for all those involved in the engineering, design or analysis of motor vehicle bodies and components, as well as all students of automotive design and engineering. Explores the development, potential and impact of using advanced materials for improved fuel economy, enhanced safety and effective mission control in the automotive industry Provides a comprehensive introduction to advanced materials for vehicle lightweighting and automotive applications Covers a range of design ideas and manufacturing issues that arise when working with advanced materials, including technologies for reducing noise, vibration and harshness, and the recycling of automotive materials

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING -Volume II

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING -Volume II
  • Author : Rees D .Rawlings
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-12-05
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9781848260337
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Summary : Materials Science and Engineering theme is a component of Encyclopedia of Physical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Materials Science and Engineering is concerned with the development and selection of the best possible material for a particular engineering task and the determination of the most effective method of producing the materials and the component. The Theme with contributions from distinguished experts in the field, discusses Materials Science and Engineering. In this theme the history of materials is traced and the concept of structure (atomic structure, microstructure and defect structure) and its relationship to properties developed. The theme is structured in five main topics: Materials Science and Engineering; Optimization of Materials Properties; Structural and Functional Materials; Materials Processing and Manufacturing Technologies; Detection of Defects and Assessment of Serviceability; Materials of the Future, which are then expanded into multiple subtopics, each as a chapter. These three volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Advanced Materials & Processing 2017

Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Advanced Materials & Processing 2017
  • Author : ConferenceSeries
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :121
  • ISBN : 1230987654XX
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Summary : September 7-8 2017 Edinburgh, Scotland Key Topics : Advanced Materials Engineering, Advanced Ceramics and Composite Materials, Polymers Science and Engineering, Advancement in Nanomaterials Science And Nanotechnology, Metals, Metallurgy and Materials, Optical, Electronic and Magnetic Materials, Advanced Biomaterials, Bio devices & Tissue Engineering, Materials for Energy application& Energy storage, Carbon Based Nanoscale Materials, Entrepreneurs Investment Meet, Materials Processing and characterization, Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials, Emerging Areas of Materials Science, Materials Based Engineering Design and Control, Materials Engineering and Performance, Materials Science and Engineering, Needs, Priorities and Opportunities For Materials, Material Properties at High Temperature Applications, Coatings and Surface Engineering, Functional Materials, Materials For Engineering and Environmental Sustainability,

Advanced Materials and Structural Engineering

Advanced Materials and Structural Engineering
  • Author : Jong Wan Hu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-02-03
  • Total pages :996
  • ISBN : 9781317404934
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Summary : The ICAMEST 2015 Conference covered new developments in advanced materials and engineering structural technology. Applications in civil, mechanical, industrial and material science are covered in this book. Providing high-quality, scholarly research, addressing developments, applications and implications in the field of structural health monitoring, construction safety and management, sensors and measurements. This volume contains new models for nonlinear structural analysis and applications of modeling identification. Furthermore, advanced chemical materials are discussed with applications in mechanical and civil engineering and for the maintenance of new materials. In addition, a new system of pressure regulating and water conveyance based on small and middle hydropower stations is discussed. An experimental investigation of the ultimate strength and behavior of the three types of steel tubular K-joints was presented. Furthermore, real-time and frequency linear and nonlinear modeling performance of materials of structures contents were concluded with the notion of a fully brittle material, and this approach is implemented in the book by outlining a finite-element method for the prediction of the construction performance and cracking patterns of arbitrary structural concrete forms. This book is an ideal reference for practicing engineers in material, mechanical and civil engineering and consultants (design, construction, maintenance), and can also be used as a reference for students in mechanical and civil engineering courses.

Precision Machining of Advanced Materials

Precision Machining of Advanced Materials
  • Author : L. Zhang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-01-10
  • Total pages :220
  • ISBN : 9783035703894
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Summary : Precision machining is an essential manufacturing process to achieve high dimensional accuracy and high surface integrity of functional components for various technological applications, such as those in aeronautical, biomedical, mechanical, metrological, mechatronic, nano-technological and microscopy industries. To achieve a satisfactory operation of precision machining, however, one must have a deep understanding of the setting and control of machining conditions, mechanisms of material removal and effectiveness of the cutting tools. As a result, a quality precision machining requires a comprehensive integration of the development of machine tools, the improvement of machining methods and the wise application of materials science and engineering and mechanics of solids.

Carbon Nanomaterials: Modeling, Design, and Applications

Carbon Nanomaterials: Modeling, Design, and Applications
  • Author : Kun Zhou
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-17
  • Total pages :468
  • ISBN : 9781351123563
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Summary : Carbon Nanomaterials: Modeling, Design, and Applications provides an in-depth review and analysis of the most popular carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and novel carbon nanomaterial-based membranes and thin films, with emphasis on their modeling, design and applications. This book provides basic knowledge of the structures, properties and applications of carbon-based nanomaterials. It illustrates the fundamental structure-property relationships of the materials in both experimental and modeling aspects, offers technical guidance in computational simulation of nanomaterials, and delivers an extensive view on current achievements in research and practice, while presenting new possibilities in the design and usage of carbon nanomaterials. This book is aimed at both undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, designers, professors, and professionals within the fields of materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering, applied physics, and chemical engineering.

Advanced Materials

Advanced Materials
  • Author : Theodorus van de Ven,Armand Soldera
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-20
  • Total pages :405
  • ISBN : 9783110537734
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Summary : Advanced Materials gives an unique insight into the specialized materials that are required to run our modern society. Provided within are the fundamental theories and applications of advanced materials for metals, glasses, polymers, composites, and nanomaterials. This book is ideal for scientists and engineers of materials science, chemistry, physics, and engineering, and students of these disciplines.

Green Carbon Materials

Green Carbon Materials
  • Author : Thomas E. Rufford,John Zhu,Denisa Hulicova-Jurcakova
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-06
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9789814411134
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Summary : Agricultural and food industry waste materials have been an important feedstock for activated carbon production for many years. In the development of cleaner energy production and utilization processes, new advanced carbon materials with enhanced properties have been studied. Techniques to tailor pore structure and surface chemistry can produce better carbon materials for energy storage, electrode materials, and selective adsorption of pollutants. This book surveys available waste materials and processes for carbon production and then reviews the recent developments in the use of carbon materials for energy storage, as catalyst supports, and for environmental applications.

Advanced Materials Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050

Advanced Materials Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050
  • Author : Ke Lu,Lidong Chen,Tianbai He,Qing Yan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-08-09
  • Total pages :120
  • ISBN : 3642053181
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Summary : As one of the eighteen field-specific reports comprising the comprehensive scope of the strategic general report of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, this sub-report addresses long-range planning for developing science and technology in the field of advanced materials science. They each craft a roadmap for their sphere of development to 2050. In their entirety, the general and sub-group reports analyze the evolution and laws governing the development of science and technology, describe the decisive impact of science and technology on the modernization process, predict that the world is on the eve of an impending S&T revolution, and call for China to be fully prepared for this new round of S&T advancement. Based on the detailed study of the demands on S&T innovation in China's modernization, the reports draw a framework for eight basic and strategic systems of socio-economic development with the support of science and technology, work out China's S&T roadmaps for the relevant eight basic and strategic systems in line with China's reality, further detail S&T initiatives of strategic importance to China's modernization, and provide S&T decision-makers with comprehensive consultations for the development of S&T innovation consistent with China's reality. Supported by illustrations and tables of data, the reports provide researchers, government officials and entrepreneurs with guidance concerning research directions, the planning process, and investment. Founded in 1949, the Chinese Academy of Sciences is the nation's highest academic institution in natural sciences. Its major responsibilities are to conduct research in basic and technological sciences, to undertake nationwide integrated surveys on natural resources and ecological environment, to provide the country with scientific data and consultations for government's decision-making, to undertake government-assigned projects with regard to key S&T problems in the process of socio-economic development, to initiate personnel training, and to promote China's high-tech enterprises through its active engagement in these areas.