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Advances in Microbial Food Safety

Advances in Microbial Food Safety
  • Author : J Sofos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-12
  • Total pages :444
  • ISBN : 1782421076
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Summary : Research and legislation in food microbiology continue to evolve, and outbreaks of foodborne disease place further pressure on the industry to provide microbiologically safe products. This second volume in the series Advances in Microbial Food Safety summarises major recent advances in this field, and complements volume 1 to provide an essential overview of developments in food microbiology. Part one opens the book with an interview with a food safety expert. Part two provides updates on single pathogens, and part three looks at pathogen detection, identification and surveillance. Part four covers pathogen control and food preservation. Finally, part five focuses on pathogen control management. Extends the breadth and coverage of the first volume in the series Includes updates on specific pathogens and safety for specific foods Reviews both detection and management of foodborne pathogens

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : J. Chen,K. Nightingale
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089613
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Summary : Recent advances regarding the human foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes are discussed with specific emphasis on epidemiology, ecology and virulence. Recent routine surveillance and outbreak investigation studies indicate a shift in L. monocytogenes serotypes linked to listeriosis in some countries. There is growing evidence to show that L. monocytogenes isolates can be divided beyond the serotype level into at least two epidemiologically and genetically distinct subpopulations differentiated by biologically meaningful markers, including strains responsible for the majority of listeriosis cases and strains carrying virulence attenuating mutations in the key virulence gene inlA, which codes for internalin A.

Advances in Microbial Food Safety

Advances in Microbial Food Safety
  • Author : J Sofos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780857098740
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Summary : New research, outbreaks of foodborne disease and changes to legislation mean that food microbiology research is constantly evolving. Advances in microbial food safety: Volume 1 summarises the key trends in this area for the food industry. The book begins with an introductory chapter discussing food safety management systems from the past to the present day and looking to future directions. The book moves on to provide updates on specific pathogens including Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus species. New developments in the area are explored with chapters on emerging parasites in food, advances in separation and concentration of microorganisms from food samples, new approaches in microbial pathogen detection, and an update on novel methods for pathogen control in livestock preharvest. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Advances in microbial food safety: Volume 1 is a standard reference for researchers, consultants and managers in the food industry responsible for food safety, analytical laboratories testing the safety of the food we eat, and researchers in academia working on food microbial safety. Summarises new research, outbreaks of foodborne disease and changes to legislation in food microbiology research Examines past, present and future food safety management systems Provides updates on specific pathogens including Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus species

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : C. Griffith
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089781
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Summary : Food handler behaviour is important for producing safe food with food handler error a factor in many outbreaks. This chapter reviews food handler knowledge, attitudes and practices and the research methods used in their study. Infected food handlers spread pathogens to foods and other workers and the factors influencing this are analysed. Food handlers play a role in cross-contamination, an increasingly reported risk. The mechanisms for this and the components of hand hygiene are discussed. Historically, non-compliance has been assessed at the level of individuals. Recent work on food safety culture is examined and individual behaviour is discussed within the context of an organisation and its leadership. Methods and strategies for effective food hygiene training are reviewed.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : B. Brehm-Stecher
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089811
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Summary : Traditionally, populations of microbes have been characterized rather than individual cells. Methods for examining individual cells have long been available but there were technological barriers. The rapidity and ease of growing microbes to large numbers has limited the motivation to study them individually and terminology reinforced the belief that cell populations comprise assemblages of identical cells. Recognition of the heterogeneity of individual cells, coupled with technology capable of resolving discrete differences has driven single-cell microbiology, enabling the high-resolution study and physical manipulation of individual microbes – even allowing detection and tracking of single molecules within living cells. The list of single-cell techniques or their refinements is growing.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : R.B. Tompkin,J. Sofos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089590
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Summary : This chapter is a series of questions and answers between John Sofos and Bruce Tompkin, giving Bruce’s perspective as a food microbiologist on food safety. Progress depends on epidemiologic studies by public health agencies and research by universities and government laboratories. Industry responded to microbial hazards and food-pathogen combinations with good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems. Examples demonstrate improved consumer protection. Success depends on control measures, regulatory approval and consumer acceptance. Existing weaknesses and the underlying reasons are described. The challenge for the food safety community will be to find acceptable solutions and achieve the higher level of protection that consumers expect.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : S.H. Suh,L.-A. Jaykus,B. Brehm-Stecher
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089675
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Summary : Current methods for detecting bacterial pathogens from foods and the environment are slow. Although newer, more rapid detection techniques have been developed, they have insufficient sensitivity and produce residual matrix-associated inhibitory compounds. The detection of foodborne pathogens could be more rapid if the target cells were separated and concentrated before detection, a procedure known as pre-analytical sample processing. We review sample preparation techniques, focusing on target-specific methods. Unlike non-target-specific separation/concentration methods, these approaches use bioaffinity ligands, preventing co-precipitation of target pathogens with residual matrix components. Bioaffinity ligands such as bacteriophage, phage-derived biomolecules, nucleic acid/peptide aptamers, carbohydrate ligands, antimicrobial peptides and synthetic ligands are described. The use of bioaffinity ligands in pathogen detection is new and requires further development. Such ligands have a future in foodborne pathogen detection and may allow us to substitute culture-based methods with more rapid, yet sensitive non-cultural methods.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : C. Pin,A. Metris,J. Baranyi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089835
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Summary : In this chapter, we endeavour to predict the trends in predictive microbiology that are going to shape its development as a multidisciplinary field. We integrate the most commonly used, population and single-cell models of bacterial kinetics into a top-down framework. We predict that modellers will need to face various complexities induced by interactions at different levels: between food and microorganism, between cells and species and between molecular elements at the intracellular level. Hence, advances in the area of complex systems (e.g. network science, systems biology and stochastic modelling) will have a significant effect on the future development of predictive microbiology.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : K. Koutsoumanis,P. Skandamis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089767
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Summary : This chapter discusses the research on the use of organic acids as decontamination agents for foods of animal and plant origin. First, the application of organic acids to meat decontamination (i.e., carcasses and trimmings) is presented followed by an overview of research into the use of organic acids for decontaminating vegetables, fruits and fruit juices. Both single and multiple interventions are discussed. Then, the potential concerns of microbial adaptation to acid treatments are examined and the current legislation status at international level is presented. Key points and practical implications for the industry are discussed in the final section of the chapter.

Advances in Microbial Food Safety

Advances in Microbial Food Safety
  • Author : J Sofos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-25
  • Total pages :444
  • ISBN : 9781782421153
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Summary : Research and legislation in food microbiology continue to evolve, and outbreaks of foodborne disease place further pressure on the industry to provide microbiologically safe products. This second volume in the series Advances in Microbial Food Safety summarises major recent advances in this field, and complements volume 1 to provide an essential overview of developments in food microbiology. Part one opens the book with an interview with a food safety expert. Part two provides updates on single pathogens, and part three looks at pathogen detection, identification and surveillance. Part four covers pathogen control and food preservation. Finally, part five focuses on pathogen control management. Extends the breadth and coverage of the first volume in the series Includes updates on specific pathogens and safety for specific foods Reviews both detection and management of foodborne pathogens

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : P. Fratamico,N.W. Gunther
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089828
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Summary : Omic technologies, including genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, are used to study pathogen behavior at the molecular level and develop improved pathogen detection and typing systems. Omic technologies analyze complete or nearly complete expressions of cell functions. DNA sequencing has resulted in complete genomes of foodborne pathogens. Omic-based technologies explore biological processes in a quantitative and integrative manner. They facilitate identification of genes and proteins that contribute to survival and persistence in food and other environments, that play a role in pathogenesis and that are targets for detection methods and control strategies. Challenges that remain are performing genomic and proteomic studies in food and other complex matrices and interpreting and analyzing the data produced from these investigations to enhance food safety.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : G.C. Barker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089804
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Summary : Biotracing is a method for investigating food chain contamination events that concentrates on identification of probable sources. Biotracing is complementary to existing food safety assessments and is related to similar investigation processes in molecular epidemiology and forensic science. This chapter describes the background to biotracing, identifies important elements and describes an emerging methodology. In addition the chapter includes a review of a detailed biotracing model for Staphylococcus aureus in processed milk. The chapter concludes by highlighting options for food chain integration and includes some possibilities for future developments.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : L.N. Kahyaoglu,J. Irudayaraj
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089699
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Summary : Viruses are common causes of foodborne outbreaks. Viral diseases have low fatality rates but transmission to humans via food is important due to the high probability of consuming fecally contaminated food or water because of poor food handling. Because of the low infectious doses of some foodborne viruses, there is a need for standardization and the development of new sensitive methods for detecting viruses. The focus is on molecular and non-molecular approaches, and emerging methods for the detection of foodborne viruses. The detection of noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotaviruses and adenoviruses will be discussed. The chapter will conclude with insights into future research directions.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : J. Klumpp,M.J. Loessner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089743
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Summary : Foodborne bacterial infections are a major healthcare concern worldwide. Bacteriophages, the natural enemies of bacteria, are an ideal means to detect and control foodborne pathogens. In this chapter, bacteriophages for use in food are introduced and general considerations regarding phage characteristics, application-specific parameters and potential problems are presented. Bacteriophage lytic enzymes are discussed as potent novel antimicrobials. The use of bacteriophage preparations in the detection of foodborne pathogens is illustrated. Recent regulatory approvals and scientific advances in bacteriophage-based pathogen detection and control are described.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : Y. Ortega
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089644
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Summary : Foodborne parasites have affected humans since antiquity. The complexities of their life cycles play a significant role in their prevalence in certain locations worldwide. Good agricultural practices and food processing have limited or eradicated some parasites from select countries. Still, the emergence or re-emergence of foodborne parasites is occurring worldwide. This chapter will address protozoa and helminths of public health relevance and that are identified in the food supply. Available pre- and post-harvest measures to control parasites in foods are discussed.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : J.-L. Cordier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089736
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Summary : This chapter is a short overview of the current knowledge regarding pathogens in dry processing environments. The main control measures to ensure the safety of food products are then discussed, focusing on the behavior of Salmonella and control measures such as cleaning. Since most of the literature related to contamination of low-moisture foods is related to Salmonella, the majority of the topics discussed in the following sections are about this pathogen. Where available and relevant, additional information on other pathogens is also included in the discussion.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : T. Hald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089606
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Summary : This chapter gives an overview of the recent research on the epidemiology of human salmonellosis. It begins by describing the occurrence of human salmonellosis including a discussion on the burden of illness studies, before describing the most important risk factors for human disease. Subtyping of Salmonella is increasingly used for tracking sources of infection and an update on classification and characterisation is given. Finally, the chapter reviews source attribution studies based on the application of microbial subtyping data and foodborne disease outbreak data and concludes with a discussion of the observed differences.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : T.R. Callaway,R.C. Anderson,T.S. Edrington,K.J. Genovese,R.B. Harvey,T.L. Poole,D.J. Nisbet
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089729
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Summary : Pathogenic bacteria are found asymptomatically in food animals, which often results in pathogen entry into the food chain. Processing plants reduce pathogen contamination with intervention strategies, yet foodborne illnesses still occur at an unacceptable frequency. Strategies are needed against pathogenic bacteria before they can enter processing facilities and the food chain. Reducing farm levels of zoonotic pathogens will enhance human health and food safety. Several pre-slaughter intervention strategies are under investigation: (1) direct anti-pathogen strategies, (2) competitive enhancement strategies and (3) animal management strategies. These include methods such as: vaccination against foodborne pathogenic bacteria, probiotics, prebiotics and competitive exclusion, using viruses to reduce pathogen populations, chemical methods and dietary changes.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : J. Threlfall
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089651
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Summary : There are three major aspects of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens: (1) the resistance to quinolones and cephalosporins in Salmonella enterica, and to quinolones and macrolides in Campylobacter, (2) multidrug-resistant clones of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium-like organisms, (3) strains of Enterobacteriaceae, in particular Escherichia coli, either exhibiting resistance to beta (β)-lactam antibiotics or producing AmpC β-lactamases. Controlling antibiotic usage in food animals is necessary in order to reduce the incidence of resistant organisms. A single control measure is unlikely to limit the transmission of resistance through the food chain. Surveillance of resistance in humans and food animals is vital for measuring the long-term effectiveness of any control measure.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : K. Rantsiou,L. Cocolin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089682
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Summary : Since the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the 1980s, applied molecular biology has progressed enormously. Following technological advancements, PCR analysis has become quantitative rather than qualitative. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revolutionized molecular approaches to food safety, due to the ability to quantify specific pathogens in food. New methods for studying the transcription process, such as microarrays, can be used to investigate the behavior of pathogens in the food environment. Indeed, the effects of food–related conditions on gene expression in pathogenic microorganisms have already been demonstrated.

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety
  • Author : W.H. Sperber
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-31
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128089798
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Summary : This chapter outlines the interactions between a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system and multiple prerequisite programs (PRPs) to produce a food-safety management program that can be applied globally throughout the food supply chain, from farm to table. The HACCP system is supported by three major PRPs: good agricultural practices, good hygienic practices and good consumer practices. While there are many effective food-safety practices and regulations, the current global system of food-safety management is poor. This chapter describes multiple barriers to food-safety progress and proposes new measures for significant improvements in global food-safety management. Such measures are necessary if HACCP is to be applied to non-traditional areas in the supply chain.