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Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : Olga Grushko,Boris Ovsyannikov,Viktor Ovchinnokov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-18
  • Total pages :308
  • ISBN : 9781315352503
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Summary : Aluminum–Lithium Alloys: Process Metallurgy, Physical Metallurgy, and Welding provides theoretical foundations of the technological processes for melting, casting, forming, heat treatment, and welding of Al–Li alloys. It contains a critical survey of the research in the field and presents data on commercial Al–Li alloys, their phase composition, microstructure, and heat treatment of the ingots, sheets, forgings, and welds of Al–Li alloys. It details oxidation kinetics, protective alloying, hydrogen in Al–Li alloys, and crack susceptibility. It also discusses grain structure and solidification, as well as structural and mechanical properties. The book is illustrated with examples of Al–Li alloy applications in aircraft structures. Based on the vast experience of the coauthors, the book presents recommendations on solving practical problems involved with melting and casting ingots, welding of Al–Li alloys, and producing massive stampings for welded products. Provides comprehensive coverage of Al–Li alloys, not available in any single source. Presents research that is at the basis of the production technology for of ingots and products made of Al–Li alloys. Combines basic science with applied research, including upscaling and industrial implementation. Covers welding of Al–Li alloys in detail. Discusses gas and alkali-earth impurities in Al–Li alloys. Describes technological recommendations on casting and deformation of Al–Li alloys.

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : N Eswara Prasad,Amol Gokhale,R.J.H Wanhill
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-20
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780124016798
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Summary : Because lithium is the least dense elemental metal, materials scientists and engineers have been working for decades to develop a commercially viable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy that would be even lighter and stiffer than other aluminum alloys. The first two generations of Al-Li alloys tended to suffer from several problems, including poor ductility and fracture toughness; unreliable properties, fatigue and fracture resistance; and unreliable corrosion resistance. Now, new third generation Al-Li alloys with significantly reduced lithium content and other improvements are promising a revival for Al-Li applications in modern aircraft and aerospace vehicles. Over the last few years, these newer Al-Li alloys have attracted increasing global interest for widespread applications in the aerospace industry largely because of soaring fuel costs and the development of a new generation of civil and military aircraft. This contributed book, featuring many of the top researchers in the field, is the first up-to-date international reference for Al-Li material research, alloy development, structural design and aerospace systems engineering. Provides a complete treatment of the new generation of low-density AL-Li alloys, including microstructure, mechanical behavoir, processing and applications Covers the history of earlier generation AL-Li alloys, their basic problems, why they were never widely used, and why the new third generation Al-Li alloys could eventually replace not only traditional aluminum alloys but more expensive composite materials Contains two full chapters devoted to applications in the aircraft and aerospace fields, where the lighter, stronger Al-Li alloys mean better performing, more fuel-efficient aircraft

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : R.J.H. Wanhill
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-20
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780128068533
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Summary : The material and manufacturing property requirements for selection and application of 3rd generation aluminium-lithium (Al–Li) alloys in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed. Modern structural concepts using Laser Beam Welding (LBW), Friction Stir Welding (FSW), SuperPlastic Forming (SPF) and selective reinforcement by Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs) are also considered. Al–Li alloys have to compete with conventional aluminium alloys, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) and GLAss REinforced FMLs (GLARE), particularly for transport aircraft structures. Thus all these materials are compared before discussing their selection for aircraft. This is followed by a review of the aluminium alloy selection process for spacecraft. Actual and potential applications of 3rd generation Al–Li alloys are presented. For aircraft it is concluded that the competition between different material classes (aluminium alloys, CFRPs and FMLs) has reached a development stage where hybrid structures, using different types of materials, may become the rule rather than the exception. However, aluminium alloys are still the main contenders for spacecraft liquid propellant launchers.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys (January 1972 - May 1990)

Aluminum Lithium Alloys (January 1972 - May 1990)
  • Author : United States. National Technical Information Service
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1990
  • Total pages :147
  • ISBN : OCLC:36766377
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Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : Vijaya Singh,Amol A. Gokhale
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-20
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780128068441
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Summary : Information on the technology of melting and casting aluminium lithium alloys is rarely published. Therefore, this chapter presents important findings from many research investigations on various aspects of melting, casting and cast structure development of Al-Li alloys. Presence of reactive element such as Li in the molten alloy requires special melt protection techniques, containment materials, alloying practices and casting equipment. Problem of grain refinement, linked to the presence of Zr in most commercial compositions, has also been discussed. Finally, it is surmised that the lower Li contents present in the third generation alloys compared to their older counterparts is expected to ease difficulties in their melting and casting.

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : N.J.H. Holroyd,G.M. Scamans,R.C. Newman,A.K. Vasudevan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-20
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780128068526
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Summary : Industrial interest in wrought heat-treatable aluminium-lithium (Al–Li) based alloys dates back to around 1919 in Germany. However the exploitation of these alloys has historically been limited by their mechanical property anisotropy and concerns over their localized corrosion resistance and temperature stability. Recently, in the last ten years, alloy and process development has resulted in alloy compositions and thermomechanical treatments that potentially can overcome these issues. To put these developments in perspective we have reviewed the corrosion characteristics of first, second and third generation alloys with an emphasis on localized corrosion (intergranular and exfoliation) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Intergranular corrosion susceptibility of Al–Li–Cu and Al–Li–Cu–Mg alloys increases with copper content, and the depth of attack increases with ageing, i.e. UAPA~30 mm) further analysis of corrosion test results is required.

Aluminium-lithium Alloys III

Aluminium-lithium Alloys III
  • Author : Colin Baker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1986
  • Total pages :640
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105030619998
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Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : K.V. Jata,A.K. Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-20
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780128068434
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Summary : This chapter describes the development of crystallographic texture and its effects on mechanical properties in aluminum-lithium alloys. Crystallographic texture evolves during the forming of wrought products from cast ingots of Al-Li alloys and consequently affects the mechanical properties. Practical approaches to control the texture have been developed and have been successfully used in the products obtained from industrial-scale ingots. This texture tailoring has significantly reduced the yield strength anisotropy. In addition, theoretical approaches have been used to model the yield strength anisotropy of aluminum alloys in the presence of complex precipitates.

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys for Aerospace Applications Workshop

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys for Aerospace Applications Workshop
  • Author : Biliyar N. Bhat,Thomas T. Bales,E. J. Vesely
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :356
  • ISBN : PSU:000023373440
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Aluminum-lithium Alloys

Aluminum-lithium Alloys
  • Author : Ramesh J. Kar,Suphal P. Agrawal,William E. Quist
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988
  • Total pages :465
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105030634914
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Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : K. Satya Prasad,N. Eswara Prasad,Amol A. Gokhale
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-20
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780128068427
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Summary : This chapter reviews the precipitation and precipitate phases that occur during heat treatments in multi-component Al-Li based alloys. It describes aspects related to nucleation, growth, morphology and orientation relationships of the strengthening precipitates δ’ and T1, the toughening precipitate S’ and the recrystallisation-inhibiting precipitate β’. Equilibrium precipitate phases such as T2, which are deleterious to the mechanical and corrosion properties of the alloys, are also described. It is shown that careful alloy chemistry control, two-step homogenization and controlled stretching prior to ageing can be employed to improve the volume fraction and distribution of the precipitate phases. All these processing aspects are necessary to achieve optimum combinations of properties for the alloys.

Investigations Into the Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Investigations Into the Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : Christopher Shigeki Kumai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992
  • Total pages :226
  • ISBN : UCAL:C3368185
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Aluminum-lithium Alloys

Aluminum-lithium Alloys
  • Author : T. H. Sanders
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :1716
  • ISBN : 1872136036
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Encyclopedia of Aluminum and Its Alloys, Two-Volume Set (Print)

Encyclopedia of Aluminum and Its Alloys, Two-Volume Set (Print)
  • Author : George E. Totten,Murat Tiryakioglu,Olaf Kessler
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-07
  • Total pages :1232
  • ISBN : 9781351045629
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Summary : This encyclopedia, written by authoritative experts under the guidance of an international panel of key researchers from academia, national laboratories, and industry, is a comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of metallurgical science and engineering of aluminum and its alloys. Topics covered include extractive metallurgy, powder metallurgy (including processing), physical metallurgy, production engineering, corrosion engineering, thermal processing (processes such as metalworking and welding, heat treatment, rolling, casting, hot and cold forming), surface engineering and structure such as crystallography and metallography.

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : N. Eswara Prasad,T.S. Srivatsan,R.J.H. Wanhill,G. Malakondaiah,V.V. Kutumbarao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-20
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780128068496
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Summary : The low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) properties of Al–Li alloys are influenced by alloy composition, microstructural characteristics, tensile stretching prior to artificial aging, and crystallographic texture. In general the fatigue properties, notably the notched HCF resistances, of Al–Li alloys are similar to those of conventional aerospace aluminium alloys. Alloy development programs on newer Al–Li alloys aim to study further the effects of minor alloying additions (rare earths, beryllium, silver and TiB); various thermomechanical treatments; alloy microstructure, notably crystallographic texture and grain size; and the fatigue load history and environment on the mechanical behavior, including the fatigue properties. It is important to note that the occurrence of bilinearity in LCF life-dependence on strain amplitude in most Al–Li alloys engenders the overestimation of the LCF lives in both the hypo-transition (lower strain amplitudes; longer fatigue lives) and hyper-transition (higher strain amplitudes; shorter fatigue lives) regions if the lives are estimated by extrapolation from either of these regions. Further, in cases such as in Al-Li alloys where there are large differences in strength-based (Basquin-like) and plastic strain – based (Coffin-Manson) power-law relationships, it is appropriate to develop an alloy design philosophy based on either plastic strain energy per cycle (Halford-Morrow) or fatigue toughness (total plastic strain energy to fracture). All of these aspects are discussed in detail in this chapter.

Fundamentals of Aluminium Metallurgy

Fundamentals of Aluminium Metallurgy
  • Author : Roger Lumley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-22
  • Total pages :592
  • ISBN : 9780081020647
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Summary : Fundamentals of Aluminium Metallurgy: Recent Advances updates the very successful book Fundamentals of Aluminium Metallurgy. As the technologies related to casting and forming of aluminum components are rapidly improving, with new technologies generating alternative manufacturing methods that improve competitiveness, this book is a timely resource. Sections provide an overview of recent research breakthroughs, methods and techniques of advanced manufacture, including additive manufacturing and 3D printing, a comprehensive discussion of the status of metalcasting technologies, including sand casting, permanent mold casting, pressure diecastings and investment casting, and recent information on advanced wrought alloy development, including automotive bodysheet materials, amorphous glassy materials, and more. Target readership for the book includes PhD students and academics, the casting industry, and those interested in new industrial opportunities and advanced products. Includes detailed and specific information on the processing of aluminum alloys, including additive manufacturing and advanced casting techniques Written for a broad ranging readership, from academics, to those in the industry who need to know about the latest techniques for working with aluminum Comprehensive, up-to-date coverage, with the most recent advances in the industry

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : S.P. Lynch,R.J.H. Wanhill,R.T. Byrnes,G.H. Bray
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-20
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780128068519
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Summary : Aluminium-Lithium (Al–Li) alloys have been of interest since the 1950s when they were first used on a military aircraft. Having lithium as the main alloying element in Al alloys is attractive since (i) each 1 wt% Li reduces the density by ~3% and increases modulus by ~5%, and (ii) high strengths can be achieved by precipitation-hardening. During the 1980s, extensive research and development was carried out on alloys with high lithium contents (>2 wt%≡~8 at%) such as AA 8090 (Al 2.4 Li 1.2 Cu 0.7 Mg 0.12 Zr) (wt%). The mechanical properties of these ‘second-generation’ Al–Li alloys, however, did not match those of conventional Al (-Zn)-Mg-Cu alloys, and the lower fracture toughness of these alloys (for equivalent strengths was a particular problem. Thus, 2nd generation Al–Li alloys did not see widespread use. The experience with 2nd generation Al–Li alloys led to the development of ‘3rd generation’ alloys with lower Li contents (0.75–1.7 wt%), and some of these alloys have a better overall balance of properties, including fracture toughness, than the best available conventional Al alloys. These 3rd generation Al–Li alloys should therefore see extensive use in future civil and military aircraft. This chapter on fracture toughness and fracture modes of aerospace Al–Li alloys outlines why fracture toughness is important for aerospace structures and components, and summarises testing procedures and terminologies in regard to plane-strain and plane-stress fracture toughness. The relationships between fracture toughness/fracture modes and microstructural features such as grain morphology, constituent particles, impurity phases, matrix precipitates, grain-boundary precipitates, and grain boundary segregation, are then discussed. Proposed explanations for the low fracture toughness of 2nd generation Al–Li alloys, associated with low-energy intergranular and transgranular shear fractures, are discussed in some depth, followed by a summary of the alloy-design principles behind the development of 3rd generation Al–Li alloys with a much improved resistance to low-energy fracture modes. Quantitative data for fracture toughness of 2nd and 3rd generation Al–Li alloys in comparison with conventional Al alloys are provided, showing that 3rd generation Al–Li alloys have outstanding combinations of toughness and strength combined with reduced densities. The superior toughness of 3rd generation Al–Li alloys compared with 2nd generation alloys is reflected in the differences in fracture-surface topography and fracture path. The chapter concludes with a summary of the current and proposed uses of 3rd generation Al–Li alloys in aircraft structures and components

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Author : T.S. Srivatsan,Enrique J. Lavernia,N. Eswara Prasad,V.V. Kutumbarao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-20
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780128068489
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Summary : The emergence of Al–Li alloys as potential light metal, for safe use in a spectrum of aircraft structures and related aerospace applications has in recent years engendered an unprecedented widespread interest aimed at studying, understanding and improving their mechanical properties. In this chapter, we present and discuss some of the key aspects relevant to aluminum-lithium alloys, spanning the specific domain of precipitation kinetics as influenced by composition and heat treatment, intrinsic microstructural features and their effects, the fundamental mechanisms contributing to strength, ductility, fracture toughness, and overall anisotropy in mechanical properties of these alloys. The tensile behavior of representative first generation, second generation and third generation aluminum-lithium alloys is also presented and briefly discussed. Microstructural influences on mechanical properties are examined with specific reference to matrix microstructural features, dislocation-microstructural feature interaction, and matrix slip characteristics.

Aluminum Alloys--Contemporary Research and Applications

Aluminum Alloys--Contemporary Research and Applications
  • Author : A. K. Vasudevan,Roger D. Doherty
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :728
  • ISBN : 9780323140232
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Summary : This book discusses the structure and properties of the current and potential aluminum alloys in terms of their structure (and structural transformations by new processing methods) and the relationship between structure and mechanical and other properties. The alternative materials that challenge aluminum are considered as well, since the challenge of new competitive materials is a strong influence on innovation. The book bridges the gap between current scientific understanding and engineering practice. It is an up-to-date reference that will be of use to researchers and advanced students in metallurgy and materials engineering.

Magnesium and Its Alloys

Magnesium and Its Alloys
  • Author : Leszek A. Dobrzanski,Menachem Bamberger,George E. Totten
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-01
  • Total pages :570
  • ISBN : 9781351045469
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Summary : Magnesium and Its Alloys: Technology and Applications covers a wide scope of topics related to magnesium science and engineering, from manufacturing and production to finishing and applications. This handbook contains thirteen chapters, each contributed by experts in their respective fields, and presents a broad spectrum of new information on pure magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium matrix MgMCs composites. It covers such topics as computational thermodynamics, modern Mg-alloys with enhanced creep or fatigue properties, cutting-edge approaches to melt treating (grain refinement, micro-alloying, and the resulting solidification and growth), coatings, surface engineering, environmental protection (recycling and green energy storage and production), as well as biomedical applications. Aimed at researchers, professionals, and graduate students, the book conveys comprehensive and cutting-edge knowledge on magnesium alloys. It is especially useful to those in the fields of materials engineering, mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, and metallurgy.

Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens
  • Author : National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-27
  • Total pages :32
  • ISBN : 1726218015
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Summary : A cruciform biaxial test specimen was used to test the effect of biaxial load on the yield of aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Fifteen cruciform specimens were tested from 2 thicknesses of 2195-T8 plate, 0.45 in. and 1.75 in. These results were compared to the results from uniaxial tensile tests of the same alloy, and cruciform biaxial tests of aluminum alloy 2219-T87.Johnston, W. M. and Pollock, W. D. and Dawicke, D. S. and Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor)Langley Research CenterALUMINUM-LITHIUM ALLOYS; LOADS (FORCES); TENSILE TESTS; AXIAL LOADS; LOAD TESTS; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; ALUMINUM ALLOYS; YIELD STRENGTH...