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Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution
  • Author : Jane Q. Koenig
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :249
  • ISBN : 9781461545699
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Summary : Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution provides the reader with an overview of the health effects of air pollution in human subjects. The majority of the book is devoted to the discussion of the health effects of common widespread air pollutants regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through national ambient air quality standards. The book reviews the sources and fate of common air pollutants in ambient air and researches the adverse effects of these outdoor and indoor air pollutants in `in vivo' cell systems, animals, and humans. Research for the book was conducted in controlled laboratory studies and epidemiologic studies. Special emphasis throughout Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution is placed on the effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma.

Ambient Air Pollution and Health Impact in China

Ambient Air Pollution and Health Impact in China
  • Author : Guang-Hui Dong
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-25
  • Total pages :270
  • ISBN : 9789811056574
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Summary : This book focuses on the health impacts of air pollution in China, especially the epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for the mortality, morbidity, and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and mental health related to pollution. It also provides the latest estimates of the magnitude of the adverse effects of air pollution on the health of the Chinese population. By providing a better understanding of the impact of air pollution on health, it improves the scientific basis of risk assessment, and also helps governments develop policies and other health protection initiatives to reduce the impacts of air pollution. The book offers environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and students a comprehensive and organized body of information in the area of air pollution.

Air Pollution

Air Pollution
  • Author : United States. General Accounting Office
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :28
  • ISBN : UOM:39015042476062
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Summary :

Monitoring of Air Pollutants

Monitoring of Air Pollutants
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-11-29
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9780444635563
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Summary : Monitoring of Air Pollutants: Sampling, Sample Preparation and Analytical Techniques provides a comprehensive reference on air pollutant monitoring, addressing experimental approaches to sampling and sample preparation, as well as analytical technologies (instrumental methods) which are applicable to a wide range of topics. The book's purpose is to provide an in-depth resource on the monitoring of ambient air pollutants that covers the basic principles, recent developments, and important applications in the field. Current trends and recent advances are discussed, both with respect to analytical techniques and target air pollutants. All aspects of air pollutant monitoring, from sampling, to sample preparation, and analysis, are covered, making this the book of choice for consultation by air monitoring practitioners. Contains all the information needed for air pollutant monitoring from sampling, to sample preparation, to analysis Provides guidance on the best analytical approach for a target pollutant Presents the pros and cons of included techniques to enable informed decisions Includes case studies based on published practical applications

Adverse health effects of ambient air pollution

Adverse health effects of ambient air pollution
  • Author : Sics Editore
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-01
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9788869309083
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Summary : With the exception of malodorous sulphur compounds, adverse health effects of ambient air pollutants are experienced only in built-up areas where the most hazardous compounds are respirable particles and nitrogen dioxide.

Air Pollution and Health

Air Pollution and Health
  • Author : Stephen T. Holgate,Hillel S. Koren,Jonathan M. Samet,Robert L. Maynard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-04-21
  • Total pages :1065
  • ISBN : 9780080526928
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Summary : Concern about the impact of air pollution has led governments and local authorities across the world to regulate, among other things, the burning of fossil fuels, industrial effluence, cigarette smoke, and aerosols. This legislation has often followed dramatic findings about the impact of pollution on human health. At the same time there have been significant developments in our ability to detect and quantify pollutants and a proliferation of urban and rural air pollution networks to monitor levels of atmospheric contamination. Air Pollution and Health is the first fully comprehensive and current account of air pollution science and it impact on human health. It ranges in scope from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and particle physics to the causes and scope of allergic reactions and respiratory, cardiovascular, and related disorders. The book has substantial international coverage and includes sections on cost implications, risk assessment, regulation, standards, and information networks. The multidisciplinary approach and the wide range of issues covered makes this an essential book for all concerned with monitoring and regulating air pollution as well as those concerned with its impact on human health. Only comprehensive text covering all the important air pollutants and relating these to human health and regulatory bodies Brings together a wide range of issues concerning air pollution in an easily accessible format Contributions from government agencies in the US and UK provide information on public policy and resource networks in the areas of health promotion and environmental protection

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution
  • Author : American Lung Association
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :85
  • ISBN : OCLC:58740397
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Summary :

Monitoring Ambient Air Quality for Health Impact Assessment

Monitoring Ambient Air Quality for Health Impact Assessment
  • Author : World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe,World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :196
  • ISBN : 9289013516
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Summary : A guide to the principles and methods of air quality assessment aimed at measuring population exposure to ambient air pollutants and estimating the effects on health. Addressed to policy-makers as well as scientists engaged in air quality monitoring, the book responds to the failure of most monitoring systems to provide data that are useful in estimating and managing threats to health. The need for exposure data on populations at special risk is also addressed. Throughout, emphasis is placed on methods of monitoring and modelling that are cost-effective, targeted, and appropriate to local and national conditions. The report has six chapters. The first introduces WHO activities related to air quality management and explains the need for monitoring systems capable of assessing health impact. The types of information required for health impact assessment are described in chapter two, which outlines several methods of monitoring and modelling that can be used to measure the level and distribution of exposure to air pollutants in populations, identify population groups with high exposure, and estimate adverse effects on health. Chapter three formulates a general concept of air quality assessment, offering advice on principles for designing a monitoring network, interpreting and reporting data, and solving problems with quality assurance. Also included is a comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of different methods for air quality monitoring. Against this background, the fourth and most extensive chapter describes specific methods for the monitoring of carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, lead, and atmospheric cadmium. Monitoring strategies for each pollutant are presented according to a standard format, which covers health effects, sources and exposure patterns, monitoring methods, recommended strategies for monitoring and assessment, and a practical example. The remaining chapters offer advice on the collation, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data, and summarize the main conclusions and recommendations of the report. Detailed technical guidelines for the use of various methods and models are provided in a series of annexes. The report also reproduces the newly revised WHO air quality guidelines for Europe.

Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries

Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries
  • Author : Gordon McGranahan,Frank Murray
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :227
  • ISBN : 9781849770460
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Summary : In developing countries the price of rapid growth is all too often noxious airborne pollution, which annually contributes to a disturbing number of avoidable deaths. In recent decades, however, there has been considerable progress in the epidemiology of air pollution, significant changes in international air pollution guidelines, and the emergence of more systematic approaches to air pollution control. While many of these advances have originated in affluent countries, there have been major developments in other parts of the world. In this book, a distinguished cast of leading researchers in both the scientific and policy dimensions of air pollution and health have synthesized the recent developments in the field and their relevance for public health in developing countries. The authors review studies from a wide range of Asian, African and Latin American countries and contrast the findings with those from Europe and North America. They also describe various tools and systems for air pollution management and emphasize approaches that can be used when data is scarce. With a clear focus on the scientific and technical aspects of air pollution and health, this book is essential reading for pollution and health policy-makers, researchers and others concerned with air pollution and health in developing countries.

Air Pollution, the Automobile, and Public Health

Air Pollution, the Automobile, and Public Health
  • Author : Sponsored by The Health Effects Institute
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988-01-01
  • Total pages :704
  • ISBN : 9780309037266
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Summary : "The combination of scientific and institutional integrity represented by this book is unusual. It should be a model for future endeavors to help quantify environmental risk as a basis for good decisionmaking."--William D. Ruckelshaus, from the foreword. This volume, prepared under the auspices of the Health Effects Institute, an independent research organization created and funded jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency and the automobile industry, brings together experts on atmospheric exposure and on the biological effects of toxic substances to examine what is known--and not known--about the human health risks of automotive emissions.

Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring in Canada

Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring in Canada
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1016160855
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Summary :

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Air Pollution and Its Application in Public Health

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Air Pollution and Its Application in Public Health
  • Author : Lixin Li,Xiaolu Zhou,Weitian Tong
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-13
  • Total pages :328
  • ISBN : 9780128165263
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Summary : Spatiotemporal Analysis of Air Pollution and Its Application in Public Health reviews, in detail, the tools needed to understand the spatial temporal distribution and trends of air pollution in the atmosphere, including how this information can be tied into the diverse amount of public health data available using accurate GIS techniques. By utilizing GIS to monitor, analyze and visualize air pollution problems, it has proven to not only be the most powerful, accurate and flexible way to understand the atmosphere, but also a great way to understand the impact air pollution has in diverse populations. This book is essential reading for novices and experts in atmospheric science, geography and any allied fields investigating air pollution. Introduces readers to the benefits and uses of geo-spatiotemporal analyses of big data to reveal new and greater understanding of the intersection of air pollution and health Ties in machine learning to improve speed and efficacy of data models Includes developing visualizations, historical data, and real-time air pollution in large geographic areas

WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality

WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :454
  • ISBN : UCBK:C105261333
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Summary : This book presents WHO guidelines for the protection of public health from risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air. The substances considered in this review, i.e. benzene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (especially benzo[a]pyrene), radon, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, have indoor sources, are known in respect of their hazardousness to health and are often found indoors in concentrations of health concern. The guidelines are targeted at public health professionals involved in preventing health risks of environmental exposures, as well as specialists and authorities involved in the design and use of buildings, indoor materials and products. They provide a scientific basis for legally enforceable standards.

Ambient Air Pollution

Ambient Air Pollution
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :131
  • ISBN : OCLC:961219145
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Summary : This report presents a summary of methods and results of the latest World Health Organization (WHO) global assessment of ambient air pollution exposure and the resulting burden of disease. To date, air pollution -- both ambient (outdoor) and household (indoor) -- is the biggest environmental risk to health, carrying responsibility for about one in every nine deaths annually. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution alone kills around 3 million people each year, mainly from noncommunicable diseases. Air pollution continues to rise at an alarming rate, and affects economies and people's quality of life; it is a public health emergency. Interventions and policies for tackling air pollution issues exist and have been proven to be effective. Air pollution has also been identified as a global health priority in the sustainable development agenda. The role of the health sector is crucial, and there is a need to engage with other sectors to maximize the co-benefits of health, climate, environment, social and development. Saving people's lives is the overarching aim to implement policies aiming at tackling air pollution in the health, transport, energy, and urban development sectors.

Air Pollution Control

Air Pollution Control
  • Author : Sudarshan Prasad Mahajan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-01-01
  • Total pages :196
  • ISBN : 9788179931868
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Summary : Air pollution is aggravated in recent times because of four developments: increasing traffic, growing cities, rapid economic development, and industrialization. This book discusses the most important issues pertaining to air pollutants, their characterization, ambient concentrations, and effects on human health and ecology.

The Growth and Yield Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Valencia Orange Trees

The Growth and Yield Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Valencia Orange Trees
  • Author : David M. Olszyk,California. Air Resources Board
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :61
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822006726749
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Summary :

Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on the Lung and Immune System

Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on the Lung and Immune System
  • Author : Russell P. Sherwin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :61
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822018796359
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Summary :

Air Pollution XXIV

Air Pollution XXIV
  • Author : J.W.S. Longhurst,C.A. Brebbia,J. Barnes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-14
  • Total pages :280
  • ISBN : 9781784661298
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Summary : In these proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution, international academics and air pollution practitioners contribute to the evolving understanding of the science and policy contexts of air pollution. All the books from the conference series have discussed important air pollution issues at an international, national and local level and by virtue of their truly international composition have brought to the discussion a unique suite of perspectives. The conference findings enjoy a wide and rapid dissemination amongst the air pollution science and policy communities. The management of air pollution is one of the most challenging problems facing the international community. A particular strength of the series has been the attention given to regulatory and market solutions to air pollution management. The Air Pollution series of conferences has consistently acknowledged that science remains the key to identifying the nature and scale of air pollution impacts and reaffirmed that science is essential in the formulation of policy relevant information for regulatory decision making. The conference series also acknowledged, at a very early stage, that science alone will not improve a polluted atmosphere. The scientific knowledge derived from well-designed studies needs to be allied with further technical and economic studies in order to ensure cost effective and efficient mitigation. In turn, the science, technology and economic outcomes are necessary but not sufficient. Topics covered include: Air pollution modelling; Air pollution mitigation and management; Aerosols and particles; Emission studies; Health effects; Indoor air pollution; Air data quality; Monitoring and measuring; Case studies; Air pollution control technologies; Industrial air pollution; Air pollution science; Global and regional studies; Climate change effects; GIS & remote sensing applications; Emerging pollutants; Socio economic issues; Public engagement; Policy and legislation.

Monitoring, Control and Effects of Air Pollution

Monitoring, Control and Effects of Air Pollution
  • Author : Andrzej Chmielewski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-23
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9789533075266
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Summary : The book addresses the subjects related to the selected aspects of pollutants emission, monitoring and their effects. The most of recent publications concentrated on the review of the pollutants emissions from industry, especially power sector. In this one emissions from opencast mining and transport are addressed as well. Beside of SOx and NOx emissions, small particles and other pollutants (e.g. VOC, ammonia) have adverse effect on environment and human being. The natural emissions (e.g. from volcanoes) has contribution to the pollutants concentration and atmospheric chemistry governs speciation of pollutants, as in the case of secondary acidification. The methods of ambient air pollution monitoring based on modern instrumentation allow the verification of dispersion models and balancing of mass emissions. The comfort of everyday human's activity is influenced by indoor and public transport vehicles interior air contamination, which is effected even by the professional appliances operation. The outdoor pollution leads to cultural heritage objects deterioration, the mechanism are studied and the methods of rehabilitation developed. However to prevent emissions the new technologies are being developed, the new class of these technologies are plasma processes, which are briefly reviewed at the final part of the book.

Fundamentals of Air Pollution 2e

Fundamentals of Air Pollution 2e
  • Author : Arthur C. Stern
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1984-05-28
  • Total pages :548
  • ISBN : 9780323161589
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Summary : Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Second Edition discusses the basic chemistry, physics, and engineering of air pollution. This edition explores the processes and equipment that produce less pollution in the atmosphere. This book is comprised of six parts encompassing 28 chapters. This text starts with an overview of the predominant air pollution problems during the Industrial Revolution, including smoke and ash produced by burning oil or coal in the boiler furnaces of power plants, marine vessels, and locomotives. This edition then explores the mathematical models of atmospheric transport and diffusion and discusses the air pollution control in communities. Other chapters deal with atmospheric chemistry, control technology, and visibility through the atmosphere. This book further examines the regulatory concepts that have become more significant, such as the bubble concept, air quality, emission standards, and the trading and banking of emission rights. Air pollution scientists, atmospheric scientists, ecologists, engineers, educators, researchers, and students will find this book extremely useful.

Characterization and Impact of Ambient Air Pollution Measurement Error in Time-series Epidemiologic Studies

Characterization and Impact of Ambient Air Pollution Measurement Error in Time-series Epidemiologic Studies
  • Author : Gretchen Tanner Goldman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:761938812
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Summary : Time-series studies of ambient air pollution and acute health outcomes utilize measurements from fixed outdoor monitoring sites to assess changes in pollution concentration relative to time-variable health outcome measures. These studies rely on measured concentrations as a surrogate for population exposure. The degree to which monitoring site measurements accurately represent true ambient concentrations is of interest from both an etiologic and regulatory perspective, since associations observed in time-series studies are used to inform health-based ambient air quality standards. Air pollutant measurement errors associated with instrument precision and lack of spatial correlation between monitors have been shown to attenuate associations observed in health studies. Characterization and adjustment for air pollution measurement error can improve effect estimates in time-series studies. Measurement error was characterized for 12 ambient air pollutants in Atlanta. Simulations of instrument and spatial error were generated for each pollutant, added to a reference pollutant time-series, and used in a Poisson generalized linear model of air pollution and cardiovascular emergency department visits. This method allows for pollutant-specific quantification of impacts of measurement error on health effect estimates, both the assessed strength of association and its significance. To inform on the amount and type of error present in Atlanta measurements, air pollutant concentrations were simulated over the 20-county metropolitan area for a 6-year period, incorporating several distribution characteristics observed in measurement data. The simulated concentration fields were then used to characterize the amount and type of error due to spatial variability in ambient concentrations, as well as the impact of use of different exposure metrics in a time-series epidemiologic study. Finally, methodologies developed for the Atlanta area were applied to air pollution measurements in Dallas, Texas with consideration for the impact of this error on a health study of the Dallas-Fort Worth region that is currently underway.