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An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation
  • Author : Michael I Ojovan,William E Lee,William E. Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-07
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 0080455719
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Summary : Safety and environmental impact is of uppermost concern when dealing with the movement and storage of nuclear waste. The 20 chapters in 'An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation' cover all important aspects of immobilisation, from nuclear decay, to regulations, to new technologies and methods. Significant focus is given to the analysis of the various matrices used in transport: cement, bitumen and glass, with the greatest attention being given to glass. The last chapter concentrates on the performance assessment of each matrix, and on new developments of ceramics and glass composite materials, thermochemical methods and in-situ metal matrix immobilisation. The book thoroughly covers all issues surrounding nuclear waste: from where to locate nuclear waste in the environment, through nuclear waste generation and sources, treatment schemes and technologies, immobilisation technologies and waste forms, disposal and long term behaviour. Particular attention is paid to internationally approved and worldwide-applied approaches and technologies. * Each chapter focuses on a different matrix used in nuclear waste immobilisation: Cement, bitumen, glass and new materials. * Keeps the most important issues surrounding nuclear waste – such as treatment schemes and technologies, and disposal - at the forefront.

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation
  • Author : Michael I Ojovan,William E. Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-03
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9780080993935
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Summary : Drawing on the authors’ extensive experience in the processing and disposal of waste, An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation, Second Edition examines the gamut of nuclear waste issues from the natural level of radionuclides in the environment to geological disposal of waste-forms and their long-term behavior. It covers all-important aspects of processing and immobilization, including nuclear decay, regulations, new technologies and methods. Significant focus is given to the analysis of the various matrices used, especially cement and glass, with further discussion of other matrices such as bitumen. The final chapter concentrates on the performance assessment of immobilizing materials and safety of disposal, providing a full range of the resources needed to understand and correctly immobilize nuclear waste. The fully revised second edition focuses on core technologies and has an integrated approach to immobilization and hazards Each chapter focuses on a different matrix used in nuclear waste immobilization: cement, bitumen, glass and new materials Keeps the most important issues surrounding nuclear waste - such as treatment schemes and technologies and disposal - at the forefront

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization
  • Author : Rehab O. Abdel Rahman,Ravil Z. Rakhimov,Michael I. Ojovan,Nailia R. Rakhimova
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-17
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9781118512005
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Summary : Cementitious materials are an essential part in any radioactive waste disposal facility. Conditioning processes such as cementation are used to convert waste into a stable solid form that is insoluble and will prevent dispersion to the surrounding environment. It is incredibly important to understand the long-term behavior of these materials. This book summarises approaches and current practices in use of cementitious materials for nuclear waste immobilisation. It gives a unique description of the most important aspects of cements as nuclear waste forms: starting with a description of wastes, analyzing the cementitious systems used for immobilization and describing the technologies used, and ending with analysis of cementitious waste forms and their long term behavior in an envisaged disposal environment. Extensive research has been devoted to study the feasibility of using cement or cement based materials in immobilizing and solidifying different radioactive wastes. However, these research results are scattered. This work provides the reader with both the science and technology of the immobilization process, and the cementitious materials used to immobilize nuclear waste. It summarizes current knowledge in the field, and highlights important areas that need more investigation. The chapters include: Introduction, Portland cement, Alternative cements, Cement characterization and testing, Radioactive waste cementation, Waste cementation technology, Cementitious wasteform durability and performance assessment.

Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies

Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies
  • Author : Michael I Ojovan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-01-24
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 9780857090959
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Summary : Radioactive wastes are generated from a wide range of sources, including the power industry, and medical and scientific research institutions, presenting a range of challenges in dealing with a diverse set of radionuclides of varying concentrations. Conditioning technologies are essential for the encapsulation and immobilisation of these radioactive wastes, forming the initial engineered barrier required for their transportation, storage and disposal. The need to ensure the long term performance of radioactive waste forms is a key driver of the development of advanced conditioning technologies. The Handbook of advanced radioactive waste conditioning technologies provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the various options available and under development for the treatment and immobilisation of radioactive wastes. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radioactive waste characterisation and selection of conditioning technologies. Part one reviews the main radioactive waste treatment processes and conditioning technologies, including volume reduction techniques such as compaction, incineration and plasma treatment, as well as encapsulation methods such as cementation, calcination and vitrification. This coverage is extended in part two, with in-depth reviews of the development of advanced materials for radioactive waste conditioning, including geopolymers, glass and ceramic matrices for nuclear waste immobilisation, and waste packages and containers for disposal. Finally, part three reviews the long-term performance assessment and knowledge management techniques applicable to both spent nuclear fuels and solid radioactive waste forms. With its distinguished international team of contributors, the Handbook of advanced radioactive waste conditioning technologies is a standard reference for all radioactive waste management professionals, radiochemists, academics and researchers involved in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. Provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the various options available and under development for the treatment and immobilisation of radioactive wastes Explores radioactive waste characterisation and selection of conditioning technologies including the development of advanced materials for radioactive waste conditioning Assesses the main radioactive waste treatment processes and conditioning technologies, including volume reduction techniques such as compaction

Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up

Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up
  • Author : William E Lee,Michael I Ojovan,Carol M Jantzen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :912
  • ISBN : 9780857097446
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Summary : Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up reviews radioactive waste management processes, technologies, and international experiences. Part one explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies. International safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management are also reviewed. Part two highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. The experience in Japan, with a specific chapter on Fukushima, is also covered. Finally, part three explores the clean-up of sites contaminated by weapons programmes including the USA and former USSR. Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up is a comprehensive resource for professionals, researchers, scientists and academics in radioactive waste management, governmental and other regulatory bodies and the nuclear power industry. Explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies Reviews international safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management Highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America specifically including a chapter on the experience in Fukushima, Japan

Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation

Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation
  • Author : Colin Bayliss,Kevin Langley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-10-10
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 0080537782
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Summary : Decommissioning nuclear facilities is a relatively new field, which has developed rapidly in the last ten years. It involves materials that may be highly radioactive and therefore require sophisticated methods of containment and remote handling. The wastes arising from decommissioning are hazardous and have to be stored or disposed of safely in order to protect the environment and future generations. Nuclear decommissioning work must be carried out to the highest possible standards to protect workers, the general public and the environment. This book describes the techniques used for dismantling redundant nuclear facilities, the safe storage of radioactive wastes and the restoration of nuclear licensed sites. * Describes the techniques used for dismantling nuclear facilities, safe storage of radioactive wastes, and the restoration of nuclear licensed facilities. * Provides the reader with decommissioning experience accumulated over 15 years by UKAEA. * Contains valuable information to personnel new to decommissioning and waste management.

Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts

Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts
  • Author : Ian W. Donald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-04-01
  • Total pages :526
  • ISBN : 9781444319361
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Summary : The safe storage in glass-based materials of both radioactiveand non-radioactive hazardous wastes is covered in a single book,making it unique Provides a comprehensive and timely reference source at thiscritical time in waste management, including an extensive andup-to-date bibliography in all areas outlined to waste conversionand related technologies, both radioactive and non-radioactive Brings together all aspects of waste vitrification, drawscomparisons between the different types of wastes and treatments,and outlines where lessons learnt in the radioactive waste fieldcan be of benefit in the treatment of non-radioactive wastes

Nuclear Engineering

Nuclear Engineering
  • Author : Malcolm Joyce
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-18
  • Total pages :420
  • ISBN : 9780081010518
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Summary : Nuclear Engineering: A Conceptual Introduction to Nuclear Power provides coverage of the introductory, salient principles of nuclear engineering in a comprehensive manner for those entering the profession at the end of their degree. The nuclear power industry is undergoing a renaissance because of the desire for low-carbon baseload electricity, the growing population, and environmental concerns about shale gas, so this book is a welcomed addition to the science. In addition, users will find a great deal of information on the change in the industry, along with other topical areas of interest that are uniquely covered. Intended for undergraduate students or early postgraduate students studying nuclear engineering, this new text will also be appealing to scientifically-literate non-experts wishing to be better informed about the ‘nuclear option'. Presents a succinct and clear explanation of the key facts and concepts on how nuclear engineering power systems function and how their related fuel supply cycles operate Provides full coverage of the nuclear fuel cycle, including its scientific and historical basis Describes a comprehensive range of relevant reactor designs, from those that are defunct, current, and in plan/construction for the future, including SMRs and GenIV Summarizes all major accidents and their impact on the industry and society

Crystalline Materials for Actinide Immobilisation

Crystalline Materials for Actinide Immobilisation
  • Author : Boris E. Burakov,Michael I. Ojovan,W. E. Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :197
  • ISBN : 9781848164185
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Summary : This book summarises approaches and current practices in actinide immobilisation using chemically-durable crystalline materials e.g. ceramics and monocrystals. Durable actinide-containing materials including crystalline ceramics and single crystals are attractive for various applications such as nuclear fuel to burn excess Pu, chemically inert sources of irradiation for use in unmanned space vehicles or producing electricity for microelectronic devices, and nuclear waste disposal. Long-lived -emitting actinides such as Pu, Np, Am and Cm are currently of serious concern has a result of increased worldwide growth in the nuclear industry. Actinide-bearing wastes have also accumulated in different countries as a result of nuclear weapons production. Excess weapon and civil Pu from commercial spent fuel is waiting for environmentally-safe immobilisation. As actinides are chemical elements with unique features, they could be beneficially used in different areas of human life including medicine although currently there is no appropriate balance between safe actinide disposal and use. Both use and disposal of actinides require their immobilisation in a durable host material. The choice of an optimal actinide immobilisation route is often a great challenge for specialists. There is a wealth of information about actinide properties in many publications although little is published to summarise the currently accepted approaches and practices on actinide immobilisation. This book intends to provide such information based on the authors' experience and studies in nuclear material management and actinide immobilisation.

Natural Analogues in Radioactive Waste Disposal

Natural Analogues in Radioactive Waste Disposal
  • Author : B. Come,N.A. Chapman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :492
  • ISBN : 9789400934658
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Summary : In order to validate predictive models of the very long-term processes which affect the performance of radioactive waste repositories, there has been an increased interest in the information and understanding which can be obtained from studying similar mechanisms in natural systems. These "natural analogues", as they are known in the jargon of waste management, have been studied sporadically for many years, but there has been a considerable rejuvenation of interest in the last four years, possibly owing to the fact that performance assessment methodolo gy is gradually maturing to the point where it needs the kind of support which analogues can offer. Since 1982, the Commission of the European Communities has been involved in specific work on natural analogues in the framework of its activities on radioactive waste management, principally within the MIRAGE project which concerns migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. As a consequence, the Commission took the initiative, in 1985, of establish ing a Natural Analogue Working Group (NAWG) whose members can benefit from the overall expertise available for managing their own natural analogue research programmes. In this group, modeller' s requirements and the results of field research are exchanged at regular intervals. A number of wide-ranging investigation programmes, both on national and international scales. are currently underway or being initiated, and several of these have been discussed recently at the NAWG.

Sustainability of Life Cycle Management for Nuclear Cementation-Based Technologies

Sustainability of Life Cycle Management for Nuclear Cementation-Based Technologies
  • Author : Rehab O. Abdel Rahman,Michael I. Ojovan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-05-01
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9780128183298
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Summary : Sustainability of Life Cycle Management for Nuclear Cementation-Based Technologies, edited by Dr. Rahman and Dr. Ojovan, presents the latest knowledge and research on the management of cementitious systems within nuclear power plants. The book covers aging, development and updates on regulatory frameworks on a global scale, the development of cementitious systems for the immobilization of problematic wastes, and the decommissioning and decontamination of complex cementitious systems. The book's editors and their team of experts combine their practical knowledge to provide the reader with a thorough understanding on the sustainability of lifecycle management of cementitious systems within the nuclear industry. Sections provide a comparative tool that presents national regulations concerning cementitious systems within nuclear power plants, check international and national evaluation results of the sustainability of different systems, help in the development of performance test procedures, and provide a guide on aging nuclear power plants and the long-term behavior of these systems in active and passive safety environments. Presents the latest information on the behavior of different cementitious systems used in the nuclear industry in one comprehensive resource Includes scientific justifications of system behavior during the design, operation, maintenance and decommissioning phases Aids the reader in the development of evaluation tests for problematic wastes

The Environmental Challenges of Nuclear Disarmament

The Environmental Challenges of Nuclear Disarmament
  • Author : Thomas E. Baca,Tadeusz Florkowski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-08-31
  • Total pages :354
  • ISBN : 0792362020
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Summary : This book draws together recognized experts from numerous institutions in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and North America. Nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning, waste treatment, management and disposal, long-term monitoring and surveillance, and prevention of proliferation are the primary topics discussed, including critical assessments of the existing knowledge and identification of the needs for future collaboration. Proposals are presented for a variety of national and international agencies, and preliminary business plans developed for collaboration with private companies. A network of international projects needs to be financed since it is such projects that will ultimately ease tensions, help solve nuclear waste contamination and security problems, and help pave the road toward nuclear weapons disarmament.

Bituminization Processes to Condition Radioactive Wastes

Bituminization Processes to Condition Radioactive Wastes
  • Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :96
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105016514353
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Materials for Energy Conversion Devices

Materials for Energy Conversion Devices
  • Author : C C Sorrell,J. Nowotny,S Sugihara
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-10-30
  • Total pages :428
  • ISBN : 9781845690915
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Summary : As the finite capacity and pollution problems of fossil fuels grow more pressing, new sources of more sustainable energy are being developed. Materials for energy conversion devices summarises the key research on new materials which can be used to generate clean and renewable energy or to help manage problems from existing energy sources. The book discusses the range of materials that can be used to harness and convert solar energy in particular, including the properties of oxide materials and their use in producing hydrogen fuel. It covers thermoelectric materials and devices for power generation, ionic conductors and new types of fuel cell. There are also chapters on the use of such materials in the immobilisation of nuclear waste and as electrochemical gas sensors for emission control. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Materials for energy conversion devices is a standard reference for all those researching and developing a new generation of materials and technologies for our energy need. Detailed coverage of solar energy and thermoelectric conversion Comprehensive survey of new developments in this exciting field Edited by leading experts in the field with contributions from an international team of authors

Soil Contamination

Soil Contamination
  • Author : Marcelo Larramendy,Sonia Soloneski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-12-21
  • Total pages :356
  • ISBN : 9789535128151
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Summary : This edited book, Soil Contamination - Current Consequences and Further Solutions, is intended to provide an overview on the different environmental consequences of our anthropogenic activities, which has introduced a large number of xenobiotics that the soil cannot, or can only slower, decompose or degrade. We hope that this book will continue to meet the expectations and needs of all interested in diverse fields with expertise in soil science, health, toxicology, and other disciplines who contribute and share their findings to take this area forward for future investigations.

Energy, Waste and the Environment

Energy, Waste and the Environment
  • Author : Geological Society of London
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :670
  • ISBN : 186239167X
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New Developments in Glassy Nuclear Wasteforms

New Developments in Glassy Nuclear Wasteforms
  • Author : Michael I. Ojovan,W. E. Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :131
  • ISBN : 1600217834
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Summary : Based on the authors' recent investigations, this book describes the application of glassy and polyphase composite materials for nuclear waste immobilisation. It introduces immobilisation issues beginning with a short description of nuclear waste types and compositions. Sources of nuclear waste are described including the nuclear fuel cycle, operational and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste streams. The glassy waste forms currently being used for high-, intermediate- and low level radioactive waste immobilisation are described. Problems related to immobilisation capacity, process efficiency and long-term radionucleide retention are highlighted. Scientific and technical problems in nuclear waste immobilisation are emphasised in particular long-term waste form stability and durability. Recent developments in advanced nuclear waste forms are described such as glass composite materials (GCM) with higher versatility and waste loading. New immobilisation approaches and technologies are described including advanced cold crucible induction melting (CCM), self sustaining thermochemical immobilisation (SSI), and in-situ self-sintering in deep underground repositories. Long-term durability tests of nuclear waste glasses are outlined and the role of ion-exchange phase in glass corrosion is described in detail.

Immobilization of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes with Polymers

Immobilization of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes with Polymers
  • Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988
  • Total pages :115
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105030012822
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Radionuclide and Metal Sorption on Cement and Concrete

Radionuclide and Metal Sorption on Cement and Concrete
  • Author : Michael Ochs,Dirk Mallants,Lian Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-17
  • Total pages :301
  • ISBN : 9783319236513
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Summary : Cementitious materials are being widely used as solidification/stabilisation and barrier materials for a variety of chemical and radioactive wastes, primarily due to their favourable retention properties for metals, radionuclides and other contaminants. The retention properties result from various mineral phases in hydrated cement that possess a high density and diversity of reactive sites for the fixation of contaminants through a variety of sorption and incorporation reactions. This book presents a state of the art review and critical evaluation of the type and magnitude of the various sorption and incorporation processes in hydrated cement systems for twenty-five elements relevant for a broad range of radioactive and industrial wastes. Effects of cement evolution or ageing on sorption/incorporation processes are explicitly evaluated and quantified. While the immobilisation of contaminants by mixing-in during hydration is not explicitly addressed, the underlying chemical processes are similar. A quantitative database on the solid/liquid distribution behaviour of radionuclides and other elements in hydrated cement systems is established on the basis of a consistent review and re-evaluation of literature data. In addition to recommended values, all underlying original experimental data and key experimental info rmation are provided, which allows users to trace the given recommendations or to develop their own set of key values. This database is closely tied to the safety analysis of near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. It focuses on radioelements, toxic stable elements and heavy metals, which makes it relevant for investigations involving the interaction of radioactive and conventional contaminants with cement-based barriers.

Handling and Processing of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Applications

Handling and Processing of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Applications
  • Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :143
  • ISBN : UOM:39015047516276
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Summary : This report provides detailed information on the handling, processing and storage techniques most widely used and recommended for waste from non-fuel-cycle activities, i.e. radioactive waste generated during the application of nuclear techniques and radioisotopes in industry, medicine, research and education. The report was designed to meet mainly the needs of developing countries by focusing on the most simple, affordable and reliable techniques and discussing their advantages and limitations.

Radiation Safety

Radiation Safety
  • Author : Haydee Domenech
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-27
  • Total pages :332
  • ISBN : 9783319426716
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Summary : This book discusses important fundamentals of radiation safety with specific details on dose units, calculations, measuring, and biological effects of ionizing radiation. The author covers different exposure situations and their requirements, and relevant legislation and regulations governing radiation safety. The book also examines radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive materials, emergency planning and preparedness and various examples of radiation protection programs for industrial, medical, and academic applications.