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An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation
  • Author : Michael I Ojovan,William E Lee,William E. Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-07
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 0080455719
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Summary : Safety and environmental impact is of uppermost concern when dealing with the movement and storage of nuclear waste. The 20 chapters in 'An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation' cover all important aspects of immobilisation, from nuclear decay, to regulations, to new technologies and methods. Significant focus is given to the analysis of the various matrices used in transport: cement, bitumen and glass, with the greatest attention being given to glass. The last chapter concentrates on the performance assessment of each matrix, and on new developments of ceramics and glass composite materials, thermochemical methods and in-situ metal matrix immobilisation. The book thoroughly covers all issues surrounding nuclear waste: from where to locate nuclear waste in the environment, through nuclear waste generation and sources, treatment schemes and technologies, immobilisation technologies and waste forms, disposal and long term behaviour. Particular attention is paid to internationally approved and worldwide-applied approaches and technologies. * Each chapter focuses on a different matrix used in nuclear waste immobilisation: Cement, bitumen, glass and new materials. * Keeps the most important issues surrounding nuclear waste – such as treatment schemes and technologies, and disposal - at the forefront.

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation
  • Author : Michael I Ojovan,William E. Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-03
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9780080993935
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Summary : Drawing on the authors’ extensive experience in the processing and disposal of waste, An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation, Second Edition examines the gamut of nuclear waste issues from the natural level of radionuclides in the environment to geological disposal of waste-forms and their long-term behavior. It covers all-important aspects of processing and immobilization, including nuclear decay, regulations, new technologies and methods. Significant focus is given to the analysis of the various matrices used, especially cement and glass, with further discussion of other matrices such as bitumen. The final chapter concentrates on the performance assessment of immobilizing materials and safety of disposal, providing a full range of the resources needed to understand and correctly immobilize nuclear waste. The fully revised second edition focuses on core technologies and has an integrated approach to immobilization and hazards Each chapter focuses on a different matrix used in nuclear waste immobilization: cement, bitumen, glass and new materials Keeps the most important issues surrounding nuclear waste - such as treatment schemes and technologies and disposal - at the forefront

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization
  • Author : Rehab O. Abdel Rahman,Ravil Z. Rakhimov,Michael I. Ojovan,Nailia R. Rakhimova
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-17
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9781118512005
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Summary : Cementitious materials are an essential part in any radioactive waste disposal facility. Conditioning processes such as cementation are used to convert waste into a stable solid form that is insoluble and will prevent dispersion to the surrounding environment. It is incredibly important to understand the long-term behavior of these materials. This book summarises approaches and current practices in use of cementitious materials for nuclear waste immobilisation. It gives a unique description of the most important aspects of cements as nuclear waste forms: starting with a description of wastes, analyzing the cementitious systems used for immobilization and describing the technologies used, and ending with analysis of cementitious waste forms and their long term behavior in an envisaged disposal environment. Extensive research has been devoted to study the feasibility of using cement or cement based materials in immobilizing and solidifying different radioactive wastes. However, these research results are scattered. This work provides the reader with both the science and technology of the immobilization process, and the cementitious materials used to immobilize nuclear waste. It summarizes current knowledge in the field, and highlights important areas that need more investigation. The chapters include: Introduction, Portland cement, Alternative cements, Cement characterization and testing, Radioactive waste cementation, Waste cementation technology, Cementitious wasteform durability and performance assessment.

Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up

Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up
  • Author : William E Lee,Michael I Ojovan,Carol M Jantzen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :912
  • ISBN : 9780857097446
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Summary : Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up reviews radioactive waste management processes, technologies, and international experiences. Part one explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies. International safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management are also reviewed. Part two highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. The experience in Japan, with a specific chapter on Fukushima, is also covered. Finally, part three explores the clean-up of sites contaminated by weapons programmes including the USA and former USSR. Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up is a comprehensive resource for professionals, researchers, scientists and academics in radioactive waste management, governmental and other regulatory bodies and the nuclear power industry. Explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies Reviews international safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management Highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America specifically including a chapter on the experience in Fukushima, Japan

Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies

Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies
  • Author : Michael I Ojovan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-01-24
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 9780857090959
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Summary : Radioactive wastes are generated from a wide range of sources, including the power industry, and medical and scientific research institutions, presenting a range of challenges in dealing with a diverse set of radionuclides of varying concentrations. Conditioning technologies are essential for the encapsulation and immobilisation of these radioactive wastes, forming the initial engineered barrier required for their transportation, storage and disposal. The need to ensure the long term performance of radioactive waste forms is a key driver of the development of advanced conditioning technologies. The Handbook of advanced radioactive waste conditioning technologies provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the various options available and under development for the treatment and immobilisation of radioactive wastes. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radioactive waste characterisation and selection of conditioning technologies. Part one reviews the main radioactive waste treatment processes and conditioning technologies, including volume reduction techniques such as compaction, incineration and plasma treatment, as well as encapsulation methods such as cementation, calcination and vitrification. This coverage is extended in part two, with in-depth reviews of the development of advanced materials for radioactive waste conditioning, including geopolymers, glass and ceramic matrices for nuclear waste immobilisation, and waste packages and containers for disposal. Finally, part three reviews the long-term performance assessment and knowledge management techniques applicable to both spent nuclear fuels and solid radioactive waste forms. With its distinguished international team of contributors, the Handbook of advanced radioactive waste conditioning technologies is a standard reference for all radioactive waste management professionals, radiochemists, academics and researchers involved in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. Provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the various options available and under development for the treatment and immobilisation of radioactive wastes Explores radioactive waste characterisation and selection of conditioning technologies including the development of advanced materials for radioactive waste conditioning Assesses the main radioactive waste treatment processes and conditioning technologies, including volume reduction techniques such as compaction

Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation

Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation
  • Author : Colin Bayliss,Kevin Langley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-10-10
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 0080537782
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Summary : Decommissioning nuclear facilities is a relatively new field, which has developed rapidly in the last ten years. It involves materials that may be highly radioactive and therefore require sophisticated methods of containment and remote handling. The wastes arising from decommissioning are hazardous and have to be stored or disposed of safely in order to protect the environment and future generations. Nuclear decommissioning work must be carried out to the highest possible standards to protect workers, the general public and the environment. This book describes the techniques used for dismantling redundant nuclear facilities, the safe storage of radioactive wastes and the restoration of nuclear licensed sites. * Describes the techniques used for dismantling nuclear facilities, safe storage of radioactive wastes, and the restoration of nuclear licensed facilities. * Provides the reader with decommissioning experience accumulated over 15 years by UKAEA. * Contains valuable information to personnel new to decommissioning and waste management.

Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts

Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts
  • Author : Ian W. Donald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-04-01
  • Total pages :526
  • ISBN : 9781444319361
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Summary : The safe storage in glass-based materials of both radioactiveand non-radioactive hazardous wastes is covered in a single book,making it unique Provides a comprehensive and timely reference source at thiscritical time in waste management, including an extensive andup-to-date bibliography in all areas outlined to waste conversionand related technologies, both radioactive and non-radioactive Brings together all aspects of waste vitrification, drawscomparisons between the different types of wastes and treatments,and outlines where lessons learnt in the radioactive waste fieldcan be of benefit in the treatment of non-radioactive wastes

Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste

Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste
  • Author : Michael J Apted,Joonhong Ahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-27
  • Total pages :792
  • ISBN : 9781845699789
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Summary : Geological disposal has been internationally adopted as the most effective approach to assure the long-term, safe disposition of the used nuclear fuels and radioactive waste materials produced from nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons programs, medical, treatments, and industrial applications. Geological repository systems take advantage of natural geological barriers augmented with engineered barrier systems to isolate these radioactive materials from the environment and from future populations. Geological repository systems for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste critically reviews the state-of-the-art technologies, scientific methods, regulatory developments, and social engagement approaches directly related to the implementation of geological repository systems. Part one introduces geological disposal, including multiple-barrier geological repositories, as well as reviewing the impact of nuclear fuel recycling practices and underground research laboratory activities on the development of disposal concepts. Part two reviews geological repository siting in different host rocks, including long-term stability analysis and radionuclide transport modelling. Reviews of the range of engineered barrier systems, including waste immobilisation technologies, container materials, low pH concretes, clay-based buffer and backfill materials, and barrier performance are presented in Part three. Part four examines total system performance assessment and safety analyses for deep geological and near-surface disposal, with coverage of uncertainty analysis, use of expert judgement for decision making, and development and use of knowledge management systems. Finally, Part five covers regulatory and social approaches for the establishment of geological disposal programs, from the development of radiation standards and risk-informed, performance-based regulations, to environmental monitoring and social engagement in the siting and operation of repositories. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Geological repository systems for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste is a standard reference for all nuclear waste management and geological repository professionals and researchers. Critically reviews the state-of-the-art technologies, scientific methods, regulatory developments, and social engagement approaches related to the implementation of geological repository systems Chapters introduce geological disposal and review the development of disposal concepts Examines long-term stability analysis, the range of engineered barrier systems and barrier performance

Crystalline Materials for Actinide Immobilisation

Crystalline Materials for Actinide Immobilisation
  • Author : Boris E. Burakov,Michael I. Ojovan,W. E. Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :197
  • ISBN : 9781848164185
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Summary : This book summarises approaches and current practices in actinide immobilisation using chemically-durable crystalline materials e.g. ceramics and monocrystals. Durable actinide-containing materials including crystalline ceramics and single crystals are attractive for various applications such as nuclear fuel to burn excess Pu, chemically inert sources of irradiation for use in unmanned space vehicles or producing electricity for microelectronic devices, and nuclear waste disposal. Long-lived -emitting actinides such as Pu, Np, Am and Cm are currently of serious concern has a result of increased worldwide growth in the nuclear industry. Actinide-bearing wastes have also accumulated in different countries as a result of nuclear weapons production. Excess weapon and civil Pu from commercial spent fuel is waiting for environmentally-safe immobilisation. As actinides are chemical elements with unique features, they could be beneficially used in different areas of human life including medicine although currently there is no appropriate balance between safe actinide disposal and use. Both use and disposal of actinides require their immobilisation in a durable host material. The choice of an optimal actinide immobilisation route is often a great challenge for specialists. There is a wealth of information about actinide properties in many publications although little is published to summarise the currently accepted approaches and practices on actinide immobilisation. This book intends to provide such information based on the authors' experience and studies in nuclear material management and actinide immobilisation.

The Environmental Challenges of Nuclear Disarmament

The Environmental Challenges of Nuclear Disarmament
  • Author : Thomas E. Baca,Tadeusz Florkowski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-08-31
  • Total pages :354
  • ISBN : 0792362020
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Summary : This book draws together recognized experts from numerous institutions in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and North America. Nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning, waste treatment, management and disposal, long-term monitoring and surveillance, and prevention of proliferation are the primary topics discussed, including critical assessments of the existing knowledge and identification of the needs for future collaboration. Proposals are presented for a variety of national and international agencies, and preliminary business plans developed for collaboration with private companies. A network of international projects needs to be financed since it is such projects that will ultimately ease tensions, help solve nuclear waste contamination and security problems, and help pave the road toward nuclear weapons disarmament.

Materials for Energy Conversion Devices

Materials for Energy Conversion Devices
  • Author : C C Sorrell,J. Nowotny,S Sugihara
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-10-30
  • Total pages :428
  • ISBN : 9781845690915
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Summary : As the finite capacity and pollution problems of fossil fuels grow more pressing, new sources of more sustainable energy are being developed. Materials for energy conversion devices summarises the key research on new materials which can be used to generate clean and renewable energy or to help manage problems from existing energy sources. The book discusses the range of materials that can be used to harness and convert solar energy in particular, including the properties of oxide materials and their use in producing hydrogen fuel. It covers thermoelectric materials and devices for power generation, ionic conductors and new types of fuel cell. There are also chapters on the use of such materials in the immobilisation of nuclear waste and as electrochemical gas sensors for emission control. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Materials for energy conversion devices is a standard reference for all those researching and developing a new generation of materials and technologies for our energy need. Detailed coverage of solar energy and thermoelectric conversion Comprehensive survey of new developments in this exciting field Edited by leading experts in the field with contributions from an international team of authors

Soil Contamination

Soil Contamination
  • Author : Marcelo Larramendy,Sonia Soloneski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-12-21
  • Total pages :356
  • ISBN : 9789535128151
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Summary : This edited book, Soil Contamination - Current Consequences and Further Solutions, is intended to provide an overview on the different environmental consequences of our anthropogenic activities, which has introduced a large number of xenobiotics that the soil cannot, or can only slower, decompose or degrade. We hope that this book will continue to meet the expectations and needs of all interested in diverse fields with expertise in soil science, health, toxicology, and other disciplines who contribute and share their findings to take this area forward for future investigations.

Radionuclide and Metal Sorption on Cement and Concrete

Radionuclide and Metal Sorption on Cement and Concrete
  • Author : Michael Ochs,Dirk Mallants,Lian Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-17
  • Total pages :301
  • ISBN : 9783319236513
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Summary : Cementitious materials are being widely used as solidification/stabilisation and barrier materials for a variety of chemical and radioactive wastes, primarily due to their favourable retention properties for metals, radionuclides and other contaminants. The retention properties result from various mineral phases in hydrated cement that possess a high density and diversity of reactive sites for the fixation of contaminants through a variety of sorption and incorporation reactions. This book presents a state of the art review and critical evaluation of the type and magnitude of the various sorption and incorporation processes in hydrated cement systems for twenty-five elements relevant for a broad range of radioactive and industrial wastes. Effects of cement evolution or ageing on sorption/incorporation processes are explicitly evaluated and quantified. While the immobilisation of contaminants by mixing-in during hydration is not explicitly addressed, the underlying chemical processes are similar. A quantitative database on the solid/liquid distribution behaviour of radionuclides and other elements in hydrated cement systems is established on the basis of a consistent review and re-evaluation of literature data. In addition to recommended values, all underlying original experimental data and key experimental info rmation are provided, which allows users to trace the given recommendations or to develop their own set of key values. This database is closely tied to the safety analysis of near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. It focuses on radioelements, toxic stable elements and heavy metals, which makes it relevant for investigations involving the interaction of radioactive and conventional contaminants with cement-based barriers.

Bituminization Processes to Condition Radioactive Wastes

Bituminization Processes to Condition Radioactive Wastes
  • Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :96
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105016514353
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Summary :

Immobilization of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes with Polymers

Immobilization of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes with Polymers
  • Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988
  • Total pages :115
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105030012822
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Summary :

New Developments in Glassy Nuclear Wasteforms

New Developments in Glassy Nuclear Wasteforms
  • Author : Michael I. Ojovan,W. E. Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :131
  • ISBN : 1600217834
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Summary : Based on the authors' recent investigations, this book describes the application of glassy and polyphase composite materials for nuclear waste immobilisation. It introduces immobilisation issues beginning with a short description of nuclear waste types and compositions. Sources of nuclear waste are described including the nuclear fuel cycle, operational and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste streams. The glassy waste forms currently being used for high-, intermediate- and low level radioactive waste immobilisation are described. Problems related to immobilisation capacity, process efficiency and long-term radionucleide retention are highlighted. Scientific and technical problems in nuclear waste immobilisation are emphasised in particular long-term waste form stability and durability. Recent developments in advanced nuclear waste forms are described such as glass composite materials (GCM) with higher versatility and waste loading. New immobilisation approaches and technologies are described including advanced cold crucible induction melting (CCM), self sustaining thermochemical immobilisation (SSI), and in-situ self-sintering in deep underground repositories. Long-term durability tests of nuclear waste glasses are outlined and the role of ion-exchange phase in glass corrosion is described in detail.

Handling and Processing of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Applications

Handling and Processing of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Applications
  • Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :143
  • ISBN : UOM:39015047516276
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Summary : This report provides detailed information on the handling, processing and storage techniques most widely used and recommended for waste from non-fuel-cycle activities, i.e. radioactive waste generated during the application of nuclear techniques and radioisotopes in industry, medicine, research and education. The report was designed to meet mainly the needs of developing countries by focusing on the most simple, affordable and reliable techniques and discussing their advantages and limitations.

Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage
  • Author : Florence Bart,Céline Cau-di-Coumes,Fabien Frizon,Sylvie Lorente
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-16
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9781461434450
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Summary : As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers.

Ageing Studies and Lifetime Extension of Materials

Ageing Studies and Lifetime Extension of Materials
  • Author : Les Mallinson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :690
  • ISBN : 9781461512158
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Summary : The first International Conference on Ageing Studies and Lifetime Extension of Materials was held on th July 12-14 , 1999 at St. Catherine's College, Oxford, United Kingdom. Over 230 delegates attended during the three days and heard nearly ninety papers, together with over thirty poster presentations. Sixteen of these papers were keynotes from invited speakers eminent in their field of research. The proceedings were organised into six separate sessions: observation and understanding of real-time and accelerated ageing; experimental techniques; modelling and theoretical studies; lifetime prediction and validation; lifetime extension; and material design for ageing. In doing this, it was hoped to cover most issues of scientific concern inthefield ofmaterials ageing. One important aspect was that the conference did not concentrateon any particular group or type ofmaterial; rather the aim was to attract contributions from workers engaged in ageing studies with as wide a range of materials as possible. In this way, it was hoped that delegates could interactwith and learnfrom those whom they perhapswould not normally come across and that metallurgists could learn from polymer scientists, ceramicists could talk to modellers, and so on, in this important field. A read through the diverse papers contained within these proceedings will confirm that this aim was happily satisfied. Why hold such a meeting? In the modem world, engineered systems are expected to last longer.

Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-29
  • Total pages :5560
  • ISBN : 9780128098943
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Summary : Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry: Surface Science and Electrochemistry summarizes current, fundamental knowledge of interfacial chemistry, bringing readers the latest developments in the field. As the chemical and physical properties and processes at solid and liquid interfaces are the scientific basis of so many technologies which enhance our lives and create new opportunities, its important to highlight how these technologies enable the design and optimization of functional materials for heterogeneous and electro-catalysts in food production, pollution control, energy conversion and storage, medical applications requiring biocompatibility, drug delivery, and more. This book provides an interdisciplinary view that lies at the intersection of these fields. Presents fundamental knowledge of interfacial chemistry, surface science and electrochemistry and provides cutting-edge research from academics and practitioners across various fields and global regions

Solidification

Solidification
  • Author : Alicia Esther Ares
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-14
  • Total pages :162
  • ISBN : 9789535139058
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Summary : Almost all processing of technologically important materials includes a process where liquid material is cooled to form a solid, called "solidification." In order to form a solid from an undercooled melt, the formation of crystalline nuclei and growth of these nuclei to form a solid are necessary. The process of an atom jumping from the liquid to the solid is a diffusive jump with a driving force. The book Solidification is logically developed through a careful presentation of the relevant theories and models of solidification occurring in a variety of materials. Mathematicians, chemists, physicists, and engineers concerned with melting/freezing phenomena will also find this book to be valuable.