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Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : P. Michael Conn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-20
  • Total pages :1198
  • ISBN : 9780128096994
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Summary : Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease, Second Edition, provides needed information on model sharing, animal alternatives, animal ethics and access to databanks of models, bringing together common descriptions of models for busy researchers across biomedical and biological sciences. Offering easily searchable advantages and disadvantages for each animal model and organized by disease topics, this resource aids researchers in finding the best animal model for research in human disease. Organized by disease orientation for ease of searchability Provides information on locating resources, animal alternatives, and animal ethics Covers a broad range of animal models used in research for human disease Contributed by leading experts across the globe Expanded coverage of diabetes and neurological diseases

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : P. Michael Conn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780124159129
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Summary : Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease identifies important animal models and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each model for the study of human disease. The first section addresses how to locate resources, animal alternatives, animal ethics and related issues, much needed information for researchers across the biological sciences and biomedicine.The next sections of the work offers models for disease-oriented topics, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases, aging, infectious diseases, obesity, diabetes, neurological diseases, joint diseases, visual disorders, cancer, hypertension, genetic diseases, and diseases of abuse. Organized by disease orientation for ease of searchability Provides information on locating resources, animal alternatives and animal ethics Covers a broad range of animal models used in research for human disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : P. Michael Conn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :1089
  • ISBN : 0124158943
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Summary : Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease identifies important animal models and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each model for the study of human disease. The first section addresses how to locate resources, animal alternatives, animal ethics and related issues, much needed information for researchers across the biological sciences and biomedicine.The next sections of the work offers models for disease-oriented topics, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases, aging, infectious diseases, obesity, diabetes, neurological diseases, joint diseases, visual disorders, cancer, hypertension, genetic diseases, and diseases of abuse. Organized by disease orientation for ease of searchability Provides information on locating resources, animal alternatives and animal ethics Covers a broad range of animal models used in research for human disease

Experimental Animal Models of Human Diseases

Experimental Animal Models of Human Diseases
  • Author : Bartholomew Ibeh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-23
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9781789231649
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Summary : The world has recorded losses in terms of human life as well as extensive time spent in experimentation with development of new drugs, elucidation of disease mechanism(s), and therapeutic agent discovery. Ethical and legal issues cojoin in slowing down scientific discoveries in medicine and biology. The past two (2) decades, therefore, have seen tremendous attempts that largely are successful in developing animal models with the characteristics of mimicking, approximating, or expressing transplanted human organs/tissues. These models or rather approaches seem to be fast, cost-effective, and easy to maintain compared to primates. This book is a collection of expert essays on animal models of human diseases of global interest. A visible objective of the book is to provide real-time experimental approach to scientists, clinicians, ethicists, medicolegal/medical jurisprudence workers, immunologists, postgraduate students, and vaccinologists and informative and multidisciplinary approach for the identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers using animal models as well as investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of human diseases. An increased understanding of the genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of human diseases has laid out the foundation for the development of rational therapies mainly with animal models.

Mouse Cell Culture

Mouse Cell Culture
  • Author : Ivan Bertoncello
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-02-20
  • Total pages :315
  • ISBN : 1493990853
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Summary : This volume describes cell culture protocols for the maintenance, propagation, manipulation, and analysis of primary explanted cells from various mouse organ systems. After introductory chapters that examine the applicability of mouse models as a discovery tool and describe critical factors and variables that influence cell culture endpoints, protocol chapters explore cell culture methodologies for specific mouse cell types and lineages. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, these chapters include introductions to their respective topics, comprehensive lists of the essential materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Mouse Cell Culture: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results utilizing these protocols in further studies, leading to the identification of key factors, genes, and cellular pathways regulating cell lineage commitment and differentiation, modeling disease, and identifying novel therapeutic targets.

New Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

New Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases
  • Author : Philippe Poindron,Pascale Piguet
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-01-01
  • Total pages :100
  • ISBN : 9783805584050
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Summary : This publication describes in detail some animal models of outstanding importance for the study of human neurological diseases. An introductory article provides a definition of animal models, looks at the history and ethics of their use, and highlights the reasons why animal models are so useful in scientific research. The following chapters present some of the newer models which play a key role in the study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, stroke and peripheral neuropathy. Their specific features are detailed in the method section of each paper, and their application to the study of human neurological diseases is discussed in a comprehensive manner, i.e. limits and challenges posed by these models are evaluated and potential improvements suggested. A valuable single source of information, this book is recommended reading for neuroscientists as well as for neurologists and neurosurgeons interested in preclinical research on human neurological diseases.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Daniel Butzke,Barbara Grune,Josephine Kugler,Michael Oelgeschläger,Andrea Seiler,Dana Sittner,Manfred Liebsch,Andreas Luch
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128071939
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Summary : The first years of the 21st century have seen an unparalleled progress in biomedical sciences. Several dogmata that haunted scientific debate for decades were easily abandoned, and there is a fundamental shift away from eminence-based toward evidence-based assessment of preclinical models, probing their true value in predicting clinical outcomes of human diseases. Likewise, several new approaches, e.g., stem cell-based, diseases-in-a-dish and organs-on-a-chip and lab-on-a-chip technologies have revitalized the domain of alternatives to animal experimentation. In our review, we portray these and other efforts to bring forth relevant and ethically inoffensive models of human diseases.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Judith Axler Turner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128071922
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Summary : Identifying and selecting the most appropriate animal model is a challenge, but the U.S. Federal Government’s National Institutes of Health, has supported several efforts to make the job of finding disease models easier. These efforts began with support for databases about specific species, and have graduated to support for discipline-specific studies and cross-species resources. This article tracks LAMHDI, the initiative to Link Animal Models to Human DIsease (www.lamhdi.org), which brings together data about five species: flies, mice, rats, yeast, and zebrafish, and allows scientists to search across these data, principally by disease and gene. This chapter explains how LAMHDI was conceived, and where LAMHDI hopes to go in moving into phenotypical as well as genotypical data through networks and visualization.

Advancing Disease Modeling in Animal-Based Research in Support of Precision Medicine

Advancing Disease Modeling in Animal-Based Research in Support of Precision Medicine
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Roundtable on Science and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Use
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-29
  • Total pages :138
  • ISBN : 9780309471190
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Summary : Precision medicine is focused on the individual and will require the rapid and accurate identification and prioritization of causative factors of disease. To move forward and accelerate the delivery of the anticipated benefits of precision medicine, developing predictable, reproducible, and reliable animal models will be essential. In order to explore the topic of animal-based research and its relevance to precision medicine, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a 2-day workshop on October 5 and 6, 2017. The workshop was designed to focus on the development, implementation, and interpretation of model organisms to advance and accelerate the field of precision medicine. Participants examined the extent to which next-generation animal models, designed using patient data and phenotyping platforms targeted to reveal and inform disease mechanisms, will be essential to the successful implementation of precision medicine. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Robert H. Miller,Sharyl Fyffe-Maricich,Andrew V. Caprariello
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128072325
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Summary : The most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in the young adult population is multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is characterized by the focal loss of myelin sheaths in the brain and in the spinal cord of patients that is correlated with elevated activity of the immune system directed toward CNS antigens including myelin. The progression of MS is highly variable, but in many cases, it is characterized by a series of relapsing and remitting attacks that slowly increase residual functional deficit. Often, after several years, the disease transitions to a more progressive phenotype. Much of what is known about the pathology of MS is derived from a number of animal models. The most common animal model for the study of MS is experimental allergic encephalitis (EAE), which depending upon the host animal can present as relapsing/remitting or progressive disease. Although EAE has provided mechanistic insights implicating T-cell activation in the onset and progression of disease, understanding the mechanisms of pathology onset and myelin repair in the CNS require alternative models. One emerging hypothesis is that activation of T cells is secondary to pathogenesis of oligodendrocytes and animals models in which targeted loss of oligodendrocytes are beginning to reveal an understanding of the initiation of CNS demyelination. Myelin repair is difficult to study in the setting of EAE or oligodendrocyte pathogenesis; however, toxin models that result in localized demyelination as a consequence of direct injection or oral delivery have provided critical insights into cells of origin, timing, and molecular mechanisms guiding remyelination. Taken together, these three distinct model systems provide a strong basis for dissecting cell and molecular mechanism of demyelination as well as characterizing the efficacy of targeted therapeutics.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Jerrold Tannenbaum
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128071915
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Summary : This chapter presents an overview of ethical principles that are essential for the proper conduct, and the continuing progress, of animal research aimed at understanding human disease. The chapter identifies fundamental principles of animal research ethics, and discusses ethical and empirical foundations of these principles. Guidelines are offered for applying these fundamental principles in the design and implementation of animal research projects. The chapter highlights several important ethical issues regarding which the biomedical research community has expressed lack of clarity or disagreement, and suggests considerations that are relevant for resolution of these issues. Recommendations are offered for participation by investigators in ethical discussion of their work, and of biomedical animal research generally. The general themes of the chapter are that investigators play the primary role in assuring the ethical conduct of biomedical animal research, and that a crucial foundation of ethical animal research is sound science.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Yoichi Gondo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128072240
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Summary : To create and establish mutant mice as models for human diseases and traits, various forward and reverse genetics tools are currently available. Newly developed tools of high-throughput identification of novel mutations and site-directed mutagenesis, or gene targeting, in the mouse genome have caused forward and reverse genetics, respectively, to rapidly expand during the last two decades. Worldwide efforts including a variety of international consortiums have been producing many useful mutant mouse strains for functional genomics to elucidate the mechanisms behind diseases and traits. Resource centers and public databases have also been built to enhance their utilities. The modeling has started from Mendelian monogenic traits and has expanded to more complex quantitative traits as well. Multidisciplinary integration among, for example, molecular, cellular, and developmental biology; genetics; genomics; medicine; statistics; and informatics must be orchestrated to fully utilize the resources and knowledge of model mice.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Lucas M. Chaible,Denise Kinoshita,Marcus A. Finzi Corat,Maria L. Zaidan Dagli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128072233
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Summary : Genetically modified animals were created about 30 years ago, and are considered good models of human diseases. In this chapter, the types of genetically engineered mice, such as transgenic, knockout conditional knockout, and knockin animals, and the general techniques on how to obtain them are described. In addition, the available genetically modified models for genetic diseases, multifactorial and polygenic (complex) disorders, neurodegenerative, inflammatory diseases, besides cancer models, are presented. The aim of the chapter is to help investigators to find out the best models for their studies.

Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders

Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-25
  • Total pages :110
  • ISBN : 9780309266338
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Summary : Nervous system diseases and disorders are highly prevalent and substantially contribute to the overall disease burden. Despite significant information provided by the use of animal models in the understanding of the biology of nervous system disorders and the development of therapeutics; limitations have also been identified. Treatment options that are high in efficacy and low in side effects are still lacking for many diseases and, in some cases are nonexistent. A particular problem in drug development is the high rate of attrition in Phase II and III clinical trials. Why do many therapeutics show promise in preclinical animal models but then fail to elicit predicted effects when tested in humans? On March 28 and 29, 2012, the Institute of Medicine Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders convened the workshop "Improving Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders" to discuss potential opportunities for maximizing the translation of new therapies from animal models to clinical practice. The primary focus of the workshop was to examine mechanisms for increasing the efficiency of translational neuroscience research through discussions about how and when to use animal models most effectively and then best approaches for the interpretation of the data collected. Specifically, the workshop objectives were to: discuss key issues that contribute to poor translation of animal models in nervous system disorders, examine case studies that highlight successes and failures in the development and application of animal models, consider strategies to increase the scientific rigor of preclinical efficacy testing, explore the benefits and challenges to developing standardized animal and behavioral models. Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders: Workshop Summary also identifies methods to facilitate development of corresponding animal and clinical endpoints, indentifies methods that would maximize bidirectional translation between basic and clinical research and determines the next steps that will be critical for improvement of the development and testing of animal models of disorders of the nervous system.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Gideon P. Smith
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128072097
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Summary : Although fibrosis can occur as part of normal wound healing, dysregulated fibrosis can affect almost any organ and results in severe dysfunction. Despite the variety of human disease of which this is a feature these diseases remain poorly understood due in part to the slow largely asymptomatic onset. Animal models are our only means to examine the early stages of these diseases. With them we can isolate perturbations in signaling pathways, chemokines and cytokines and study their effects. Here we summarize animal models that have been developed for the study of the most common human fibrotic conditions. We separate models of scleroderma and cirrhosis as the model development for each of these conditions face unique challenges. Although still imperfect, elegant solutions have been developed for modeling fibrosis in each. Indeed, progress in this area is currently rapid, and animal models will likely remain critical in moving forward our scientific understanding of these disease states.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Charles W. Schindler,Steven R. Goldberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128072196
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Summary : Reward behavior represents a subset of conditioning procedures that have been developed by psychologists to study learning in animals. In particular, rewarded behavior involves an instrumental response that is maintained by a reinforcer. The procedures that have been developed cover a broad spectrum of behaviors, from simple running in a straight alley to very complex operant schedules of reinforcement that can require multiple responses over long periods of time. Many species of animal have also been trained on these procedures. Procedures have been developed to study the initial learning process as well as steady-state behavior. Procedures have also been developed to study memory. As such, rewarded behavior models can be used to study a wide variety of human diseases and conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, obesity, drug abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder and many others.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Ross A. Breckenridge
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128071977
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Summary : Myocardial disease is one of the largest medical burdens facing populations of the developed world. Increasing diabetes and obesity in both the developed and developing world suggests that this problem will increase with time. So far, development of novel therapeutic approaches to myocardial disease has lagged behind medical need. One of the key components lacking from this area of medicine is reliable animal systems to model increasingly complex patient populations. This chapter takes a disease-centred approach to reviewing commonly used animal models of myocardial disease. It goes on to discuss possible future approaches to adapting existing models to the changing spectrum of cardiac disease.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Sara I. Ruiz,Elizabeth E. Zumbrun,Aysegul Nalca
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128072288
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Summary : As the threat of exposure to emerging and reemerging viruses within a naive population increases, it is vital that the basic mechanisms of pathogenesis and immune response be thoroughly investigated. By using animal models in this endeavor, the response to viruses can be studied in a more natural context to identify novel drug targets, and assess the efficacy and safety of new products. This is especially true in the advent of the Food and Drug Administration's animal rule. Although no one animal model is able to recapitulate all the aspects of human disease, understanding the current limitations allows for a more targeted experimental design. Important facets to be considered before an animal study are the route of challenge, species of animals, biomarkers of disease, and a humane endpoint. This chapter covers the current animal models for medically important human viruses, and demonstrates where the gaps in knowledge exist.

Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research

Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research
  • Author : P. Michael Conn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-03-07
  • Total pages :778
  • ISBN : 9781597452854
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Summary : The collection of systems represented in this volume is a unique effort to reflect the diversity and utility of models used in biomedicine. That utility is based on the consideration that observations made in particular organisms will provide insight into the workings of other, more complex systems. This volume is therefore a comprehensive and extensive collection of these important medical parallels.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease
  • Author : Jiro Kasahara,Mohammed Emamussalehin Choudhury,Hironori Yokoyama,Naoto Kadoguchi,Masahiro Nomoto
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-29
  • Total pages :1108
  • ISBN : 9780128072165
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Summary : Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a slowly progressive motor dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra innervating the striatum, causing depletion of dopamine, which leads to a hyperactivation of the striatal medial spiny neurons. To understand the pathophysiological details of PD and for developing and screening the novel therapeutic and/or neuroprotective substances, animal models for PD induced by neurotoxins have been developed. Among them, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is the most commonly used since it causes a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and induces typical PD-like symptoms both in human and in experimental animals with a relatively simple application. In this chapter, we first overview the characteristics of PD and animal models with neurotoxins to establish, then focus on, MPTP-treated mouse and common marmoset models for PD with their practical experimental protocols and applications.

Animal Models for Microbiome Research

Animal Models for Microbiome Research
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Roundtable on Science and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Use
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-23
  • Total pages :114
  • ISBN : 9780309463881
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Summary : The surface of the human body and its mucous membranes are heavily colonized by microorganisms. Our understanding of the contributions that complex microbial communities make to health and disease is advancing rapidly. Most microbiome research to date has focused on the mouse as a model organism for delineating the mechanisms that shape the assembly and dynamic operations of microbial communities. However, the mouse is not a perfect surrogate for studying different aspects of the microbiome and how it responds to various environmental and host stimuli, and as a result, researchers have been conducting microbiome studies in other animals. To examine the different animal models researchers employ in microbiome studies and to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of each of these model organisms as they relate to human and nonhuman health and disease, the Roundtable on Science and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Use of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop in December 2016. The workshop participants explored how to improve the depth and breadth of analysis of microbial communities using various model organisms, the challenges of standardization and biological variability that are inherent in gnotobiotic animal-based research, the predictability and translatability of preclinical studies to humans, and strategies for expanding the infrastructure and tools for conducting studies in these types of models. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.