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Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in the Environment

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in the Environment
  • Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-22
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9780128188835
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Summary : Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (AMR) in the Environment summarizes and updates information on antibiotic producing organisms and their resistance and entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment. As antibiotic use continues to rise in healthcare, their fate, bioavailability and biomonitoring, and impacts on environment and public health are becoming increasingly important. The book addresses the impact of antibiotics and AMR to environment and public health and risk assessment. Moreover, it focused on the metagenomics and molecular techniques for the detection of antibiotics and antimicrobial genes. Lastly, it introduces management strategies, such as treatment technologies for managing antibiotics and AMR/ARGs-impacted environment, and bioremediation approaches. Summarizes and updates information on antibiotics and AMR/ARGs production and its fate and transport in the environment Includes phytoremediation and bioremediation technologies for environmental management Provides analysis of risk assessment of antibiotic resistance genes to help understand the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes
  • Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-07
  • Total pages :456
  • ISBN : 9783030404222
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Summary : This volume summarizes and updates information about antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)/antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) production, including their entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment, their use in hospital and associated waste, global and temporal trends in use and spread of antibiotics, AMR and ARG. Antimicrobial/antibiotic resistance genes due to manure and agricultural waste applications, bioavailability, biomonitoring, and their Epidemiological, ecological and public health effects. The book addresses the antibiotic and AMR/ARG risk assessment and treatment technologies, for managing antibiotics and AMR/ARG impacted environments The book's expert contributions span 20 chapters, and offer a comprehensive framework for better understanding and analyzing the environmental and social impacts of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs. Readers will have access to recent and updated models regarding the interpretation of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs in environment and biomonitoring studies, and will learn about the management options require to appropriately mitigate environmental contaminants and pollution. The book will be of interest to students, teachers, researchers, policy makers and environmental organizations.

Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment

Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment
  • Author : Patricia L. Keen,Mark H. M. M. Montforts
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-11-30
  • Total pages :624
  • ISBN : 9781118156230
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Summary : Examines effects of the environmental distribution ofantimicrobial resistance genes on human health and theecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature—in pathogens,commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed workshows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the developmentof antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distributionof resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, andantibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of thedistribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genesand antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animalhealth. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into fourparts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequencesof antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize thebiological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, includingantibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect ofantimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complexsystems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using acomprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book'smultidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology,environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human andecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics orantibiotic resistance genes that are environmentalcontaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchersin such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, andtoxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of allchapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in thefield. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field ofgrowing importance to human and environmental health, this textoffers readers new insights into the role of the environment inantimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination ofantimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport ofantibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.

Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment
  • Author : Carlos F. Amabile-Cuevas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-30
  • Total pages :136
  • ISBN : 9781315679419
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Summary : The presence of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment (i.e., outside of clinical settings, such as antibiotic-treated patients or antibiotic-impregnated locations, such as hospitals) is a cause of growing worldwide concern, as it reveals the extensive impact of antibiotic abuse and other huma

Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Systems

Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Systems
  • Author : Satoru Suzuki,Amy Pruden,Marko Virta,Tong Zhang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-04-10
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889451319
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Summary : Rivers, lakes and the ocean receive antibiotic resistance genes from human environments. The aquatic environments are a huge reservoir and exchange stage of antibiotic resistance genes.

Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation

Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-05-10
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 9780309131216
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Summary : Dr. Joshua Lederberg - scientist, Nobel laureate, visionary thinker, and friend of the Forum on Microbial Threats - died on February 2, 2008. It was in his honor that the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop on May 20-21, 2008, to examine Dr. Lederberg's scientific and policy contributions to the marketplace of ideas in the life sciences, medicine, and public policy. The resulting workshop summary, Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation, demonstrates the extent to which conceptual and technological developments have, within a few short years, advanced our collective understanding of the microbiome, microbial genetics, microbial communities, and microbe-host-environment interactions.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters
  • Author : Karina Yew-Hoong Gin,Charmaine Ng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-30
  • Total pages :188
  • ISBN : 9783038976080
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Summary : This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters. Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Natural Environments and Long-term Effects

Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Natural Environments and Long-term Effects
  • Author : Salvador Mirete,Marcos López Pérez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :190
  • ISBN : 1536118184
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Summary : Over the past 70 years, antibiotic therapy has been successfully used to combat infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a phenomenon that can plague the effectiveness of the antibiotics employed, which represents a major concern for human and animal health with important socio-economic consequences. Traditionally, most investigations on antibiotic resistance were conducted almost exclusively in the clinical setting. However, now it is well accepted that the current antibiotic resistance found in human pathogens originated from environmental microbes by means of a horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. The present book aims to focus on the importance of natural environments as diverse as rivers, soils and glaciers for the evolution, maintenance and dissemination of resistance genes. Therefore, the chapters included in this volume will be of interest to those scientists, technologists and graduate students involved in the study of antibiotic resistance from an environmental point of view. Also, it is hoped that the issues addressed in this book will serve to better evaluate the implications of these genes in the formulation of public health policies and strategies. These policies and strategies will then be used to reduce the risks of antibiotic resistance in clinical and nonclinical settings.

Antimicrobial Resistance and Food Safety

Antimicrobial Resistance and Food Safety
  • Author : Chin-Yi Chen,Xianghe Yan,Charlene R. Jackson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-15
  • Total pages :452
  • ISBN : 9780128013373
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Summary : Antimicrobial Resistance and Food Safety: Methods and Techniques introduces antimicrobial resistant food-borne pathogens, their surveillance and epidemiology, emerging resistance and resistant pathogens. This analysis is followed by a systematic presentation of currently applied methodology and technology, including advanced technologies for detection, intervention, and information technologies. This reference can be used as a practical guide for scientists, food engineers, and regulatory personnel as well as students in food safety, food microbiology, or food science. Includes analysis of all major pathogens of concern Provides many case studies and examples of fundamental research findings Presents recent advances in methodologies and analytical software Demonstrates risk assessment using information technologies in foodborne pathogens

Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach

Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-10
  • Total pages :418
  • ISBN : 9780309259330
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Summary : Globalization of the food supply has created conditions favorable for the emergence, reemergence, and spread of food-borne pathogens-compounding the challenge of anticipating, detecting, and effectively responding to food-borne threats to health. In the United States, food-borne agents affect 1 out of 6 individuals and cause approximately 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths each year. This figure likely represents just the tip of the iceberg, because it fails to account for the broad array of food-borne illnesses or for their wide-ranging repercussions for consumers, government, and the food industry-both domestically and internationally. A One Health approach to food safety may hold the promise of harnessing and integrating the expertise and resources from across the spectrum of multiple health domains including the human and veterinary medical and plant pathology communities with those of the wildlife and aquatic health and ecology communities. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on December 13 and 14, 2011 that examined issues critical to the protection of the nation's food supply. The workshop explored existing knowledge and unanswered questions on the nature and extent of food-borne threats to health. Participants discussed the globalization of the U.S. food supply and the burden of illness associated with foodborne threats to health; considered the spectrum of food-borne threats as well as illustrative case studies; reviewed existing research, policies, and practices to prevent and mitigate foodborne threats; and, identified opportunities to reduce future threats to the nation's food supply through the use of a "One Health" approach to food safety. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary covers the events of the workshop and explains the recommendations for future related workshops.

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
  • Author : Jun Lin,Kunihiko Nishino,Marilyn C. Roberts,Marcelo Tolmasky,Rustam I. Aminov,Lixin Zhang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-01
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889195268
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Summary : Antibiotics represent one of the most successful forms of therapy in medicine. But the efficiency of antibiotics is compromised by the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antibiotic resistance, which is implicated in elevated morbidity and mortality rates as well as in the increased treatment costs, is considered to be one of the major global public health threats (www.who.int/drugresistance/en/) and the magnitude of the problem recently prompted a number of international and national bodies to take actions to protect the public (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/road-map-amr_en.pdf: http://www.who.int/drugresistance/amr_global_action_plan/en/; http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/carb_national_strategy.pdf). Understanding the mechanisms by which bacteria successfully defend themselves against the antibiotic assault represent the main theme of this eBook published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy. The articles in the eBook update the reader on various aspects and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of these mechanisms should facilitate the development of means to potentiate the efficacy and increase the lifespan of antibiotics while minimizing the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens.

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli
  • Author : Amidou Samie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-12
  • Total pages :434
  • ISBN : 9789535133292
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Summary : Escherichia coli is a versatile organism and very diverse. Members of this species vary from very pathogenic agents causing different types of diseases including meningitis, gastroenteritis, and septicemia, just to cite a few, to harmless organisms living in the intestines of both humans and animals. E. coli has also been used as a model organism for most bacteria except a few. For this reason, its study provides a huge advantage and can help understand the mechanisms involved in different processes such as pathogenesis, environmental disinfection, nutrient utilization, antibiotic resistance, and diagnostic/detection methods, and these are indeed the topics discussed in this book. The book has been divided into four main sections representing the different facets of E. coli applications, which include disease, biotechnology, environmental engineering and innovative approaches to detection, and lastly its physiology and cell biology. Such processes can be applied to the study of other organisms as well considering the development of diversity; for example, many organisms are capable of horizontal gene transfer, which is capable of increasing the fitness of the bacterial organisms involved and has a great impact on the control of such bacterial organism.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes

Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes
  • Author : Patricia L. Keen,Raphaël Fugà ̈re
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-26
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781119192442
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Summary : Antimicrobial resistance is arguably the greatest threat to worldwide human health. This book evaluates the roles of human water use, treatment and conservation in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Designed as a companion volume to Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), this book is a multi-disciplinary synthesis of topics related to antimicrobial resistance and wastewater treatment processes. Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes assembles detailed discussions written by many of the world's best-known experts in microbiology, civil engineering, chemistry, environmental science, public health and related fields. The book presents a collection of subjects that includes: Current knowledge of the role of the environment in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance Chemical analysis of antibiotics in environmental samples Molecular methods for analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes Advanced wastewater treatment processes and antimicrobial resistance effects Public perception of risk related to health consequences of antimicrobial resistance Public health implications of antimicrobial resistance with focus on wastewater treatment processes Antimicrobial resistance has gained a foothold in the global consciousness as a serious public health threat. There is a much greater appreciation for the role of the environment in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and the effects of pollutants that can potentially promote development of resistance in bacteria. Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants are a concern. In Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes, readers will be guided through examinations of the current science related to this important health issue.

Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance Genes in Soils

Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance Genes in Soils
  • Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi,Vladimir Strezov,Ajit Varma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-03
  • Total pages :419
  • ISBN : 9783319662602
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Summary : This book summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment. It covers a wide range of topics to help readers understand antibiotics and ARGs in soils, the risks they pose for the environment, and options for effective control. In addition, it presents a range of essential tools and methodologies that can be used to address antibiotics and ARGs in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Gathering contributions by international experts, the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.The topics discussed include antibiotics-producing microorganisms; the routes of entry and fate of antibiotics and resistance genes; biomonitoring approaches; dissemination of ARGs in soils; risk assessment; the impact of antibiotics and ARGs on the soil microbial community and other biota; bioremediation and biodegradation approaches; and soil management strategies for antibiotics and ARG-contaminated soils.As such, the book will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences, microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. Readers and Journals: 1. This new volume on antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences,microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. 2. The book will provide government authorities all over the world with effective strategies for the management of antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARG)- contaminated soil. 3. Gathering contributions by international experts,the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.

The Antibiotic Resistome

The Antibiotic Resistome
  • Author : Gerry Wright
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-22
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 1118376730
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Summary :

Perspectives in Environmental Toxicology

Perspectives in Environmental Toxicology
  • Author : Kavindra Kumar Kesari
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-07
  • Total pages :214
  • ISBN : 9783319462486
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Summary : This book is a valuable contribution to the debate about the harmful effects of environmental toxicants on human health, which is a growing concern in the 21st century. Complementary chapters decipher the phenomena and highlight the latest developments in environmental toxicology, providing readers with a comprehensive overview of environmental toxicology and human health. Since the toxicants in question are not only chemical or biological in nature, but also include man-made electromagnetic fields, the book explores in detail multidisciplinary approaches to environmental toxicology, with a focus on the following five aspects: 1. The effects of man-made electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on human health proposed mechanisms and biological effects and measures). 2. An overview of nanotoxicity, nanomedicine and cancer research. 3. A bio-computational approach to the molecular interaction of environmental carcinogens with DNA. 4. The toxicology of environmental pollutants in the air, dust, soil, water and natural toxins in the environment: exposure and health. 5. Social insects as environmental indicators of ecotoxicological effects in different ecosystems. The book analyzes the carcinogenic, mutagenic, genotoxic and neurotoxic effects of both anthropogenic and natural toxins present in water, soil, air and our surroundings in the form of electro-pollution or electro-smog.

Current Topics in Salmonella and Salmonellosis

Current Topics in Salmonella and Salmonellosis
  • Author : Mihai Mares
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-04-05
  • Total pages :284
  • ISBN : 9789535130659
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Summary : The genus Salmonella comprises an important number of bacterial species able to colonize and infect numerous animal species and humans. Although more than a hundred years passed since its discovery, Salmonella still represents a redoubtable and successful microorganism, difficult to deal with. Whether we discuss about typhoid fever or food poisoning, the public health and financial consequences are practically incalculable. The costs attributable to Salmonella contamination of meat, eggs, and vegetables are also very high worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates is an emerging threat not only in humans, and special measures should be addressed to this global problem. The book Current Topics in Salmonella and Salmonellosis contains a series of reviews about all-important issues concerning these subjects. It comprises 14 chapters grouped in 4 sections emphasizing new insights into pathogenesis, bacterial detection and antibiotic resistance, infections in animals, risk factors, and control strategies. The new genomic data and the exhaustive presentation of molecular pathogenesis bring novelty to the book and can help to improve our knowledge about Salmonella-induced diseases.

Challenges to Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance Economic and Policy Responses

Challenges to Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance Economic and Policy Responses
  • Author : OECD,World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-01
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9781108864121
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Summary : Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a biological mechanism whereby a microorganism evolves over time to develop the ability to become resistant to antimicrobial therapies such as antibiotics. The drivers of and potential solutions to AMR are complex, often spanning multiple sectors. The internationally recognized response to AMR advocates for a ‘One Health’ approach, which requires policies to be developed and implemented across human, animal, and environmental health.

Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment

Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment
  • Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi,Vivek Kumar,Ajit Varma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-15
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9783319477442
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Summary : This book describes the vast variety of xenobiotics, such as pesticides, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, agrochemicals and other pollutants, their interactions with the soil environment, and the currently available strategies and techniques for soil decontamination and bioremediation. Topics covered include: transport mechanisms of pollutants along the Himalayas; use of earthworms in biomonitoring; metagenomic strategies for assessing contaminated sites; xenobiotics in the food chain; phyto-chemical remediation; biodegradation by fungi; and the use of enzymes and potential microbes in biotransformation. Accordingly, the book offers a valuable guide for scientists in the fields of environmental ecology, soil and food sciences, agriculture, and applied microbiology.

The Antibiotic Paradox

The Antibiotic Paradox
  • Author : Stuart B. Levy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-11
  • Total pages :279
  • ISBN : 9781489960429
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Summary : The discovery of antibiotics heralded medicine's triumph over previously fatal diseases that once destroyed entire civilizations - thus earning their reputation as miracle drugs. But today, the terrifying reality of antibiotic-resistant bacteria resulting from our widespread misuse of antibiotics forewarns us that the miracle may be coming to an end. The seemingly innocent consumer who demands antibiotics to treat nonbacterial diseases such as the common cold or plays doctor by saving old prescriptions for later use is paving the way for a future of antibiotic failure. "What harm can it do?" is a popular refrain of people worldwide as they pop another antibiotic pill. Dr. Stuart Levy - the leading international expert on hazards of antibiotic misuse - reveals how this cavalier and naive attitude about the power of antibiotics can have deadly consequences. He explains that we are presently witnessing a massive evolutionary change in bacteria. This build-up of new antibiotic-resistant bacteria in individuals and the environment worldwide is an insidious and silent process. Thus, unwittingly consumers encounter resistant bacteria in their meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables. Unregulated dispensing of antibiotics in poorer countries breeds countless more resistant strains. Since bacteria recognize no geographical boundaries, resistant forms can travel the globe. If this trend continues to grow unchecked, we may someday find that all of our antibiotics are obsolete. Today doctors can no longer expect that their first choice of antibiotic for women's urinary tract infections or children's ear infections will work. Similarly, cancer therapy is rendered useless if patients are unable to fight infections that are sometimes resistant to eight to ten different drugs. In developing countries, people are now dying of previously treatable diseases that are no longer responsive to traditional antibiotics. These problems are just a harbinger of what will come if we do not act now. Dr. Levy, recognized by The New Yorker for his superb contributions to this field, is sending out an urgent message that the world cannot afford to ignore any longer. The goal of this unprecedented investigation into the dangers of antibiotic misuse is to protect the world community from resistant infections and ensure the success of antibiotics for generations to come.

Drivers, Dynamics and Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal Production

Drivers, Dynamics and Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal Production
  • Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-14
  • Total pages :68
  • ISBN : 9789251094419
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Summary : It is now accepted that increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria affecting humans and animals in recent decades is primarily influenced by an increase in usage of antimicrobials for a variety of purposes, including therapeutic and non-therapeutic uses in animal production. Antimicrobial resistance is an ancient and naturally occurring phenomenon in bacteria. But the use of antimicrobial drugs – in health care, agriculture or industrial settings – exerts a selection pressure which can favour the survival of resistant strains (or genes) over susceptible ones, leading to a relative increase in resistant bacteria within microbial communities.