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Antibody Fc:

Antibody Fc:
  • Author : Margaret Ackerman,Falk Nimmerjahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-06
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 9780123948182
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Summary : Antibody Fc is the first single text to synthesize the literature on the mechanisms underlying the dramatic variability of antibodies to influence the immune response. The book demonstrates the importance of the Fc domain, including protective mechanisms, effector cell types, genetic data, and variability in Fc domain function. This volume is a critical single-source reference for researchers in vaccine discovery, immunologists, microbiologists, oncologists and protein engineers as well as graduate students in immunology and vaccinology. Antibodies represent the correlate of protection for numerous vaccines and are the most rapidly growing class of drugs, with applications ranging from cancer and infectious disease to autoimmunity. Researchers have long understood the variable domain of antibodies, which are responsible for antigen recognition, and can provide protection by blocking the function of their target antigen. However, recent developments in our understanding of the protection mediated by antibodies have highlighted the critical nature of the antibody constant, or Fc domain, in the biological activity of antibodies. The Fc domain allows antibodies to link the adaptive and innate immune systems, providing specificity to a wide range of innate effector cells. In addition, they provide a feedback loop to regulate the character of the immune response via interactions with B cells and antigen-presenting cells. Clarifies the different mechanisms of IgG activity at the level of the different model systems used, including human genetic, mouse, and in vitro Covers the role of antibodies in cancer, infectious disease, and autoimmunity and in the setting of monoclonal antibody therapy as well as naturally raised antibodies Color illustrations enhance explanations of the immune system

Antibody Fc:

Antibody Fc:
  • Author : Margaret Ackerman,Falk Nimmerjahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-06
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 9780123948182
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Antibody Fc is the first single text to synthesize the literature on the mechanisms underlying the dramatic variability of antibodies to influence the immune response. The book demonstrates the importance of the Fc domain, including protective mechanisms, effector cell types, genetic data, and variability in Fc domain function. This volume is a critical single-source reference for researchers in vaccine discovery, immunologists, microbiologists, oncologists and protein engineers as well as graduate students in immunology and vaccinology. Antibodies represent the correlate of protection for numerous vaccines and are the most rapidly growing class of drugs, with applications ranging from cancer and infectious disease to autoimmunity. Researchers have long understood the variable domain of antibodies, which are responsible for antigen recognition, and can provide protection by blocking the function of their target antigen. However, recent developments in our understanding of the protection mediated by antibodies have highlighted the critical nature of the antibody constant, or Fc domain, in the biological activity of antibodies. The Fc domain allows antibodies to link the adaptive and innate immune systems, providing specificity to a wide range of innate effector cells. In addition, they provide a feedback loop to regulate the character of the immune response via interactions with B cells and antigen-presenting cells. Clarifies the different mechanisms of IgG activity at the level of the different model systems used, including human genetic, mouse, and in vitro Covers the role of antibodies in cancer, infectious disease, and autoimmunity and in the setting of monoclonal antibody therapy as well as naturally raised antibodies Color illustrations enhance explanations of the immune system

Antibody Fc

Antibody Fc
  • Author : Victor Raúl Gómez Román,Joseph C. Murray,Louis M. Weiner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-06
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 9780128060223
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Summary : Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is an immune mechanism through which Fc receptor-bearing effector cells can recognize and kill antibody-coated target cells expressing tumor- or pathogen-derived antigens on their surface. Numerous associations between ADCC activity, Fc receptor polymorphisms, and clinical outcomes have been observed in both the settings of vaccination and monoclonal antibody therapy. Here, the effector cells and receptors involved in ADCC are introduced, followed by a description of the four main stages and mechanisms leading to the antibody-dependent effector-mediated killing of the target cell: (1) Recognition of the target cell and Fc receptor cross-linking on the surface of the effector cell; (2) phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) by cellular src kinases within the effector cell; (3) triggering of three main downstream signaling pathways in the effector cell, resulting in cytotoxic granule polarization and release; and (4) killing of the target cell via the predominant perforin/granzyme cell death pathway. Further, a summary and a discussion are presented in relation to case studies in which in vitro ADCC activity correlates with protection against infectious diseases and outcomes in monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer in vivo . The means by which these mechanisms are currently being exploited by recombinant antibody engineering, and a path toward a future in which designed vaccines take advantage of variant ADCC activity are also discussed. Throughout the chapter, attention is drawn to the fact that, while the majority of ADCC studies have been based on research using peripheral blood mononuclear cells in which NK cells have been assumed to be the main effectors, questions remain unanswered about ADCC mediated by non-NK cell populations in peripheral blood and in mucosal compartments.

Antibody Fc

Antibody Fc
  • Author : Roy Jefferis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-06
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 9780128060384
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Summary : Diversity of antigen-binding specificity may be considered the hallmark of antibodies; however, the human IgG-Fc region also exhibits binding specificity for multiple ligands. Evolution of the IgG-Fc has resulted in the generation of interaction sites for endogenous (self) ligands that recruit and activate mechanisms facilitating the removal and destruction of antibody–pathogen immune complexes. However, pathogens (bacteria and virus) have co-evolved to elaborate IgG-Fc binding proteins that seek to subvert these protective mechanisms. The four human IgG subclasses exhibit differential binding specificity for these ligands, and the choice of IgG subclass for an antibody therapeutic allows selection for a ligand binding profile appropriate for the intended use. The profile of IgG-Fc ligand binding specificities is being extended through the generation and selection among multiple IgG-Fc mutant proteins. Of particular interest has been the development of mutant aglycosylated antibodies that retain or acquire ligand binding activities. This extends possible production vehicles to include prokaryotic systems, although an increased potential for inducing anti-drug antibodies may be a limiting factor.

Antibody Fc

Antibody Fc
  • Author : Xiaojie Yu,Kavitha Baruah,Christopher N. Scanlan,Max Crispin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-06
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 9780128060315
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Summary : The antibody Fc region is posttranslationally modified by N-linked glycosylation. In immunoglobulin G (IgG), the processing of the glycans is restricted by the presence of extensive interaction with the protein surface. The resulting set of antibody glycoforms exhibit a range of effector functions. In this chapter, we outline the impact of glycosylation on the immune function of antibodies and discuss the implications for monoclonal antibody and intravenous immunoglobulin therapies.

Antibody Fc

Antibody Fc
  • Author : Falk Nimmerjahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-06
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 9780128060322
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Summary : Autoimmune disorders are characterized by the destruction of self-tissues by the immune system. Multiple checkpoints are in place to prevent autoreactivity under normal circumstances. Co-expression of activating and inhibitory Fc receptors (FcRs) represents such a checkpoint by establishing a threshold for immune cell activation. In many human autoimmune diseases, however, balanced FcR expression is disturbed. Analysis of murine model systems provides strong evidence that aberrant FcR expression can result in uncontrolled immune responses and the initiation of autoimmune disease. This review summarizes these data and explains how this information might be used to better understand human autoimmune diseases and to develop novel therapeutic strategies.

Fc Mediated Activity of Antibodies

Fc Mediated Activity of Antibodies
  • Author : Jeffrey V. Ravetch,Falk Nimmerjahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-03
  • Total pages :150
  • ISBN : 9783030310530
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Summary : This volume explores several aspects of how antibodies mediate their activity in vivo, ranging from cancer immunotherapy to autoimmunity, infection, and vaccination. Divided into seven chapters, it provides in-depth insights into how antibodies and especially the antibody fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain modulate immune responses and antibody activity. The book begins by discussing evolutionary aspects of how the family of Fc receptors that are the key molecules for antibody activity evolved. In turn, it addresses the molecular and cellular pathways underlying IgG activity in cancer immunotherapy, and focuses on how IgG glycosylation regulates IgG and IgE activity in autoimmunity, allergy and infection. In closing, it presents strategies for developing novel antibody-based vaccination approaches. The book is intended for a very broad readership, including graduate students, postdocs and principal investigators with a basic grasp of immunology.

Antibody Engineering

Antibody Engineering
  • Author : Roland E. Kontermann,Stefan Dübel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-03-10
  • Total pages :788
  • ISBN : 3642011446
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Summary : Antibodies are indispensable tools for research, diagnosis, and therapy. Recombinant approaches allow the modification and improvement of nearly all antibody properties, such as affinity, valency, specificity, stability, serum half-life, effector functions, and immunogenicity. "Antibody Engineering" provides a comprehensive toolbox covering the well-established basics but also many exciting new techniques. The protocols reflect the latest "hands on" knowledge of key laboratories in this still fast-moving field. Newcomers will benefit from the proven step-by-step protocols, which include helpful practical advice; experienced antibody engineers will appreciate the new ideas and approaches. The book is an invaluable resource for all those engaged in antibody research and development.

Therapeutic Antibody Engineering

Therapeutic Antibody Engineering
  • Author : William R Strohl,Lila M Strohl
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-16
  • Total pages :696
  • ISBN : 9781908818096
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Summary : The field of antibody engineering has become a vital and integral part of making new, improved next generation therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, of which there are currently more than 300 in clinical trials across several therapeutic areas. Therapeutic antibody engineering examines all aspects of engineering monoclonal antibodies and analyses the effect that various genetic engineering approaches will have on future candidates. Chapters in the first part of the book provide an introduction to monoclonal antibodies, their discovery and development and the fundamental technologies used in their production. Following chapters cover a number of specific issues relating to different aspects of antibody engineering, including variable chain engineering, targets and mechanisms of action, classes of antibody and the use of antibody fragments, among many other topics. The last part of the book examines development issues, the interaction of human IgGs with non-human systems, and cell line development, before a conclusion looking at future issues affecting the field of therapeutic antibody engineering. Goes beyond the standard engineering issues covered by most books and delves into structure-function relationships Integration of knowledge across all areas of antibody engineering, development, and marketing Discusses how current and future genetic engineering of cell lines will pave the way for much higher productivity

Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies

Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Author : Zhiqiang An
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-09-20
  • Total pages :896
  • ISBN : 9781118210260
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Summary : 70-chapter authoritative reference that covers therapeutic monoclonal antibody discovery, development, and clinical applications while incorporating principles, experimental data, and methodologies. First book to address the discovery and development of antibody therapeutics in their entirety. Most chapters contain experimental data to illustrate the principles described in them. Authors provide detailed methodologies that readers can take away with them and use in their own laboratories.

Applications And Engineering Of Monoclonal Antibodies

Applications And Engineering Of Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Author : David J. King
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-11-27
  • Total pages :249
  • ISBN : 0748404228
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Summary : A valuable resource for researchers and workers in the fields of both pharmaceuticals and biotechnology as well as undergraduates in biochemistry, applied biology, biomedical sciences and pharmacy, this book compares established techniques of antibody production with the new. Antibody structure and the implications of antibody engineering are fully discussed, and a case study approach illustrates how antibodies are finding increasing use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The volume ends with commercial expression, purification and large-scale manufacture of antibodies and their future potential, particularly as therapeutic agents.

Antibody Fc Engineering: Towards Better Therapeutics

Antibody Fc Engineering: Towards Better Therapeutics
  • Author : Tianlei Ying,Rui Gong
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-21
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889456789
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Summary :

Fc Receptors

Fc Receptors
  • Author : Marc Daeron,Falk Nimmerjahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-12
  • Total pages :424
  • ISBN : 9783319079110
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Summary : This volume provides a state-of-the-art update on Fc Receptors (FcRs). It is divided into five parts. Part I, Old and New FcRs, deals with the long-sought-after FcμR and the recently discovered FCRL family and TRIM21. Part II, FcR Signaling, presents a computational model of FcεRI signaling, novel calcium channels, and the lipid phosphatase SHIP1. Part III, FcR Biology, addresses major physiological functions of FcRs, their glycosylation, how they induce and regulate both adaptive immune responses and inflammation, especially in vivo, FcR humanized mice, and the multifaceted properties of FcRn. Part IV, FcRs and Disease, discusses FcR polymorphism, FcRs in rheumatoid arthritis and whether their FcRs make macaques good models for studying HIV infection. In Part V, FcRs and Therapeutic Antibodies, the roles of various FcRs, including FcγRIIB and FcαRI, in the immunotherapy of cancer and autoimmune diseases using monoclonal antibodies and IVIg are highlighted. All 18 chapters were written by respected experts in their fields, offering an invaluable reference source for scientists and clinicians interested in FcRs and how to better master antibodies for therapeutic purposes.

Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
  • Author : John M. Walker,Ralph Rapley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-01-01
  • Total pages :604
  • ISBN : 9780854041251
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Summary : This popular textbook has been revised and updated to provide a comprehensive overview and to reflect the latest developments in this rapidly developing area. Continuing with the broad base style of both current molecular and traditional biotechnology, chapters have been updated to reflect current interest and include new areas such as stem cell technology and important areas in drug discovery such as IP and patents. By presenting information in an easily assimilated form, this book makes an ideal undergraduate text for students of biology and chemistry, as well as to postgraduates.

The Antibody Molecule

The Antibody Molecule
  • Author : Anthony R. Rees
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :364
  • ISBN : 9780199646579
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Summary : The Antibody Molecule follows the extraordinary journey of the medics and scientists who shaped the course of medical advances in the field of immunology. One of the oldest of the medical sciences, immunology has a history that has seen chemists, physicists and biologists alike seeking to unravel the most complex system in the human body outside the brain. This book charts its intriguing history, from the genetic basis of antibody diversity, through the understanding of the mechanism by which the immune system's first line of defence works, to breakthroughs in crystallography and the exploitation of immunoglobulins as therapeutic platforms to treat cancer, inflammation and allergy. Tracing the developments in immunology in chronological order, Professor Antony R. Rees presents the historical contexts of the periods in rich detail, bringing them to life with quotes and illustrations. This fascinating book examines the literature of the time, turning points, and controversies. A must read for immunologists and life scientists, as well as historians of science and medicine.

Therapeutic Fc-Fusion Proteins

Therapeutic Fc-Fusion Proteins
  • Author : Steven M. Chamow,Thomas Ryll,Henry B. Lowman,Deborah Farson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-18
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9783527675289
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Summary : Edited by three pioneers in the field, each with longstanding experience in the biotech industry, and a skilled scientific writer, this is the first book to cover every step in the development and production of immunoglobulin Fc-fusion proteins as therapeutics for human disease: from choosing the right molecular design, to pre-clinical characterization of the purified product, through to batch optimization and quality control for large-scale cGMP production. The whole of the second part is devoted to case studies of Fc-fusion proteins that are now commercially successful products. In this section, the authors, several of whom were personally involved in clinical development of the products themselves, detail the product?s background and give insight into issues that were faced and how these issues were overcome during clinical development. This section also includes a chapter on promising new developments for the future. An invaluable resource for professionals already working on Fc-fusion proteins and an excellent and thorough introduction for physicians, researchers, and students entering the field.

Recombinant Antibodies for Immunotherapy

Recombinant Antibodies for Immunotherapy
  • Author : Melvyn Little
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-07-27
  • Total pages :419
  • ISBN : 9780521887328
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of monoclonal antibodies through twenty-five articles by recognized experts in the field.

Flow Cytometry

Flow Cytometry
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991-01-28
  • Total pages :715
  • ISBN : 0080859313
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Summary : Flow Cytometry

Antibody Engineering

Antibody Engineering
  • Author : Roland E. Kontermann,Stefan Dübel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-03-10
  • Total pages :589
  • ISBN : 3642011470
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Summary : Antibodies are indispensable tools for research, diagnosis, and therapy. Recombinant approaches allow the modification and improvement of nearly all antibody properties, such as affinity, valency, specificity, stability, serum half-life, effector functions, and immunogenicity. "Antibody Engineering" provides a comprehensive toolbox covering the well-established basics but also many exciting new techniques. The protocols reflect the latest "hands on" knowledge of key laboratories in this still fast-moving field. Newcomers will benefit from the proven step-by-step protocols, which include helpful practical advice; experienced antibody engineers will appreciate the new ideas and approaches. The book is an invaluable resource for all those engaged in antibody research and development.

Globulins: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition

Globulins: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-09
  • Total pages :297
  • ISBN : 9781464922916
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Summary : Globulins: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Globulins in a concise format. The editors have built Globulins: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Globulins in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Globulins: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Antibody Activity

Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Antibody Activity
  • Author : Falk Nimmerjahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-22
  • Total pages :294
  • ISBN : 9781461471073
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Summary : This book focuses on the function of antibodies in vivo. Recent years have seen an exponential growth in knowledge about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of antibody activity. These new results dramatically changed our view of how antibodies function in vivo. The importance of this class of molecules is demonstrated by the heightened susceptibility to infections of humans and mice with an altered capacity to generate pathogen specific antibody responses. Thus, the majority of our currently available vaccines, such as vaccines against influenza, measles and hepatitis focus on the generation of long lasting antibody responses. Recent evidence from a variety of in vivo model systems and from human patient cohorts has highlighted the exclusive role of cellular Fc-receptors for certain immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses. With the recent discovery of a human Fc-receptor for IgM all different human immunoglobulin isotypes now have a cellular receptor, providing a feedback mechanism and link between antibodies and the cellular components of the immune system. Moreover it has become clear the complement and Fc-receptor system are tightly connected and regulate each other to ensure a well balanced immune response. Among the immunoglobulin isotypes IgG plays a very important protective role against microbial infections and also as a therapeutic agent to kill tumor cells or autoantibody producing B cells in autoimmune disease. Transfer of our knowledge about the crucial function of Fc-receptors has led to the production of a second generation of therapeutic antibodies with enhanced binding to this class of receptors. Binding of antibodies to Fc-receptors leads to the recruitment of the potent pro-inflammatory effector functions of cells from the innate immune system. Hence, Fc-receptors link the innate and adaptive immune system, emphasizing the importance of both arms of the immune system and their crosstalk during anti-microbial immune responses. Besides this pro-inflammatory activity immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules are long known to also have an anti-inflammatory function. This is demonstrated by the use of high dose intravenous immunoglobulins as a therapeutic agent in many human autoimmune diseases. During the past five years several new insights into the molecular and cellular pathways of this anti-inflammatory activity were gained radically changing our view of IgG function in vivo. Several lines of evidence suggest that the sugar moiety attached to the IgG molecule is responsible for these opposing activities and may be seen as a molecular switch enabling the immune system to change IgG function from a pro- to an anti-inflammatory activity. There is convincing evidence in mice and humans that aberrant IgG glycosylation could be an important new pathway for understanding the impaired antibody activity during autoimmune disease. Besides this tremendous increase in basic knowledge about factors influencing immunoglobulin activity the book will also provide insights into how these new insights might help to generate novel therapeutic approaches to enhance IgG activity for tumor therapy on the one hand, and how to block the self-destructive activity of IgG autoantibodies during autoimmune disease on the other hand.