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Artemisinin-Based and Other Antimalarials

Artemisinin-Based and Other Antimalarials
  • Author : Guoqiao Li,Ying Li,Zelin Li,Meiyi Zeng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-28
  • Total pages :736
  • ISBN : 9780128132111
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Summary : Artemisinin-Based and Other Antimalarials: Detailed Account of Studies by Chinese Scientists Who Discovered and Developed Them provides a historical and scientific background of the discovery and development of artemisinin, artemisinin derivatives, combination drugs and related chemicals. It is a historical document, a scientific treatise, and a fascinating description of innovative research on new drug development that is carried out under extremely difficult conditions. The book also includes detailed experiments, physical-chemical procedures, practical methodologies and clinical trials. It is a valuable reference for students and researchers in the fields of scientific history, medicine, pharmaceutical science, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Presents details of all stages of drug development, including in vitro experiment, animal exploratory studies, animal tests for toxicity, safety and efficacy followed by stages I, II, III and IV, safety and efficacy in human volunteers and patients with malaria Provides many physical-chemical laboratory procedures, such as NMR, MS, HPLC and X-ray diffraction used in drug development Includes practical methodology of clinical trials from many research centers and countries to demonstrate the importance of this discovery

Artemisinin-Based and Other Antimalarials

Artemisinin-Based and Other Antimalarials
  • Author : Guoqiao Li,Ying Li,Zelin Li,Meiyi Zeng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-28
  • Total pages :736
  • ISBN : 9780128132111
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Artemisinin-Based and Other Antimalarials: Detailed Account of Studies by Chinese Scientists Who Discovered and Developed Them provides a historical and scientific background of the discovery and development of artemisinin, artemisinin derivatives, combination drugs and related chemicals. It is a historical document, a scientific treatise, and a fascinating description of innovative research on new drug development that is carried out under extremely difficult conditions. The book also includes detailed experiments, physical-chemical procedures, practical methodologies and clinical trials. It is a valuable reference for students and researchers in the fields of scientific history, medicine, pharmaceutical science, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Presents details of all stages of drug development, including in vitro experiment, animal exploratory studies, animal tests for toxicity, safety and efficacy followed by stages I, II, III and IV, safety and efficacy in human volunteers and patients with malaria Provides many physical-chemical laboratory procedures, such as NMR, MS, HPLC and X-ray diffraction used in drug development Includes practical methodology of clinical trials from many research centers and countries to demonstrate the importance of this discovery

Saving Lives, Buying Time

Saving Lives, Buying Time
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on the Economics of Antimalarial Drugs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-10-09
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780309092180
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Summary : For more than 50 years, low-cost antimalarial drugs silently saved millions of lives and cured billions of debilitating infections. Today, however, these drugs no longer work against the deadliest form of malaria that exists throughout the world. Malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africaâ€"currently just over one million per yearâ€"are rising because of increased resistance to the old, inexpensive drugs. Although effective new drugs called “artemisinins†are available, they are unaffordable for the majority of the affected population, even at a cost of one dollar per course. Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance examines the history of malaria treatments, provides an overview of the current drug crisis, and offers recommendations on maximizing access to and effectiveness of antimalarial drugs. The book finds that most people in endemic countries will not have access to currently effective combination treatments, which should include an artemisinin, without financing from the global community. Without funding for effective treatment, malaria mortality could double over the next 10 to 20 years and transmission will intensify.

Treatment and Prevention of Malaria

Treatment and Prevention of Malaria
  • Author : Henry M. Staines,Sanjeev Krishna
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-06
  • Total pages :318
  • ISBN : 9783034604796
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Summary : Malaria has defeated previous efforts at eradication and remains a massive global public health problem despite being readily preventable and treatable. It is a devastating disease that also extracts huge economic costs from the poorest countries in endemic regions. Starting with an overview of the disease and its current political, financial and technical context, this Milestones in Drug Therapy volume describes the history, chemistry, mechanisms of action and resistance, preclinical and clinical use, pharmacokinetics and safety and tolerability of the current range of antimalarial drugs. There is particular emphasis on artemisinins and related peroxides, as these drugs have now become the frontline treatment for malaria. Next generation antimalarials, molecular markers for detecting resistance, the importance of diagnostics and disease prevention are also covered in detail.

A Detailed Chronological Record of Project 523 and the Discovery and Development of Qinghaosu (Artemisinin)

A Detailed Chronological Record of Project 523 and the Discovery and Development of Qinghaosu (Artemisinin)
  • Author : Zhang Jianfang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-02
  • Total pages :206
  • ISBN : 9781622121649
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Summary : This is an account of a project in China carried out in secrecy from the Chinese people and the Western World during the tumultuous years of the Cultural Revolution. Project 523, as it was called, resulted in one of the most significant advances in the treatment of malaria since the discovery and first use of quinine over 300 years ago. The origin of the project was a request from the North Vietnamese Government to Mao Zedong in China, for assistance in managing chloroquine drug-resistant malaria affecting their military forces during the Vietnam-American war. Initially the project was directed by the Chinese military medical research authorities, but it became so large that civilian scientists were called upon to help. Ultimately, to accomplish this task, over 60 institutions and more than 500 scientists and other personnel scattered throughout mainland China became involved. This achievement is all the more remarkable because it was accomplished during the Cultural Revolution using obsolete equipment, and at a time when all regular research was halted, scientists were harassed and denigrated, and academic and intellectual activity was discouraged or even forbidden. The drug discovered - artemisinin from the plant Qinghao (Artemisia annua L) - is now the most widely used treatment for malaria in the world.

Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria

Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :194
  • ISBN : 9789241547925
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Summary : "The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensible, global, evidence-based guidelines to help formulate policies and protocols for the treatment of malaria. Information is presented on the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, including disease in special groups (young children, pregnant women, people who are HIV positive, travellers from non-malaria endemic regions) and in complex emergency situations and severe malaria."--Publisher's description.

Current Topics in Malaria

Current Topics in Malaria
  • Author : Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-30
  • Total pages :506
  • ISBN : 9789535127895
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Summary :

Towards Malaria Elimination

Towards Malaria Elimination
  • Author : Sylvie Manguin,Vas Dev
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-18
  • Total pages :452
  • ISBN : 9781789235500
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Summary : Towards Malaria Elimination - A Leap Forward was started to mark the occasion for renewed commitment to end malaria transmission for good (the WHO's call for "Malaria Free World" by 2030). This book is dedicated for the benefit of researchers, scientists, program and policy managers, students and anyone interested in malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases with the goal of sharing recent information on success stories, innovative control approaches and challenges in different regions of the world. Some main issues that emerged included multidrug-resistant malaria and pandemic risk, vaccines, cross-border malaria, asymptomatic parasite reservoir, the threat of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, insecticide resistance in Anopheles vectors and outdoor malaria transmission. This book is one little step forward to bring together in 17 chapters the experiences of malaria-expert researchers from five continents to present updated information on disease epidemiology and control at the national/regional level, highlighting the constraints, challenges, accomplishments and prospects of malaria elimination.

Antimalarial Agents

Antimalarial Agents
  • Author : Graham L. Patrick
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-30
  • Total pages :622
  • ISBN : 9780081012413
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Summary : Antimalarial Agents: Design and Mechanism of Action seeks to support medicinal chemists in their work towards antimalarial solution, providing practical guidance on current developments and highlighting promising leads for the future. Malaria is a deadly disease which threatens half of the world’s population. Advances over the last decade have seen vast improvements in the effectiveness of both preventative measures and treatments, but the rapid adaptability of the disease means that the ongoing search for improved and novel antimalarial drugs is essential. Beginning with a focus on biological aspects of malaria, this book highlights the lifecycle of the parasite responsible for malaria, the problem of resistance, genetic mapping of the parasite’s genome, established drug targets, and potential drug targets for the future. The book also includes detailed study of the medicinal chemistry of antimalarial agents and a focus on the design of antimalarial drugs. Drawing on the knowledge of its expert authors and coupling historic research with current findings to provide a full picture of both past and current milestones, Antimalarial Agents: Design and Mechanism of Action is a comprehensive yet accessible guide for all those involved in the design, development and administration of antimalarial drugs, including academic researchers, medicinal chemists, malaria researchers and pharmaceutical scientists. Consolidates both past and current developments in the discovery and design of antimalarial drugs Presents content in a style that is both thorough and engaging, providing a supportive and guiding reference to students and researchers from interdisciplinary backgrounds Highlights drug targets currently considered to be the most promising for future therapies, and the classes of compounds that are currently being studied and perfected

Economic Analysis of Malaria Control in Sub-Saharan Africa

Economic Analysis of Malaria Control in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Author : Catherine Goodman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :185
  • ISBN : UCBK:C069486766
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Summary :

Artemisia annua - Pharmacology and Biotechnology

Artemisia annua - Pharmacology and Biotechnology
  • Author : Tariq Aftab,Jorge F.S. Ferreira,M. Masroor A. Khan,M. Naeem
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-26
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 9783642410277
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Summary : Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone originally extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is an effective antimalarial agent, particularly for multi-drug resistant and cerebral malaria. However, the concentration of artemisinin in the plant is very low. Because the chemical synthesis of artemisinin is complicated and not economically feasible in view of the poor yield of the drug, the intact plant remains the only viable source of artemisinin production. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the concentration of artemisinin in A. annua to reduce the cost of artemisinin based antimalarial drugs. Plant scientists have focused their efforts on A. annua for a higher artemisinin crop yield. With the present volume, we are bringing together the research which is being done on this plant throughout the world and future possibilities for scientists and researchers who want to work on it.

Antimalarial Chemotherapy

Antimalarial Chemotherapy
  • Author : Philip J. Rosenthal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-04-01
  • Total pages :396
  • ISBN : 9781592591114
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Summary : Philip Rosenthal, MD, and a panel of leading malaria experts drawn from academia, the military, and international health organizations survey the latest scientific understanding of antimalarial chemotherapy, emphasizing the molecular mechanisms of resistance and the description of important new targets. Their survey covers the current status of malarial and antimalarial chemotherapy, the relevant biology and biochemistry of malaria parasites, the antimalarial drugs currently available, new chemical approaches to chemotherapy, and possible new targets for chemotherapy. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Antimalarial Chemotherapy: Mechanisms of Action, Resistance, and New Directions in Drug Discovery clearly delineates all the basic and clinical research now addressing one of the world's major unresolved disease problems, work that is now powerfully driving the rapid pace of antimalarial drug discovery today.

Approaches to Design and Synthesis of Antiparasitic Drugs

Approaches to Design and Synthesis of Antiparasitic Drugs
  • Author : N. Anand,S. Sharma†
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997-07-10
  • Total pages :510
  • ISBN : 0080527523
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Summary : This book presents a comprehensive and up to date account of the chemotherapy of parasitic diseases, both human and veterinary. The book starts with an overview of parasitic diseases. The body of the book is divided into two parts: antihelminthic drugs, and antiprotozoal drugs. Both parts start with chapters highlighting the 'biochemical targets' available for chemotherapeutic interference. Individual chapters deal with one chemical class of compounds and describe their origin, structure-activity relationship, mode of action, and methods of synthesis and their status both in clinical and veterinary practice. The book will be useful to a wide spectrum of readers: students embarking on a research career in parasitic chemotherapy, clinicians (and veterinarians) and clinical pharmacologists desiring detailed information about the drugs currently in use, and pharmaceutical technologists wanting to update their knowledge of the methods of manufacture.

An Overview of Tropical Diseases

An Overview of Tropical Diseases
  • Author : Amidou Samie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-02
  • Total pages :212
  • ISBN : 9789535122241
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Summary : Tropical diseases affect millions of people throughout the world and particularly in the developing countries. The millennium development goals had specifically targeted HIV/AIDS and Malaria for substantial reduction as well as Tuberculosis while many other tropical diseases have been neglected. The new sustainable development goals have not made such distinction and have targeted all diseases for elimination for the improvement of the quality of life of human beings on earth. The present book was developed to provide an update on issues relevant to the treatment of selected tropical diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and ectoparasites such as chiggers which are widely distributed throughout the world. The control of these infections has been hampered by the development of drug resistance and the lack of the development of new and more effective drugs. The understanding of the biochemical processes underlying drug activity is therefore essential for the potential elimination of these infections.

Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. Third Edition

Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. Third Edition
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-13
  • Total pages :313
  • ISBN : 9789241549127
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Summary : Malaria remains an important cause of illness and death in children and adults in countries in which it is endemic. Malaria control requires an integrated approach including prevention (primarily vector control) and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial agents. Malaria case management consisting of prompt diagnosis and effective treatment remains a vital component of malaria control and elimination strategies. Since the publication of the first edition of the Guidelines for the treatment of malaria in 2006 and the second edition in 2010 all countries in which P. falciparum malaria is endemic have progressively updated their treatment policy from use of ineffective monotherapy to the currently recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT). This has contributed substantially to current reductions in global morbidity and mortality from malaria. Unfortunately resistance to artemisinins has arisen recently in P. falciparum in South-East Asia which threatens these gains. This third edition of the WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria contains updated recommendations based on a firmer evidence base for most antimalarial drugs and in addition include recommendation on the use of drugs to prevent malaria in groups at high risk. The Guidelines provide a framework for designing specific detailed national treatment protocols taking into account local patterns of resistance to antimalarial drugs and health service capacity. It provides recommendations on treatment of uncomplicated and severe malaria in all age groups all endemic areas in special populations and several complex situations. In addition on the use of antimalarial drugs as preventive therapy in healthy people living in malaria-endemic areas who are high risk in order to reduce morbidity and mortality from malaria. The Guidelines are designed primarily for policy-makers in ministries of health who formulate country-specific treatment guidelines. Other groups that may find them useful include health professionals and public health and policy specialists that are partners in health or malaria control and the pharmaceutical industry. The treatment recommendations in the main document are brief; for those who wish to study the evidence base in more detail a series of annexes is provided with references to the appropriate sections of the main document.

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antimalarial Drugs Used in Combination Therapy

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antimalarial Drugs Used in Combination Therapy
  • Author : Qigui Li,Mark R. Hickman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-04
  • Total pages :550
  • ISBN : 9781681080543
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Summary : Malaria takes a great toll on human health and well-being, particularly in tropical regions including Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, Oceania and parts of the Americas. In recent years, some Plasmodium strains have become increasingly resistant to all classes of conventional antimalarial drugs currently in use. Researchers have, therefore, stepped up efforts to revise atimalarial drug policies, develop new drugs, and implement new strategies to combat this disease. In order to prevent widespread resistance, antimalarial combination therapies (ACTs) have been deployed and a World Antimalarial Resistance Network has been established as a means of anitimalarial drug resistance surveillance. Artemisinin-based combination therapies have proven to be useful as a replacement for standard regimens. Currently, these ACTs successfully cure patients suffering from uncomplicated malaria with superior efficacy and lower toxicity, but there remains a huge challenge (high mortality rate) associated with treatment of severe malaria. Studies of drug disposition and drug efficacy (PK/PD evaluations) are essential to understanding why drugs work as antimalarials as they illustrate issues with drug resistance, drug safety and drug toxicity that are critical to finding the appropriate drug dose for patients. This eBook illustrates how currently available combination antimalarial drugs can be optimized for effective malaria treatment. Chapters in this book explain methods to select combination drugs based on PK/PD evaluations followed by methods o reduce drug toxicity based on these evaluations. The book also summarizes efforts that are being made by the research community to improve ACT. It is, therefore, a handy reference for medical professionals and pharmacologists working on antimalarial drugs.

Mobilizing Science-Based Enterprises for Energy, Water, and Medicines in Nigeria

Mobilizing Science-Based Enterprises for Energy, Water, and Medicines in Nigeria
  • Author : National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Development, Security, and Cooperation,Committee on Creation of Science-Based Industries in Developing Countries
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-13
  • Total pages :142
  • ISBN : 0309179319
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Summary : Developed in collaboration with the Nigerian Academy of Science, this report explores the ways in which science-based private enterprises can be created and encouraged in Nigeria and other developing countries to provide products and services that government is unable to supply in a timely and sustainable manner. Focusing on three critical challenges to health and development-- safe water, electrical lighting, and malaria therapyâ€"the report identifies a sample technology to address each of these challenges with potential for commercialization in Nigeria and Africa, and uses that sample technology to identify opportunities and barriers to creating the science-based enterprises in Nigeria.

Malaria: Drugs, Disease and Post-genomic Biology

Malaria: Drugs, Disease and Post-genomic Biology
  • Author : David Sullivan,Sanjeev Krishna
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-01-14
  • Total pages :340
  • ISBN : 9783540290889
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Summary : Despite rapid increases in knowledge, malaria continues to kill more than a million people each year and causes symptomatic disease in a further 300 million individuals. This volume brings some of the world's best investigators to describe recent advances in both the scientific and clinical aspects of malaria, and bridges between the two.

Computed Solubilities of Antimalarial Drugs Used in Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy Compared to Experimental in Vivo Elimination Half-life

Computed Solubilities of Antimalarial Drugs Used in Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy Compared to Experimental in Vivo Elimination Half-life
  • Author : Joseph Dominic Alia
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1163842214
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Summary : Artemisinin based antimalarial combination therapy (ACT) relies on drugs with a range of in vivo elimination half-life and therefore a range of fat - water solubilities. Density functional theory with the SMD solvent model was used to compute 1-octanol - water and olive oil - water u0394G org-w values and subsequent partition coefficients, Log KOW and Log KVOW respectively for twelve drugs used in ACT, nine of them based on artemisinin, two quinoline based, and lumefantrine. Least squares plots of the resulting Log K vs. the mean of smallest and largest values from elimination half-life ranges reported in the literature showed strong linear relationship when quinolin - based drug data points were omitted as statistical outliers. Computed u0394GOW were mostly within u00b17 kJ/mol of those calculated from experimental Log K octanol - -water values from the literature.

Assessment of Long-Term Health Effects of Antimalarial Drugs When Used for Prophylaxis

Assessment of Long-Term Health Effects of Antimalarial Drugs When Used for Prophylaxis
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-03-24
  • Total pages :426
  • ISBN : 9780309672139
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Summary : Among the many who serve in the United States Armed Forces and who are deployed to distant locations around the world, myriad health threats are encountered. In addition to those associated with the disruption of their home life and potential for combat, they may face distinctive disease threats that are specific to the locations to which they are deployed. U.S. forces have been deployed many times over the years to areas in which malaria is endemic, including in parts of Afghanistan and Iraq. Department of Defense (DoD) policy requires that antimalarial drugs be issued and regimens adhered to for deployments to malaria-endemic areas. Policies directing which should be used as first and as second-line agents have evolved over time based on new data regarding adverse events or precautions for specific underlying health conditions, areas of deployment, and other operational factors At the request of the Veterans Administration, Assessment of Long-Term Health Effects of Antimalarial Drugs When Used for Prophylaxis assesses the scientific evidence regarding the potential for long-term health effects resulting from the use of antimalarial drugs that were approved by FDA or used by U.S. service members for malaria prophylaxis, with a focus on mefloquine, tafenoquine, and other antimalarial drugs that have been used by DoD in the past 25 years. This report offers conclusions based on available evidence regarding associations of persistent or latent adverse events.

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antimalarial Drugs Used in Combination Therapy

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antimalarial Drugs Used in Combination Therapy
  • Author : Qigui Li,Mark R. Hickman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-04
  • Total pages :550
  • ISBN : 9781681080543
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Malaria takes a great toll on human health and well-being, particularly in tropical regions including Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, Oceania and parts of the Americas. In recent years, some Plasmodium strains have become increasingly resistant to all classes of conventional antimalarial drugs currently in use. Researchers have, therefore, stepped up efforts to revise atimalarial drug policies, develop new drugs, and implement new strategies to combat this disease. In order to prevent widespread resistance, antimalarial combination therapies (ACTs) have been deployed and a World Antimalarial Resistance Network has been established as a means of anitimalarial drug resistance surveillance. Artemisinin-based combination therapies have proven to be useful as a replacement for standard regimens. Currently, these ACTs successfully cure patients suffering from uncomplicated malaria with superior efficacy and lower toxicity, but there remains a huge challenge (high mortality rate) associated with treatment of severe malaria. Studies of drug disposition and drug efficacy (PK/PD evaluations) are essential to understanding why drugs work as antimalarials as they illustrate issues with drug resistance, drug safety and drug toxicity that are critical to finding the appropriate drug dose for patients. This eBook illustrates how currently available combination antimalarial drugs can be optimized for effective malaria treatment. Chapters in this book explain methods to select combination drugs based on PK/PD evaluations followed by methods o reduce drug toxicity based on these evaluations. The book also summarizes efforts that are being made by the research community to improve ACT. It is, therefore, a handy reference for medical professionals and pharmacologists working on antimalarial drugs.