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Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Celia Holland
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780123972859
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Summary : This book tackles a number of different perspectives concerning the parasitic helminth Ascaris, both in animals and in humans and the disease known as ascariasis. It seeks to identify interesting, exciting and novel aspects, which will interest readers from a broad range of disciplines. Over a quarter of the world's population are infected with the human roundworm, and the equivalent in pigs is equally ubiquitous. Both contribute to insidious and chronic nutritional morbidity, and this has been quantified, in humans, as disability adjusted life years approximating 10.5 million. Ascaris larvae develop in host parenteral tissues, and the resultant pathology has been condemnation. Ascariasis, despite its staggering global prevalence and the sheer numbers of people it infects, remains a classic neglected disease. However, renewed interest in the consequences of early infection with worms from the perspective of immune modulation, co-infections and the development of allergy further enhances the relevance of these parasites. Brings together a wide range of topics and approaches and recent, comprehensive and progressive research concerning the neglected parasite Ascaris Provides a blueprint of how a single parasite entity can stimulate interest in basic biology, clinical science, veterinary science, public health and epidemiology Presents a wealth of new insights given that a book on this parasite has not been published for over 20 years 16 chapters from a range of top authors from around the world

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Stig Milan Thamsborg,Peter Nejsum,Helena Mejer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061374
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Summary : The roundworm Ascaris suum is a highly prevalent intestinal parasite of pigs worldwide, and the infection may have low to moderate pathogenic effects on health and productivity. Besides these direct effects, there may be indirect effects on enhanced susceptibility or pathogenicity to bacterial or viral infections, related to the migratory and immune-modulatory capacity of A. suum. Losses due to ascariasis in pigs can thus be summarized as (1) farm economic losses due to clinical effects (although limited), reduced growth and feed conversion efficiency and costs of control (e.g. use of anthelmintics), (2) abattoir operator losses due to condemnation or downgrading of livers and lower product quality, and (3) potential interference with vaccinations and higher risk of co-infections. Apart from the cost of liver condemnations that can be extrapolated from available data, it is difficult to quantify losses.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Simon J. Brooker,Rachel L. Pullan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061367
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Summary : Ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) affecting 763 million people worldwide, with nutritional and developmental consequences of chronic childhood infection and severe clinical disease occurring in heavy infections. Reliably estimating the extent of the problem of Ascaris lumbricoides and ascariasis is difficult because of inaccuracies in parasitological diagnosis, the non-specificity of clinical signs, and a paucity of reliable and accurate data. As a consequence, estimating the global distribution and disease burden has been based on informed approximations, using the best available information. This chapter provides an overview of past and current estimates of the global population at risk of and infected with A. lumbricoides. The regional and global burden of ascariasis is estimated by extrapolation from data on the prevalence of infection and a series of epidemiological methods. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study uses disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden, based on an assessment of premature mortality and years lived with disability. The data and methods used to estimate the disease burden of ascariasis in the 1990 GBD study and the 2010 study are compared. Globally, intestinal nematodes are estimated to contribute 5.184 million DALYs in 2010, with ascariasis contributing 1.3148 million, trichuriasis 0.6382 million, and hookworm 3.2311 million. The 2010 study provides estimates for both 1990 and 2010, and these findings indicated that the burden of ascariasis in 2010 is much lower than in 1990, where ascariasis contributed 4.2173 billion DALYs. The use of DALYs to estimate the burden of ascariasis is not without its limitations, however, and fails to capture the broader societal impact of ascariasis and other NTDs or that they disapportionally affect the poorest populations.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Celia V. Holland,Jerzy M. Behnke,Christina Dold
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061282
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Summary : Larval ascariasis is much less well understood than adult worm infection. Part of the explanation for this is the difficulty in assessing the impact of larval infections in human subjects. In contrast, adult worms can be counted after post-chemotherapeutic expulsion or, additionally, eggs voided in host feces can be quantified as an indirect measure of infection intensity. Furthermore, respiratory and hepatic disease, which may be associated with transient passage of larvae through these organs, can be either non-specific or cryptic, making Ascaris-specific diagnosis through clinical signs of infection challenging. The influence of early infection on parasite establishment and host immunity is recognized as important but it remains challenging to unravel the complexities of the relationship. Both pigs as natural hosts of Ascaris suum and a range of abnormal hosts have been utilized to investigate larval migration. Few if any of these model systems have enabled clarification of the basis of variation in susceptibility and resistance to larval migration and accumulation in the liver and lungs. In this chapter, we document the literature on larval ascariasis with a particular emphasis on studies utilizing mice because mice are now developing as useful model systems for the study of early Ascaris infection, the migratory path and its duration being similar to that of pigs. We describe a mouse model of early Ascaris infection that mimics the extremes of the host phenotype displayed in the aggregated distribution of adult worms in human and pig populations, outline the existing evidence for the role of the liver in susceptibility to larval ascariasis and discuss future directions for the use of this model system.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Martin Walker,Andrew Hall,María-Gloria Basáñez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061305
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Summary : In the context of the current unprecedented momentum and commitment to control neglected tropical diseases, and the increased advocacy of anthelmintic mass drug administration (MDA), there are renewed calls for research and development into the epidemiology and population biology of helmintic parasites to be embedded at the core of intervention strategies. This review of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides – one of the three neglected soil-transmitted helminth infections of greatest public health importance – includes discussion on diagnostic methods and their limitations; patterns of transmission within communities, including heterogeneities in infection and reinfection following curative treatment; the geographical distribution of infection, and the role of environmental, climatic and socio-economic co-variables. Special emphasis is placed on the mathematical approaches that underpin contemporary parasite epidemiology. In particular, statistical models – for analyzing highly variable, overdispersed, zero-inflated and hierarchically or spatially structured data – and dynamic models of infection and transmission. Deterministic, stochastic and hybrid dynamic models are discussed in the context of their application in elucidating the interplay between the parasite frequency distribution and density-dependent population processes; the dynamics of reinfection following curative treatment; the sustainability of parasite populations at low densities; theoretical threshold densities (transmission breakpoints) for elimination; and the potential spread of anthelmintic resistance. The review highlights the public health relevance of mathematical models and analytical methods, and concludes by focusing on recent insights into the epidemiology of A. lumbricoides which are particularly germane to the effective implementation of MDA-based control.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Antony O.W. Stretton,Aaron G. Maule
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061299
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Summary : The structural simplicity of nematode nervous systems has provided a useful resource for studies on basic neurobiology. Two species have underpinned basic neuroscience research in phylum Nematoda, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the pig parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to their genetic tractability and large size, respectively. The fact that most of the chemotherapeutic targets for the treatment of roundworm parasite infections of animals and man associate with neuromuscular function means that nematode neurobiology research resonates beyond discovery biology and informs parasite control. These diverse drivers for the interrogation of nematode neurobiology have exposed a unique approach to the regulation of complex behavioral traits, encompassing structural simplicity with profound chemical complexity. The latter embraces extreme diversity in both the ligand-gated ion channel subunit complements for classical neurotransmitters and in the neuropeptide ligands that signal mostly via G-protein coupled receptors, offering compelling opportunities for parasite control-target discovery and validation.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Johnny Vlaminck,Peter Geldhof
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061398
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Summary : Roundworms are the most prevalent parasite of swine in the world today. Their presence on a pig farm can have detrimental effects on farm profitability due to their impact on growth rate, feed conversion, and general health of the produced pigs. For farmers, it is therefore essential to be aware of the “worm status” of their herd in order to make informed decisions on how to control this disease on their farm. This chapter concentrates on the diverse aspects involved in the diagnosis and control of Ascaris suum infections on pig farms. It focuses on how the results obtained from different detection methods should be interpreted and what efforts could be made to control parasite transmission and consequentially reduce the prevalence and economic impact of this parasite on a pig farm.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : T. Déirdre Hollingsworth,James E. Truscott,Roy M. Anderson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061329
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Summary : Mathematical models are playing an increasing role in the design and optimization of control programs for many infectious diseases. In the case of Ascaris lumbricoides, there is a long history of models to understand the biology and epidemiology and to design control programs. We outline the key insights which models have given on the dynamics of Ascaris transmission, describe the model structures and discuss how current and future models are informing the design of control programs in the era of both increased access to donate drugs and new statistical techniques to validate these models against reinfection data. We show how the “bounce-back” time following a treatment round, when infection levels monotonically increase to baseline levels, are driven by the life expectancy of the parasite and the basic reproductive number. We also show that the effect of treatment in subsets of the population, for example school children, depends on the extent to which different subpopulations interact with the egg output of the treated group. We discuss the outstanding policy questions which models can be used to answer and the data and model development required to address them.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Martha Betson,Peter Nejsum,J. Russell Stothard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061336
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Summary : To better understand the epidemiology of ascariasis, molecular genetic methods have been applied to differentiate between worms found infecting people and pigs, and other occasional hosts. Owing to difficulties in applying species concepts, the longstanding debate of the distinction(s) between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum continues. From an applied perspective, however, molecular markers help to “tag” and “track” worms during their transmission cycle(s), providing new insights into host range, as well as methods for assessing parasite population dynamics through time and contingent upon disease control. While useful in determining dynamics at the tips of the evolutionary tree, these molecular tools also provide insights into deeper evolutionary branches. Although Ascaris is found throughout the globe, molecular analysis of worms retrieved from sub-Saharan Africa point towards a significant center of genetic diversity, possibly denoting a likely center of evolutionary origin with subsequent parasite diaspora. Resolving these issues precisely, however, requires greater scrutiny of genetic variation within Parascaris and Baylisascaris.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Antonio Montresor,Albis Francesco Gabrielli,Lorenzo Savioli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061381
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Summary : Experiences from Japan and Korea demonstrated that when a country is developing economically, the periodic administration of anthelmintic (preventive chemotherapy) drastically reduces soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and these advances are then maintained by increasing sanitation standards; both countries eliminated the morbidity due to STH in less than a decade. The situation is more complex in countries with slow economic development in which preventive chemotherapy should be maintained over a longer period of time in order to reduce morbidity due to STH. Preventive chemotherapy is characterized by population-based diagnosis, population-based treatment, and implementation at regular intervals. WHO recommends regular monitoring of the implementation of this strategy in order to obtain maximal benefit for the target populations. In 2010, preventive chemotherapy for the control of STH reached over 33% of the population in need of treatment and rapid expansion of the coverage is expected in 2012–2015 as a consequence of the drug donation provided by the original producers. WHO is monitoring this trend and facilitating the process providing direct support to member states, facilitating the drug donation and developing guiding material and strategic plans.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Philip J. Cooper,Camila A. Figuieredo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061244
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Summary : Natural infections with Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum of pigs and humans, respectively, have a worldwide distribution. Ascaris infections induce strong Th2 responses in the host that appear to be central to the development of protective immunity. Th2 responses may be modulated actively through a complex host–parasite interaction that allows the parasite to survive but also limits severe Th2-mediated pathology in the host. The increased production of IL-10 by regulatory cell populations may have a key role in the modulation of the immune response during chronic ascariasis although most evidence in support is derived from experimental infections with A. suum and A. suum antigen extracts. Antigen fractions of A. suum have potent anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models of arthritis and asthma, but other antigen fractions are strong inducers of inflammation. The clinical effects of such immune modulation in humans is uncertain although there is some evidence that chronic infections may be associated with impaired immune responses to vaccines indicating potentially important effects on both mucosal and systemic immunity. Human ascariasis has been associated with an increased risk of asthma and other allergic reactions, observations that preclude the use of experimental infections for the treatment of inflammation in favor of the study of the anti-inflammatory properties of specific molecules derived from Ascaris.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Francisca Abanyie,Tracey J. Lamb
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061275
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Summary : Co-infection with other pathogens is a common occurrence in Ascaris-infected individuals and it is generally accepted that co-infection is not inconsequential to the host. Interactions in the immune responses generated to each pathogen can, in certain situations, alter the pathogenesis and progression of a co-infecting pathogen in an Ascaris-infected host. There is also some evidence that co-infection can impact on the transmission potential of co-infecting pathogens in an Ascaris-infected host. In this chapter we review some of the general principles of co-infection and discuss how Ascaris co-infection may interact with the human immunodeficiency virus and malaria in co-infected hosts. We also explore some of the hypothetical effects co-infection may have on Ascaris infection, in particular with respect to the success of larval migration and the maintenance of adult nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Luis Caraballo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061251
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Summary : Ascaris lumbricoides infects humans causing ascariasis. The immune response to this helminth shares mechanisms with the allergic reaction and may influence the natural history of allergy phenotypes. The high levels of total IgE associated with ascariasis restrict the use of this test in the diagnosis of allergy. Also, the immunological cross-reactivity between Ascaris and domestic mites has implications in the diagnosis of both allergy and ascariasis. Depending on the infection intensity and host’s susceptibility, in countries where helminthiases are still present ascariasis may confer risk or protection for allergy, modifying its prevalence and severity. In parasite-free countries, the lack of helminth-induced immunomodulation could have contributed to the increase in allergic diseases. Other interesting aspects are the role of helminth infections in the evolution of allergic inflammation and the potential usefulness of Ascaris immunomodulator molecules in the treatment of allergic diseases.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Malcolm W. Kennedy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061268
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Summary : In comparison with other helminths that afflict humans on a global scale, Ascaris lumbricoides and ascariasis are relatively under-researched in terms of the proteins and other products to which the parasites expose their hosts. The reputation of the parasite as a source of potent allergens, and the recognition that immune hypersensitivity in the lung caused by migrating larvae is a significant problem, has served to focus attention on immune responses to Ascaris. Research has increasingly focused on the parasite’s products and responses to them in experimental rodents, and in pigs as permissive hosts for the full life-cycle of Ascaris suum. In parallel, immunoepidemiology of ascariasis in humans has been developing, often aimed at understanding how the infection polarizes immune responses. This review deals with the antigens of the parasite, how the immune repertoire to them varies dramatically between infected humans, the genetic loci that are probably involved, and its unpredictability. New work on the molecular structure of the unusual proteins produced by Ascaris and other nematodes is also covered, including the well-known ABA-1 allergen. Emphasis is also placed on a poorly understood aspect of Ascaris immunobiology, prompted by a few tantalizing observations, namely the potential diversity of surface and secreted antigens of the human parasite, and how such polymorphisms could be crucial to understanding the chronicity of ascariasis in the face of continuous loss and recruitment of the parasites themselves.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Sarah Williams-Blangero,Mona H. Fenstad,Satish Kumar,John Blangero
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061350
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Summary : Ascaris infections remain major global public health problems despite the wide availability of cheap, effective anthelminthic drugs. An improved understanding of host susceptibility to Ascaris infection may suggest new approaches for targeting available drugs more effectively, or may suggest novel targets for drug development efforts. This chapter explores our current understanding of the underlying genetic architecture of susceptibility to Ascaris infection. The past and potential future uses of different types of genetic approaches, from quantitative genetic studies of heritability, to gene localization, to sequencing of functional variants, are explored. The field of human complex disease genetics is moving rapidly as a result of both technological and theoretical advances. State-of-the-art genetic techniques promise to yield new insights which will dramatically improve our understanding of the determinants of differential host susceptibility to Ascaris infection.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Charles D. Criscione
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061312
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Summary : The fields of conservation genetics and genetic epidemiology share many parallel questions. Hence, methodologies can be adapted from the former to the latter. Three applications of population genetics are presented to further our understanding of Ascaris epidemiology. (1) I address if Ascaris infections in humans and pigs constitute a single population or subdivided host-affiliated populations with potential for cross-transmission and hybridization. (2) I discuss the use of landscape genetics as a means to identify transmission foci and epidemiologically relevant variables correlated to parasite population substructure. (3) I propose the novel integration of the effective population size (Ne) parameter into population monitoring and epidemiological studies of parasites in general. Using microsatellite data from a metapopulation of A. lumbricoides in Nepal, I demonstrate the utility of estimating Ne with single-sample contemporary estimators, offer epidemiologically related questions that can be addressed with Ne, and highlight assumptions of Ne estimation related to Ascaris biology.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
  • Author : Aaron R. Jex,Shiping Liu,Bo Li,Neil D. Young,Ross S. Hall,Yingrui Li,Peter Geldhof,Peter Nejsum,Paul W. Sternberg,Jun Wang,Huanming Yang,Robin B. Gasser
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-09
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780128061343
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Summary : Parasitic nematodes cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals and people globally and major losses to food production annually. Ascaris is among the commonest geohelminths of swine and people worldwide, and causes major disease and socioeconomic losses, particularly in developing countries. The control of ascariasis has become a global health and welfare priority, but current treatment programs carry a significant risk of inducing anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, there is a need to work toward the sustainable control of Ascaris/ascariasis, built on a solid understanding of its molecular biology and genetics. Recently, we reported the 273 megabase (Mb) draft genome of Ascaris suum (sequenced from the reproductive tract of a single adult female worm) and explored transcription in different organs, stages, and both sexes of this nematode using advanced sequencing and computer technologies. We characterized key genes and biological pathways linked to the parasite’s migration in the host, and its immunobiology, reproduction, and development. We also predicted and prioritized drug targets in A. suum, providing a basis for discovering new groups of nematocides. The present chapter provides an account of these recent advances, describes new methodologies established, and emphasizes prospects for profound investigations into the comparative genomics, genetics, evolution, immunobiology, epidemiology, and ecology of Ascaris from both pig and human hosts as well as for the development of new interventions against ascariasis and other helminthiases.

Immunity to Parasitic Infection

Immunity to Parasitic Infection
  • Author : Tracey Lamb
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-10
  • Total pages :520
  • ISBN : 9781118393338
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Summary : Parasitic infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the world today. Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system. This book examines current knowledge about immune responses to parasitic infections affecting humans, including interactions that occur during co-infections, and how immune responses may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field. An overview of the immune system, as well as introductions to protozoan and helminth parasites, is included to guide background reading. A historical perspective of the field of immunoparasitology acknowledges the contributions of investigators who have been instrumental in developing this field of research.

Human Helminthiasis

Human Helminthiasis
  • Author : Luis Rodrigo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-15
  • Total pages :158
  • ISBN : 9789535129530
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Summary : Human helminthiasis, known as worm infections, is any macroparasitic disease affecting humans, in which a part of the body is invaded by a lot of worms, known as helminths. They are broadly classified into flukes, tapeworms, and roundworms. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are the most important, being included into the neglected tropical diseases. Helminthiasis has been found to result in poor birth outcome, less cognitive development, lower school and work performance, lower socioeconomic development, and poverty. Soil-transmitted helminthiases are responsible for parasitic infections in as much as a quarter of the human population worldwide. This group of infective diseases has been targeted under the joint action of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies and local governments, trying to achieve their eradication.

Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases

Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases
  • Author : Peter J. Hotez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-24
  • Total pages :230
  • ISBN : 9781555818753
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Summary : Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases Second Edition The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common infections of the world's poor, but few people know about these diseases and why they are so important. This second edition of Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases provides an overview of the NTDs and how they devastate the poor, essentially trapping them in a vicious cycle of extreme poverty by preventing them from working or attaining their full intellectual and cognitive development. Author Peter J. Hotez highlights a new opportunity to control and perhaps eliminate these ancient scourges, through alliances between nongovernmental development organizations and private-public partnerships to create a successful environment for mass drug administration and product development activities. Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases also Addresses the myriad changes that have occurred in the field since the previous edition. Describes how NTDs have affected impoverished populations for centuries, changing world history. Considers the future impact of alliances between nongovernmental development organizations and private-public partnerships. Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases is an essential resource for anyone seeking a roadmap to coordinate global advocacy and mobilization of resources to combat NTDs.

Helminth Control in School-age Children

Helminth Control in School-age Children
  • Author : A. Montresor,D. W. T. Crompton,World Health Organization,T.W. Gyorkos,L. Savioli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :64
  • ISBN : 9241545569
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Summary : More than 2000 million people worldwide are affected by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and 155 000 deaths are reported each year. These infections are diseases associated with poverty, and in school-age populations in developing countries, intestinal helminth infections rank first among the causes of all communicable and noncommunicable diseases. This book describes a cost-effective approach to the control of these infections, based on the use of periodic parasitological surveys of school population samples. It is intended as a guide for health education managers responsible for implementing community-based programmes.