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Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-26
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9780124055346
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Summary : Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and up-to-date, this book offers a valuable guide to these cellular processes whilst encouraging researchers to explore their potentially important connections. Volume 3 explores the role of autophagy in specific diseases and developments, including: Crohn’s Disease, Gaucher Disease, Huntington’s Disease, HCV infection, osteoarthritis, and liver injury. A full section is devoted to in-depth exploration of autophagy in tumor development and cancer. Finally, the work explores the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis, with attention to the ways in which autophagy regulates apoptosis, and the ways in which autophagy has been explored in Lepidoptera, elucidating the use of larval midgut as a model for such exploration. From these well-developed foundations, researchers, translational scientists, and practitioners may work to better implement more effective therapies against some of the most devastating human diseases. Volumes in the Series

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-14
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 012405529X
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Summary : Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and up-to-date, this book offers a valuable guide to these cellular processes whilst encouraging researchers to explore their potentially important connections. Volume 3 explores the role of autophagy in specific diseases and developments, including: Crohn's Disease, Gaucher Disease, Huntington's Disease, HCV infection, osteoarthritis, and liver injury. A full section is devoted to in-depth exploration of autophagy in tumor development and cancer. Finally, the work explores the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis, with attention to the ways in which autophagy regulates apoptosis, and the ways in which autophagy has been explored in Lepidoptera, elucidating the use of larval midgut as a model for such exploration. From these well-developed foundations, researchers, translational scientists, and practitioners may work to better implement more effective therapies against some of the most devastating human diseases. Volumes in the Series Volume 1: Molecular Mechanisms. Elucidates autophagy's association with numerous biological processes, including cellular development and differentiation, cancer, immunity, infectious diseases, inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, response to cellular stress, and degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases. Volume 2: Role in General Diseases. Describes the various aspects of the complex process of autophagy in a myriad of devastating human diseases, expanding from a discussion of essential autophagic functions into the role of autophagy in proteins, pathogens, immunity, and general diseases. Volume 3: Role in Specific Diseases. Explores the role of autophagy in specific diseases and developments, including: Crohn's Disease, Gaucher Disease, Huntington's Disease, HCV infection, osteoarthritis, and liver injury, with a full section devoted to in-depth exploration of autophagy in tumor development and cancer, as well as the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis. Volume 4: Mitophagy. Presents detailed information on the role of mitophagy, the selective autophagy of mitochondria, in health and disease, by delivering an in-depth treatment of the molecular mechanisms involved in mitophagy initiation and execution, as well as the role of mitophagy in Parkinson Disease, cardiac aging, and skeletal muscle atrophy. Volume 5: Role in Human Diseases. Comprehensively describes the role of autophagy in human diseases, delivering coverage of the antitumor and protumor roles of autophagy; the therapeutic inhibition of autophagy in cancer; and the duality of autophagy's effects in various cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders. Volume 6: Regulation of Autophagy and Selective Autophagy. Provides coverage of the mechanisms of regulation of autophagy; intracellular pathogen use of the autophagy mechanism; the role of autophagy in host immunity; and selective autophagy. Volume 7: Role of Autophagy in Therapeutic Applications. Provides coverage of the latest developments in autophagosome biogenesis and regulation; the role of autophagy in protein quality control; the role of autophagy in apoptosis; autophagy in the cardiovascular system; and the relationships between autophagy and lifestyle. Volume 8: Autophagy and Human Diseases. Reviews recent advancements in the molecular mechanisms underlying a large number of genetic and epigenetic diseases and abnormalities, and introduces new, more effective therapeutic strategies, in the development of targeted drugs and programmed cell death, providing information that will aid on preventing detrimental inflammation. Volume 9: Necrosis and Inflammation in Human Diseases. Emphasizes the role of Autophagy in necrosis and inflammation, explaining in detail the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the formation of autophagosomes, including the progression of Omegasomes to autophagosomes. Brings together oncologists, neurosurgeons, physicians, research scientists, and pathologists in the field of autophagy to discuss cutting-edge developments in this rapidly-advancing field Builds upon recent advances in genome-scale approaches and computational tools to discuss the advances in regulation of autophagy at the systems level Organized for readers into easy-to-access sections: molecular mechanisms; role of autophagy in disease; role of autophagy in cancer; and autophagy and apoptosis Explores exciting new developments, including the measurement of autophagic flux; the molecular role of the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16 complex; and the molecular bases of autophagosome formation in yeast

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-08
  • Total pages :430
  • ISBN : 9780128029510
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Summary : Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging: Volume 9: Human Diseases and Autophagosome offers a valuable guide to both cellular processes while helping researchers explore their potentially important connections. Volume 9 emphasizes the role of autophagy in diseases, such as leukemia, antifungal and antibacterial immunity, and transplantation. This volume also explains, in detail, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the formation of autophagosomes, including the progression of omegasomes to autophagosomes. This information is important because one of the major functions of autophagy is to degrade and eliminate excessive, old, and harmful materials from the cell. Autophagosomes receive these materials (cellular cargo) and transport them to lysosomes for degradation. Lysosomes contain the digestive enzymes (hydrolases) that breakdown proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, etc. (self-digestion). To further explain this phenomenon, the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the formation of autophagosomes is discussed. ULK1 and Beclin 1 proteins are also important in the initial formation of autophagosomes, and are also discussed. Because much of the early research in this area was carried out using yeast cells, the role of Golgi complex in the autophagosome formation in these cells is explained. This volume also includes an explanation of the role of the autophagy-related gene ATG5 in cancer (e.g., gastrointestinal cancer). Paradoxically, autophagy is a “double-edged sword because it eliminates some pathogens, whereas it can be used by some intracellular pathogens to multiply and cause infection. This book is an asset to newcomers, providing a concise overview of the role of autophagy in necrosis and inflammation, while also serving as an excellent reference for more experienced scientists and clinicians. Presents the most advanced information regarding the role of the autophagic system in life and death emphasizes autophagy in diseases, such as leukemia Introduces new, more effective therapeutic strategies in the development of targeted drugs and programmed cell death, providing information that will aid in preventing detrimental inflammation States recent advancements in the molecular mechanisms underlying a large number of genetic and epigenetic diseases and abnormalities Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field from around the globe—the broadest, most expert coverage available

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-07
  • Total pages :622
  • ISBN : 9780128121474
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Summary : Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging, Volume 12 discusses and details almost all aspects of the autophagy machinery in the context of health, cancer and other pathologies. Autophagy is more widely accepted as beneficial given its role in eliminating ‘toxic assets’ and promoting cell viability, hence, it has emerged as a new and potent modulator of disease progression that is both scientifically intriguing and clinically relevant. As the latest release in the Autophagy book series, users will find a detailed explanation of the role of molecular mechanisms. Presents the most advanced information regarding the role of the autophagic system in life and death States recent advancements in the molecular mechanisms underlying a large number of genetic and epigenetic diseases and abnormalities Summarizes the most up-to-date findings on how autophagy is executed and regulated at the molecular level and how its disruption can lead to disease Authored by global leaders in the field, bringing the broadest, most expert coverage available

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-31
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : 9780128010532
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Summary : Volume 6 provides coverage of the mechanisms of regulation of autophagy; intracellular pathogen use of the autophagy mechanism; the role of autophagy in host immunity; and selective autophagy. Attention is given to a number of mechanistic advances in the understanding of regulation, particularly the importance of nutrient availability; microRNAs; and cross-talk with other protein degradation pathways. Intracellular pathogen repurposing of autophagy for pathogenic benefit is also provided, with coverage of Herpesvirus protein modulation of autophagy; the varicella-zoster virus and the maintenance of homeostasis; and the relationship between autophagy and the hepatitis b virus. The significance of autophagy in host defense is elucidated, providing a specific focus on facilitation of antigen presentation; participation in thymic development; and the sharing of regulatory nodes with innate immunity. Selective autophagy for the degradation of mitochondria and endocytosed gap junctions are also explored. This book is an asset to newcomers as a concise overview of the regulation of autophagy, its role in host defense and immunity, and selective autophagy, while serving as an excellent reference for more experienced scientists and clinicians looking to update their knowledge. Volumes in the Series

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-02-12
  • Total pages :316
  • ISBN : 9780128010525
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Summary : Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and up-to-date, this book offers a valuable guide to these cellular processes whilst inciting researchers to explore their potentially important connections. Volume 7 provides coverage of the latest developments in autophagosome biogenesis and regulation; the role of autophagy in protein quality control; and the role of autophagy in apoptosis. Attention is given to autophagy in the cardiovascular system, with particular insights into the role of autophagy in atherosclerosis and the distinctive behavior of autophagy in the sinoatrial node. Cutting-edge findings in the relationships between autophagy and lifestyle are explored with the regulation of macroautophagy in response to exercise, as well as the promotion of carcinogenesis via autophagy in response to cigarette smoking. Volume 7 highlights the importance of understanding the role of autophagy in context, as the complexity of autophagic function becomes increasingly clear. Autophagy may be differentially regulated, and may perform distinctive cell-specific functions even within a single tissue. The overall significance of autophagy thus cannot be oversimplified, and must be explored with granular detail of the specific role, function, and area of impact. This book is an asset to newcomers as a concise overview of the complex significance of autophagy, while serving as an excellent reference for more experienced scientists and clinicians looking to update their knowledge. Volumes in the Series

Autophagy and Cancer

Autophagy and Cancer
  • Author : Hong-Gang Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-30
  • Total pages :261
  • ISBN : 9781461465614
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Summary : With the explosion of information on autophagy in cancer, this is an opportune time to speed the efforts to translate our current knowledge about autophagy regulation into better understanding of its role in cancer. This book will cover the latest advances in this area from the basics, such as the molecular machinery for autophagy induction and regulation, up to the current areas of interest such as modulation of autophagy and drug discovery for cancer prevention and treatment. The text will include an explanation on how autophagy can function in both oncogenesis and tumor suppression and a description of its function in tumor development and tumor suppression through its roles in cell survival, cell death, cell growth as well as its influences on inflammation, immunity, DNA damage, oxidative stress, tumor microenvironment, etc. The remaining chapters will cover topics on autophagy and cancer therapy. These pages will serve as a description on how the pro-survival function of autophagy may help cancer cells resist chemotherapy and radiation treatment as well as how the pro-death functions of autophagy may enhance cell death in response to cancer therapy, and how to target autophagy for cancer prevention and therapy − what to target and how to target it. ​

Autophagy in Health and Disease

Autophagy in Health and Disease
  • Author : Roberta A. Gottlieb
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-16
  • Total pages :227
  • ISBN : 9780123851017
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Summary : Autophagy in Health and Disease offers an overview of the latest research in autophagy with a translational emphasis. This publication takes scientific research in autophagy a step further and offers integrated content with advancements in autophagy from cell biology and biochemical research to clinical treatments. A necessary reference for the bookshelf of medical and scientific researchers and students, Autophagy in Health and Disease presents high quality, reputable information on autophagy, allowing the reader quick access to the most applicable information. Discusses current understanding of the roles of autophagy in health and disease Covers the background of autophagy, the development of tools and therapeutics to measure and modulate autophagy, and autophagy in tissues and disease processes Features an accompanying website with figures and tables

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-09-26
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : 9780128010549
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Summary : Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and up-to-date, this book offers a valuable guide to these cellular processes whilst inciting researchers to explore their potentially important connections. Volume 5 comprehensively describes the role of autophagy in human diseases, delivering coverage of the antitumor and protumor roles of autophagy; the therapeutic inhibition of autophagy in cancer; and the duality of autophagy’s effects in various cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders. In spite of the increasing importance of autophagy in the various pathophysiological conditions mentioned above, this process remains underestimated and overlooked. As a consequence, its role in the initiation, stability, maintenance, and progression of these and other diseases remains poorly understood. This book is an asset to newcomers as a concise overview of the diverse disease implications of autophagy, while serving as an excellent reference for more experienced scientists and clinicians looking to update their knowledge. Volumes in the Series

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M A Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-20
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 0128054204
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Summary : Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and forward-thinking, these books offer a valuable guide to both cellular processes while inciting researchers to explore their potentially important connections. Autophagy serves to maintain healthy cells, tissues, and organs, but also promotes cancer survival and growth of established tumors. Impaired or deregulated autophagy can also contribute to disease pathogenesis. This is the 11 volume of the multivolume series, Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging. The series discusses in detail almost all aspects of the autophagy machinery in the context of health, cancer, and other pathologies. Autophagy maintains homeostasis during starvation or stress conditions by balancing the synthesis of cellular components and their deregulation by autophagy. Volume 11 of the Autophagy series discusses the characterization of autophagosome-enriched vaccines and its efficacy in cancer immunotherapy. Presents the most advanced information regarding the role of the autophagic system in life and death and whether autophagy acts fundamentally as a cell survivor or cell death pathway or both Introduces new, more effective therapeutic strategies, in the development of targeted drugs and programmed cell death, providing information that will aid on preventing detrimental inflammation States recent advancements in the molecular mechanisms underlying a large number of genetic and epigenetic diseases and abnormalities, including atherosclerosis and CNS tumors, and their development and treatment Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe - the broadest, most expert coverage available

Handbook on Immunosenescence

Handbook on Immunosenescence
  • Author : Tamas Fulop,Claudio Franceschi,Katsuiki Hirokawa,Graham Pawelec
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-02-27
  • Total pages :1693
  • ISBN : 9781402090639
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Summary : This authoritative handbook covers all aspects of immunosenescence, with contributions from experts in the research and clinical areas. It examines methods and models for studying immunosenescence; genetics; mechanisms including receptors and signal transduction; clinical relevance in disease states including infections, autoimmunity, cancer, metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases, frailty and osteoporosis; and much more.

Autophagy

Autophagy
  • Author : Karin Eberhart,Ozlem Oral,Devrim Gozuacik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-29
  • Total pages :360
  • ISBN : 9780128069189
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Summary : Autophagy is a cellular degradation and recycling pathway contributing to cell survival under stressful conditions (e.g., starvation and growth factor deprivation). Depending on the cellular context, excessive autophagy might sometimes lead to a non-apoptotic programmed death, namely autophagic cell death. Studies using various pharmacological agents and substances with anticancer properties revealed a role for autophagy in cancer cell elimination. In this chapter, we will document and analyze the contribution of autophagy to cell death activated by various anticancer agents. The chapter will be limited to cases where blockage of autophagy using chemical inhibitors or genetic approaches resulted in the survival of cancer cells during drug treatment – hence, to examples of autophagy-related or autophagic cell death (ACD). In other words, in studies that will be discussed here, autophagy seemed to play a rate-limiting role in cellular demise, irrespective of the downstream executionary event. Paradoxically, autophagy was reported to play a prosurvival role (i.e., inhibition of autophagy potentiated cell death) in other cancer cell types treated with similar drugs, underlining the cellular context dependence of ACD. Usage of drugs downregulating anti-autophagic pathways (e.g., mTORC1 and AKT pathways) or stimulating dissociation of the key autophagy protein BECN1 (Beclin 1 protein) from an inhibitory complex with BCL-2 proteins as monotherapy or combination treatment seemed to strongly activate ACD and to overcome the death resistance of cancer cells in several cases. Yet death execution mechanisms downstream of autophagy have been revealed to be multiple. In addition to lysosomal degradation-mediated mechanisms, apoptosis, necroptosis, or lysosomal membrane permeabilization were involved in autophagy-related cell death. Nevertheless, the study and exploitation of autophagy and ACD certainly has the potential to give rise to novel and effective treatment strategies, especially in cancer types that are refractory to conventional chemotherapy and associated with poor prognosis.

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-28
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780124055339
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Summary : Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection and Aging, Volume 4 - Mitophagy presents detailed information on the role of mitophagy, the selective autophagy of mitochondria, in health and disease, by delivering an in-depth treatment of the molecular mechanisms involved in mitophagy initiation and execution, as well as the role of mitophagy in Parkinson's Disease, cardiac aging, and skeletal muscle atrophy. The most current understanding of the proteins and pathways involved in mitophagy are covered, with specific attention to Nix and Bnip3, PINK1/Parkin, Atg32, and FUNDC1. The role of mitophagy in cancer, neurodegeneration, aging, infection, and inflammation is also discussed providing essential insights into the pathogenesis of a variety of mitochondria dysfunction-related diseases. This book is an asset to newcomers as a concise overview of the current knowledge on mitophagy, while serving as an excellent update reference for more experienced scientists working on other aspects of autophagy. From these well-developed foundations, researchers, translational scientists, and practitioners may work to better implement more effective therapies against some of the most devastating human diseases. Volumes in the Series

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-29
  • Total pages :360
  • ISBN : 9780124055353
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Summary : Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and forward thinking, these books offer a valuable guide to both cellular processes while inciting researchers to explore their potentially important connections. Considering that autophagy is associated with numerous biological processes, including cellular development and differentiation, cancer (both antitumor and protumor functions), immunity, infectious diseases, inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, response to cellular stress, and degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson's, Huntington's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases, there is a great need to understanding its role. Cell homeostasis is achieved by balancing biosynthesis and cellular turnover. In spite of the increasing importance of autophagy in various pathophysiological situations (conditions) mentioned above, this process remains underestimated and overlooked. As a consequence, its role in the initiation, stability, maintenance, and progression of these and other diseases (e.g., autoimmune disease) remains poorly understood. Volumes in the Series

Autophagy in Current Trends in Cellular Physiology and Pathology

Autophagy in Current Trends in Cellular Physiology and Pathology
  • Author : Nikolai Gorbunov,E. Marion Schneider
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-10
  • Total pages :526
  • ISBN : 9789535127260
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Summary : Autophagy in Current Trends in Cellular Physiology and Pathology is addressed to one of the fundamental molecular mechanisms - autophagy- evolutionarily adopted by cells for processing of unnecessary or malfunctioned constituents and shaping intracellular structures, adjusting them to environmental conditions, aging, disease, neoplasia, and damages over their life period. Particular attention is paid to autophagy-mediated barrier processes of selective sequestration and recycling of impaired organelles and degradation of invading microorganisms, that is, the processes sustaining intrinsic resistance to stress, tissue degeneration, toxic exposures, and infections. The presented topics encompass personal experience and visions of the chapter contributors and the editors; the book chapters include a broad analysis of literature on biology of autophagy.

Immunosenescence

Immunosenescence
  • Author : Graham Pawelec
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-12-18
  • Total pages :194
  • ISBN : 0387768424
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Summary : Human immunosenescence contributes to morbidity and mortality in later life. Understanding the reasons for age-associated alterations to protective immunity in the elderly would ultimately improve and extend healthspan. The majority of the papers collected in this remarkable and timely volume address the mechanisms responsible for immune ageing in humans. They also consider what might be accomplished to redress the erosion of immune competence with age.

Autophagy

Autophagy
  • Author : Ying Tang,Jiangang Long,Jiankang Liu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-29
  • Total pages :360
  • ISBN : 9780128069134
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Summary : Hyperglycemia refers to a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. A wide range of evidence has proved hyperglycemia to be a great inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), through which various processes and signaling transduction cascades are activated or inhibited. Bursts of ROS can be produced by mitochondria, NADPH oxidase, and xanthine oxidase under hyperglycemia. These excessive ROS will further cause oxidative stress and contribute to the development of hyperglycemia complications. One of the downstream processes affected by redox imbalance is autophagy. Increasing evidence shows disturbed autophagy in cell lines treated with high glucose or in animals under hyperglycemia. The signaling pathways involved in are quite controversial, however. Here, we focus on the ROS-ERK/JNK-p53 pathway and discuss its potential role in activating autophagy in the condition of hyperglycemia.

Autophagy Regulation of Innate Immunity

Autophagy Regulation of Innate Immunity
  • Author : Jun Cui
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-14
  • Total pages :203
  • ISBN : 9789811506062
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Summary : This book discusses novel concepts and discoveries concerning the regulation of innate immunity by autophagy and autophagy-related proteins. In the past decade, there have been major advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of autophagy and its physiological functions. This book highlights emerging studies on the underlying mechanisms of autophagy regulation of innate immunity, including inflammation, antiviral immunity and anti-bacterial responses and the signaling pathways that prompt or inhibit the initiation and progression of related diseases. It also offers new ideas and strategies for future drugs based on manipulating autophagy, especially selective autophagy mediated by cargo receptors. Providing a comprehensive overview of the autophagy regulation of innate immunity, it is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in the fields of immunology, cell biology and translational medicine.

Aging and Health - A Systems Biology Perspective

Aging and Health - A Systems Biology Perspective
  • Author : A.I. Yashin,S.M. Jazwinski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-09
  • Total pages :206
  • ISBN : 9783318027303
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Summary : Aging is a major risk factor for chronic diseases, which in turn can provide information about the aging of a biological system. This publication serves as an introduction to systems biology and its application to biological aging. Key pathways and processes that impinge on aging are reviewed, and how they contribute to health and disease during aging is discussed. The evolution of this situation is analyzed, and the consequences for the study of genetic effects on aging are presented. Epigenetic programming of aging, as a continuation of development, creates an interface between the genome and the environment. New research into the gut microbiome describes how this interface may operate in practice with marked consequences for a variety of disorders. This analysis is bolstered by a view of the aging organism as a whole, with conclusions about the mechanisms underlying resilience of the organism to change, and is expanded with a discussion of circadian rhythms in aging. Finally, the book presents an outlook for the development of interventions to delay or to reverse the features of aging. The publication is recommended to students, researchers as well as professionals dealing with public health and public policy related to an aging society.

Autophagy

Autophagy
  • Author : Rajesh Kumar Dutta,Gaurav Sharma,Mohammad Aslam Khan,Mohammad Ishaq,Kapil Sharma,Sekhar Majumdar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-03
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128069370
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Summary : Tuberculosis is still a major threat to the human population, and understanding the strategies employed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been a challenge to researchers for decades. The significance of IL6 production in tuberculosis is still not clear, although it has been known for quite some time that IL6 interferes with IFN-γ induced signaling. Recently, research from our laboratory has identified a significant strategy adopted by virulent mycobacteria. Virulent mycobacteria upregulate IL6 production to inhibit IFN-γ induced autophagy formation, and thus avoid phagosome maturation and subsequent killing by lysosomal enzymes. This report is based on several observations. Exogenous IL6 inhibits IFN-γ induced autophagy in M. tuberculosis H37Rv-infected macrophages. M. tuberculosis H37Rv infection results in time-dependent production of IL6 in THP-1 cells, and neutralization of this endogenous IL6 by anti-IL6 antibody significantly enhances IFN-γ mediated killing of the intracellular bacteria. IL6 time-dependently lowers the Atg12–Atg5 complex and therefore inhibits autophagosome biogenesis rather than autophagolysosome formation. IL6 also affects IFN-γ mediated stimulation of mTOR, p38, and JNK pathways.

Advances in HIV and AIDS Control

Advances in HIV and AIDS Control
  • Author : Samuel Ikwaras Okware
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-12
  • Total pages :258
  • ISBN : 9781789846027
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Summary : The HIV epidemic has had a significant and profound impact on the world and health resources. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the risks and drivers of the epidemic. Antiretroviral drugs have relieved human suffering and prolonged life. However, access to quality management needs to scale up and be made universal. This book discusses critical issues related to the treatment of HIV infection and related co-infections and challenges in adherence and discordancy. New vaccine approaches discussed may provide the ultimate solution for eradication. Sharing knowledge from various experts in medical and basic sciences improves the quality of care for this persistent global threat. This book discusses emerging advances in HIV-AIDS management to support strategies for control and elimination.