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Balancing Regional Greenhouse Gas Budgets

Balancing Regional Greenhouse Gas Budgets
  • Author : Benjamin Poulter,Joseph Canadell,Daniel Hayes,Rona Thompson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-15
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 0128149523
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Summary : Balancing Regional Greenhouse Gas Budgets: Accounting for Natural and Anthropogenic Flows of CO2 and other Trace Gases provides a synthesis of greenhouse gas budgeting activities across the world. Organized in four sections, including background, methods, case studies and opportunities, it is an interdisciplinary book covering both science and policy. All environments are covered, from terrestrial to ocean, along with atmospheric processes using models, inventories and observations to give a complete overview of greenhouse gas accounting. Perspectives presented give readers the tools necessary to understand budget activities, think critically, and use the framework to carry out initiatives. Written by a combination of experts across career stages, presenting an integrated perspective for graduate students and professionals alike Includes sections authored by those involved in both early and later IPCC assessments Provides an interdisciplinary resource that spans many topics and methodologies in oceanic, land and atmospheric processes

The Greenhouse Gas Balance of Italy

The Greenhouse Gas Balance of Italy
  • Author : Riccardo Valentini,Franco Miglietta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-29
  • Total pages :211
  • ISBN : 9783642324246
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Summary : The book addresses in a comprehensive way the full greenhouse gases budget of the Italian landscape, focusing on land use and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of terrestrial ecosystems with regard to the carbon cycle and only recently a regional approach has been considered for its specificity in terms of new methodologies for observations and models and its relevance for national policies on mitigation and adaptation to climate changes. In terms of methods this book describes the role of flux networks and data-driven models, airborne regional measurements of fluxes and specific sectoral approaches related to important components of the human and natural landscapes. There is also a growing need on the part of institutions, agencies and policy stakeholders for new data and analyses enabling them to improve their national inventories of greenhouse gases and their compliance with the UNFCCC process. In this respect the data presented is a basis for a full carbon accounting and available to relevant stakeholders for improvements and/or verification of national inventories. The wealth of research information is the result of a national project, CARBOITALY, which involved 15 Italian institutions and several researchers to provide new data and analyses in the framework of climate policies.

Integrated Observations of Greenhouse Gas Budgets at the Ecosystem Level

Integrated Observations of Greenhouse Gas Budgets at the Ecosystem Level
  • Author : Dimmie Miep Doortje Hendriks
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :202
  • ISBN : 9086593801
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Summary :

The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe

The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe
  • Author : Han Dolman,Riccardo Valentini,A. Freibauer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-06
  • Total pages :390
  • ISBN : 9780387765709
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Summary : This book assesses the current greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring capabilities of Europe, identifies and quantifies the uncertainties involved, and outlines the direction to a continental scale GHG monitoring network. The book uniquely addresses both the methodology of carbon cycle science and the science itself, providing a synthesis of carbon cycle science. The methods included provide the first comprehensive coverage of a full GHG accounting and monitoring system.

Using Micrometeorological Methods and Modeling to Determine Greenhouse Gas Budgets Over Agricultural Systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest

Using Micrometeorological Methods and Modeling to Determine Greenhouse Gas Budgets Over Agricultural Systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest
  • Author : Sarah Rachel Waldo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :198
  • ISBN : OCLC:961107792
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Summary : Cropping systems can be net sources or net sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) depending on climate and management. Agriculture can be a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2) if climate and management conditions are conducive for the build-up of soil organic matter. At the same time, agricultural soils are the main anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is both a GHG and an ozone depleting substance. The work presented in this dissertation investigates the dynamics of CO2 and N2O fluxes over terrestrial systems in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) using measurements and modeling. The first study used the eddy covariance micrometeorological method to monitor fluxes of CO2 for two years at two agricultural sites representing the low- and high-end of the regional precipitation gradient. Combining the measured net ecosystem exchange of CO2 with information on carbon (C) export during harvest, we found that both sites were net carbon sinks. The high-rainfall site had a two-year C balance of 202 +/- 60 g C m-2, and the low-rainfall site had a C balance of 444 +/- 34 g C m-2. The second study used the flux gradient micrometeorological technique and automated static chambers to measure N 2O emissions over one year at two agricultural sites, one under no-tillage management (CAF-NT) and one that had conventional tillage (CAF-CT). The chamber results indicated total annual emissions of 2.7 +/- 1.6 kg N2O-N ha-1 and 4.4 +/- 3.2 kg N2O-N a-1 from CAF-NT and CAF-CT, respectively, while the flux gradient results indicated that CAF-NT and CAF-CT had total annual emissions of 2.1 +/- 0.4 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 kg N2O-N a-1, respectively. The third study investigates coupling the GHG processes in the Community Land Model (CLM) with a PNW regional air quality model. Results from two exploratory model runs are presented, which indicate that using CLM can strengthen monitoring and improve emission inventories in the PNW. The policy chapter is a review of California's plan to reduce elevated drinking-water nitrate levels, which are due to agricultural fertilizer use. This is a case where open-access to publications and data sets would expedite the formulation of good policy.

Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: The Hungarian Perspective

Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: The Hungarian Perspective
  • Author : László Haszpra
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-10-29
  • Total pages :393
  • ISBN : 9048199506
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Summary : Human induced global climate change is the biggest challenge humankind faces today. Increasing amount of atmospheric greenhouse gases play a crucial role in the evolution of the climate. Without the understanding of the contributing processes, feedbacks and interactions we cannot predict the future changes and develop effective mitigation strategies. To decrease the uncertainty of the global studies detailed regional studies are needed surveying the regional characteristics of the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget and the influencing factors. Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: The Hungarian Perspective covers a coherent subset of the Hungarian climate change oriented research that is directly related to greenhouse gases. Topics discussed in the book range from the monitoring of the concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases, through the modeling of atmosphere-biosphere interaction and greenhouse gas exchange processes, to the review of the anthropogenic contribution of Hungary to the greenhouse gas budget of the atmosphere. The studies call the attention to the regional properties which may modulate the European scale or global picture on the variation of atmospheric greenhouse gases.

Soils and the Greenhouse Effect

Soils and the Greenhouse Effect
  • Author : International Conference Soils and the Greenhouse Effect
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1990
  • Total pages :575
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822005134200
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Summary : Conclusions and recommendations of conference working groups. Background. Global distribution of the major soils and land cover types. Exchange of greenhouse gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Estimating the effect of changing land use on transpiration and evaporation. The effect changing land cover on the surface energy balance. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring of vegetation, and for estimating evapotranspiration and phytomass production . Soil processes and properties involved in the production of greenhouse gases, with special relevance to soil taxonomic systems. Geography. Quantification of soil and change in their properties. Modelling global terrestrial sources and sinkes of CO2 with special reference to soil organic matter. Biotic sources of nitous oxide(N2O) in the context of the global budget of nitrous oxide. Soil and land use related sources and sinks of methane(CH4) in the context of the global methane budget. Gas flux measurement techiques with special reference to techniques suitable for measurements over large ecologically uniform areas. Analysis of vegetation changes using satellite data. Global data bases for evaluating trace gas sources and sinks. The effect of land use change on net radiation and its partitioning into heat fluxes. Quantification of regional dry and wet canopy evaporation. Concluding ramarks. Extended abstracts. Greenhouse gas fluxes; carbon dioxide. Grenhouse gas fluxes; methane., Grenhouse gas fluxes; nitrous oxide. Methods. Partitioning of solar energy. Soil moisture.

Climate Change

Climate Change
  • Author : The Royal Society,National Academy of Sciences
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-26
  • Total pages :36
  • ISBN : 9780309302029
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Summary : Climate Change: Evidence and Causes is a jointly produced publication of The US National Academy of Sciences and The Royal Society. Written by a UK-US team of leading climate scientists and reviewed by climate scientists and others, the publication is intended as a brief, readable reference document for decision makers, policy makers, educators, and other individuals seeking authoritative information on the some of the questions that continue to be asked. Climate Change makes clear what is well-established and where understanding is still developing. It echoes and builds upon the long history of climate-related work from both national academies, as well as on the newest climate-change assessment from the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It touches on current areas of active debate and ongoing research, such as the link between ocean heat content and the rate of warming.

Radiative Forcing of Climate Change

Radiative Forcing of Climate Change
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Climate Research Committee,Committee on Radiative Forcing Effects on Climate
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-03-25
  • Total pages :222
  • ISBN : 0309133505
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Summary : Changes in climate are driven by natural and human-induced perturbations of the Earth’s energy balance. These climate drivers or "forcings" include variations in greenhouse gases, aerosols, land use, and the amount of energy Earth receives from the Sun. Although climate throughout Earth’s history has varied from "snowball" conditions with global ice cover to "hothouse" conditions when glaciers all but disappeared, the climate over the past 10,000 years has been remarkably stable and favorable to human civilization. Increasing evidence points to a large human impact on global climate over the past century. The report reviews current knowledge of climate forcings and recommends critical research needed to improve understanding. Whereas emphasis to date has been on how these climate forcings affect global mean temperature, the report finds that regional variation and climate impacts other than temperature deserve increased attention.

Surface Ocean

Surface Ocean
  • Author : Corinne Le Quéré,Eric S. Saltzman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-02
  • Total pages :329
  • ISBN : 9781118671498
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Summary : Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 187. The focus of Surface Ocean: Lower Atmosphere Processes is biogeochemical interactions between the surface ocean and the lower atmosphere. This volume is an outgrowth of the Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) Summer School. The volume is designed to provide graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and researchers from a wide range of academic backgrounds with a basis for understanding the nature of ocean-atmosphere interactions and the current research issues in this area. The volume highlights include the following: Background material on ocean and atmosphere structure, circulation, and chemistry and on marine ecosystems Integrative chapters on the global carbon cycle and ocean biogeochemistry Issue-oriented chapters on the iron cycle and dimethylsulfide Tool-oriented chapters on biogeochemical modeling and remote sensing A framework of underlying physical/chemical/biological principles, as well as perspectives on current research issues in the field. The readership for this book will include graduate students and/or advanced undergraduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and researchers in the fields of oceanography and atmospheric science. It will also be useful for experienced researchers in specific other disciplines who wish to broaden their perspectives on the complex biogeochemical coupling between ocean and atmosphere and the importance of this coupling to understanding global change.

Understanding and Modelling Moss Carbon Dynamics in Black Spruce Forests

Understanding and Modelling Moss Carbon Dynamics in Black Spruce Forests
  • Author : Kelly Ann Bona
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:911043188
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Summary : "Mosses play a key role in the carbon (C) budget of black spruce forests, which are widely distributed across Canada and throughout the circumboreal region. Mosses are currently not included in the forest C stock accounting of large-scale national models used by Canada to meet international greenhouse gas reporting requirements. It is therefore essential to increase our scientific understanding of the dynamics of moss-C accumulation in black spruce forest ecosystems in a national-scale context. This thesis was inspired by Canada's national-scale carbon accounting model, the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3). The model was designed to provide operational forest managers with a tool to make informed management decisions based on C balance simulation of future scenarios. The model can also be scaled-up to provide regional- or national-C estimates. Previous research and inventory has shown that black spruce forests are widespread in many regions across the country, and that mosses have the potential to contribute significantly to the carbon budget of these systems. Nevertheless, the CBM-CFS3 does not account for moss-derived carbon in these forests. My overall objective is to improve scientific understanding of the C dynamics of mosses in black spruce-dominated forests from the perspective of including them in nationally-scaled models such as the CBM-CFS3. To accomplish this I: 1) investigate the potential of moss-derived C to improve the current inadequacy present in the simulation of black spruce soil carbon by CBM-CFS3, 2) collect ground plot data across several study regions in Canada to define moss-tree relationships that can be used as tools to model moss-C accumulation at the regional- or national-scale, and 3) build, test and examine a sub-model for moss-C accumulation that can be added to the CBM-CFS3 model framework to improve carbon budget accounting in black spruce forests across Canada. This research demonstrated that large differences between field-measured C stocks and CBM-CFS3 model predictions in poorly drained black spruce forests were of the same order of magnitude as would be expected if mosses could be included in the model. The field component of the research identified significant relationships between merchantable timber, canopy openness, and the relative abundance and productivity of feather moss and sphagnum moss. Together, these relationships allowed the input and loss of C via mosses to be modelled. The addition of the MOSS-C sub-model to CBM-CFS3 reduced the residual error by five fold; however, we found that the dynamics of the productivity-decomposition pathway included in the model were insufficient to account for all of variation in observed C stocks. The study suggests avenues for future research to better understand the complex interactions between decomposition, weather and fire regime on deep layer carbon storage. The key scientific merits of this thesis are: 1) the demonstration and quantification of the importance of mosses in the carbon budget of black spruce forests in national-scale models such as the CBM-CFS3, 2) the examination of the moss-tree relationships derived from field collected data that can be used to predict moss-C accumulation across several study regions in Canada, 3) the creation of a MOSS-C sub-model that can be directly applied into the current CBM-CFS3 model framework and strengthen the model's ability to predict organic soil C in black spruce forest systems nationally. Together these contributions act to provide an important first step at studying moss-C accumulation from the perspective of large-scale national or regional forest carbon budgets. They also help to demonstrate that if natural resource scientists aim to improve our ability to predict moss-C in black spruce stands at a national-scale than future work is needed in black spruce-moss ecology from a multi-scaled perspective to complement the work presented in this thesis." --

The Budget of the United States Government

The Budget of the United States Government
  • Author : United States. Office of Management and Budget
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : WISC:89119222370
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Summary :

Implementing a US Carbon Tax

Implementing a US Carbon Tax
  • Author : Ian Parry,Adele Morris,Roberton C. Williams III
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-02-11
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9781317602088
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Summary : Although the future extent and effects of global climate change remain uncertain, the expected damages are not zero, and risks of serious environmental and macroeconomic consequences rise with increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Despite the uncertainties, reducing emissions now makes sense, and a carbon tax is the simplest, most effective, and least costly way to do this. At the same time, a carbon tax would provide substantial new revenues which may be badly needed, given historically high debt-to-GDP levels, pressures on social security and medical budgets, and calls to reform taxes on personal and corporate income. This book is about the practicalities of introducing a carbon tax, set against the broader fiscal context. It consists of thirteen chapters, written by leading experts, covering the full range of issues policymakers would need to understand, such as the revenue potential of a carbon tax, how the tax can be administered, the advantages of carbon taxes over other mitigation instruments and the environmental and macroeconomic impacts of the tax. A carbon tax can work in the United States. This volume shows how, by laying out sound design principles, opportunities for broader policy reforms, and feasible solutions to specific implementation challenges.

Estonia in the System of Global Climate Change

Estonia in the System of Global Climate Change
  • Author : Jaan-Mati Punning
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :206
  • ISBN : CORNELL:31924073251112
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Summary :

The Budget of the United States Government

The Budget of the United States Government
  • Author : United States
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OSU:32437123376135
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Summary :

Atmospheric Justice

Atmospheric Justice
  • Author : Steve Vanderheiden
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :282
  • ISBN : 9780199733125
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Summary : "While making justice a primary objective of global climate policy has been the movement's noblest aspiration, it remains an onerous challenge for policymakers. - Atmospheric Justice is the first single-authored work of political theory that addresses this pressing challenge via the conceptual frameworks of justice, equality, and responsibility. - Steve Vanderheiden points toward ways to achieve environmental justice by exploring how climate change raises issues of both international and intergenerational justice."--BOOK JACKET.

Year of the Ocean Discussion Papers

Year of the Ocean Discussion Papers
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UVA:35007002910481
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Summary :

Fiscal Year 2013 Appendix, Budget of the U.S. Government

Fiscal Year 2013 Appendix, Budget of the U.S. Government
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1230987654XX
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Summary : Presents detailed information on individual programs and appropriation accounts that constitute the budget. Includes for each Government department and agency the text of proposed appropriations language, budget schedules for each account, new legislative proposals, and explanations of the work to be performed and the funds needed, and proposed general provisions applicable to the appropriations of entire agencies or groups of agencies. NOTE: NO FURTHER DISCOUNTS FOR ALREADY REDUCED SALE ITEMS.

Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change
  • Author : Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1990
  • Total pages :35
  • ISBN : UCR:31210010947263
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Summary :

The Role of Boreal Forests and Forestry in the Global Carbon Budget

The Role of Boreal Forests and Forestry in the Global Carbon Budget
  • Author : International Boreal Forest Research Association. Conference,Cindy Shaw,Michael J. Apps,Northern Forestry Centre (Canada)
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : MINN:31951D02058421H
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Summary :

The Carbon Budget of British Columbia's Forests, 1920-1989

The Carbon Budget of British Columbia's Forests, 1920-1989
  • Author : Werner Alexander Kurz,British Columbia. Ministry of Forests,Canada-British Columbia Partnership Agreement on Forest Resource Development: FRDA II.,Canadian Forest Service
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :62
  • ISBN : WISC:89058824277
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Summary : The Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector is a national-scale model of forest sector carbon pools and fluxes. This model has been applied to conduct a retrospective analysis of the carbon budget of British Columbia forests for 1920-1989. This report details the assumptions behind the model and the data sources for historic disturbances such as wildfire, forest insects, and different types of harvesting. It then presents model results for biomass and soil carbon pools, carbon fluxes, changes in forest age-class structure, and the model's sensitivity to a change in the assumption that biomass can decline in the overmature growth phase. The appendix includes a summary of a workshop examining the retrospective analysis.