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Biaxial Stretching of Film

Biaxial Stretching of Film
  • Author : Mark T. DeMeuse
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-07-18
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780857092953
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Summary : Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films. Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for biaxially oriented films and orienting lines. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications is a valuable reference tool for a broad spectrum of readers, ranging from polymer and fibre engineers to electrical engineers. It will also be suitable for professionals in the food packaging and paper industries. A valuable reference tool for polymer and fibre engineers, electrical engineers and professionals in the food packaging and paper industries Provides a comprehensive overview of the manufacturing processes of biaxially stretched films and includes a discussion of their future applications Places emphasis on the technology as well as the different types of polymers used

Polypropylene

Polypropylene
  • Author : J. Karger-Kocsis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :966
  • ISBN : 9789401144216
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Summary : My heart sank when I was approached by Dr Hastings and by Professor Briggs (Senior Editor of Materials Science and Technology and Series Editor of Polymer Science and Technology Series at Chapman & Hall, respectively) to edit a book with the provisional title Handbook of Poly propylene. My reluctance was due to the fact that my former book [1] along with that of Moore [2], issued in the meantime, seemed to cover the information demand on polypropylene and related systems. Encour aged, however, by some colleagues (the new generation of scientists and engineers needs a good reference book with easy information retrieval, and the development with metallocene catalysts deserves a new update!), I started on this venture. Having some experience with polypropylene systems and being aware of the current literature, it was easy to settle the titles for the book chapters and also to select and approach the most suitable potential contributors. Fortunately, many of my first-choice authors accepted the invitation to contribute. Like all editors of multi-author volumes, I recognize that obtaining contributors follows an S-type curve of asymptotic saturation when the number of willing contributors is plotted as a function of time. The saturation point is, however, never reached and as a consequence, Dear Reader, you will also find some topics of some relevance which are not explicitly treated in this book (but, believe me, I have considered them).

Film Processing Advances

Film Processing Advances
  • Author : Toshitaka Kanai,Gregory Campbell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-03
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9781569905364
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Summary : This volume deals with manufacturing processes for preparing very thin polymer products. Many professionals working on polymer films have requested that a newer version of Film Processing be published that includes more recent technologies and addresses the latest literature. Film Processing Advances provides a timely response to these requests. This edition is still a technically oriented book to be used by film processing professionals, graduate students, and researchers and it covers recent technologies of film extrusion, extruder screw design, die design, film structure, film temperature, crystallization dynamics, and film properties. Furthermore, Film Processing Advances focuses on multilayered films and recent developments relating to high performance films. The chapters in this edition are all essentially new and were designed to complement the materials found in Film Processing, which remains a relevant and important information resource.

The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging

The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging
  • Author : Barry A Morris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-01
  • Total pages :744
  • ISBN : 9780323243254
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Summary : The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging: Multilayer Films from Resin and Process to End Use provides a comprehensive guide to the use of plastic films in flexible packaging, covering scientific principles, properties, processes, and end use considerations. The book brings the science of multilayer films to the practitioner in a concise and impactful way, presenting the fundamental understanding required to improve product design, material selection, and processes, and includes information on why one material is favored over another for a particular application, or how the film or coating affects material properties. Detailed descriptions and analysis of the key properties of packaging films are provided from both an engineering and scientific perspective. End-use effects are also covered in detail, providing key insights into the way the products being packaged influence film properties and design. The book bridges the gap between key scientific literature and the practical challenges faced by the flexible packaging industry, providing essential scientific insights, best practice techniques, environmental sustainability information, and key principles of structure design to enable engineers and scientists to deliver superior products with reduced development time and cost. Provides essential information on all aspects of multilayer films in flexible packaging Aids in material selection and processing, shortening development times and delivering stronger products Bridges the gap between scientific principles and key challenges in the packaging industry, with practical explanations to assist practitioners in overcoming those challenges

The Complete Technology Book on Plastic Films, HDPE and Thermoset Plastics

The Complete Technology Book on Plastic Films, HDPE and Thermoset Plastics
  • Author : NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-01-01
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9788178330112
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Summary : Plastic Films, HDPE and Thermoset Plastics are now an accepted part of the industrial and domestic scenes but this growth has been comparatively recent. Plastic films are typically used for sealing food items in containers to keep them fresh over a longer period of time. Plastic wrap, typically sold on rolls in boxes with a cutting edge, clings to many smooth surfaces and can thus remain tight over the opening of a container without adhesive or other devices. The past several years have seen numerous plastic films developed for the packaging industry, the most used today being polyethylene. Cast polypropylene film, like polyethylene film is unoriented (not stretched), but it was found that an improved film could be obtained by orientation (stretching the cast in one or more directions). Biaxial orientation is the process whereby the continuous cast film or sheet of plastic is heated up to brings it to a temperature that makes it stretchable. BOPP film possesses superior tensile strength, flexibility, toughness, shrink ability, good barrier and optical characteristics. The use of polyethylene terephthalate film is increasing considerably in recent years in videos audio magnetic tapes, computer tapes, photo and X ray films, power capacitors, insulation tapes and metalling for artificial zari. High density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. The major applications of HDPE are in the manufacturing of containers, pipes, house wares, toys, filament, woven sacks, film, wire and cable insulation. HDPE is lighter than water, and can be moulded, machined, and joined together using welding (difficult to glue). Thermoset, or thermosetting plastics are synthetic materials that strengthen during being heated, but cannot be successfully remolded or reheated after their initial heat forming. This is in contrast to thermoplastics, which soften when heated and harden and strengthen after cooling. Thermoplastics can be heated, shaped and cooled as often as necessary without causing a chemical change, while thermosetting plastics will burn when heated after the initial molding. Additionally, thermoplastics tend to be easier to mold than thermosetting plastics, which also take a longer time to produce (due to the time it takes to cure the heated material). Some of the astonishing fundamentals of the book are salient features of contemporary, technology and current research, three basic processes: advances, modern polyethylene, processes using high yield catalysts, solution polymerization processes, polyolefins, low density polyethylene, polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymers, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, physical and chemical properties, manufacturing methods, extrusion of film, slit die extrusion (flat film extrusion), comparison of blow and cast film processes, water cooled polypropylene film, calendaring, solvent, casting, casting of regenerated cellulose film, orientation of film, expanded films, plastics net from film, unsaturated polyester and vinyl ester resins, thermoset polyurethanes, guidelines and theories in compounding polyurethane elastomers, compounding for thermoset polyurethane elastomers, cellulose and cellulose derivatives, thermoplastic polymers etc. The present books offer an up to date overview of the processing of plastic films, HDPE and thermoset plastics. This book is suitable for entrepreneurs, researchers, professionals, technical institutions etc.

Plastic Films in Food Packaging

Plastic Films in Food Packaging
  • Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-31
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781455731152
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Summary : The value of the groceries purchases in the USA is over $500 billion annually, most of which is accounted for by packaged foods. Plastic packaging of foods is not only ubiquitous in developed economies, but increasingly commonplace in the developing world, where plastic packaging is instrumental in decreasing the proportion of the food supply lost to spoilage. This new handbook is a combination of new material and updated chapters, chosen by Dr. Sina Ebnesajjad, from recently published books on this subject. Plastic Films in Food Packaging offers a practical handbook for engineers, scientists and managers working in the food packaging industry, providing a tailor-made package of science and engineering fundamentals, best practice techniques and guidance on new and emerging technologies. By covering materials, design, packaging processes, machinery and waste management together in one book, the authors enable the reader to take a lifecycle approach to food packaging. The Handbook addresses questions related to film grades, types of packages for different types of foods, packaging technologies, machinery and waste management. Additionally the book provides a review of new and emerging technologies. Two chapters cover the development of barrier films for food packaging and the regulatory and safety aspects of food packaging. Essential information and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working at all stages of the food packaging lifecycle: from design through manufacture to recycling Includes key published material on plastic films in food packaging, updated specifically for this Handbook, and new material on the regulatory framework and safety aspects Coverage of materials and applications together in one handbook enables engineers and scientists to make informed design and manufacturing decisions

Film Processing

Film Processing
  • Author : Toshitaka Kanai,Gregory A. Campbell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-05
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9783446401792
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Summary : The manufacturing process for preparing very thin polymer products has developed into what is arguably the largest outlet for synthetic polymers. The central theme of this volume is the developments in process hardware and operating techniques that permit increasingly high production rates, optimum property development, unusual degrees of molecular orientation, and the coextrusion of multi-layer, multi-component film and sheet. The strong relationships and the interdependence of these developments on the achievements in polymer design, such as rheology and mechanical and optical properties, are also discussed. Contents: · Film Processing Overview and Introductory Rheology · Flat Die Analysis · Spiral Die Analysis · Die Control System of Film Thickness Distribution · Kinematics, Dynamics and Physical Properties of Blown Film · Bubble Instability: Experimental Evaluation · Optical Properties and Structural Characteristics of Tubular Film · Theoretical Analysis of Film Deformation Behavior in Casting · Analysis of Draw Resonance Instability in the Film Casting Process · Multilayer Films · Biaxially Oriented Films · Influence of Processing Conditions on Structure and Physical Properties of Biaxially Stretched Engineering Thermoplastics · Theoretical Analysis of Tentering Process · Double Bubble Tubular Film Process System and Theoretical Analysis of Stress Development and Scale-up Rule

Optoelectronics

Optoelectronics
  • Author : Sergei Pyshkin,John Ballato
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-07
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9789535121749
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Summary : Optoelectronics Materials and Devices follows the Optoelectronics Books II and III published in 2011 and 2013, as part of the InTech collection of international works on optoelectronics. Accordingly, as with the first two books of the collection, this book covers recent achievements by specialists around the world. The growing number of countries participating in this endeavor as well as joint participation of the US and Moldova scientists in this edition testifies to the unifying effect of science. An interested reader will find in the book the description of properties and applications employing organic and inorganic materials, as well as the methods of fabrication and analysis of operation and regions of application of modern optoelectronic devices.

Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers

Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers
  • Author : Jiri George Drobny
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-05-30
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9780323221689
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Summary : Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers, Second Edition presents a comprehensive working knowledge of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), providing an essential introduction for those learning the basics, but also detailed engineering data and best practice guidance for those already involved in polymerization, processing, and part manufacture. TPEs use short, cost-effective production cycles, with reduced energy consumption compared to other polymers, and are used in a range of industries including automotive, medical, construction and many more. This handbook provides all the practical information engineers need to successfully utilize this material group in their products, as well as the required knowledge to thoroughly ground themselves in the fundamental chemistry of TPEs. The data tables included in this book assist engineers and scientists in both selecting and processing the materials for a given product or application. In the second edition of this handbook, all chapters have been reviewed and updated. New polymers and applications have been added — particularly in the growing automotive and medical fields — and changes in chemistry and processing technology are covered. Provides essential knowledge of the chemistry, processing, properties, and applications for both new and established technical professionals in any industry utilizing TPEs Datasheets provide "at-a-glance" processing and technical information for a wide range of commercial TPEs and compounds, saving readers the need to contact suppliers Includes data on additional materials and applications, particularly in automotive and medical industries

Blown Film Extrusion

Blown Film Extrusion
  • Author : Kirk Cantor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-14
  • Total pages :194
  • ISBN : 9781569907658
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Summary : From hardware and materials through processing and properties, a broad coverage of blown film extrusion is presented. A primary objective of this book is to ensure a useful balance of theory and practice. The reader will find the answers to why they encounter certain effects in the blown film process so that they are better able to troubleshoot and improve their operations. At the same time, current practices and equipment are emphasized to keep readers up-to-date with the most productive and efficient technology. The companion computer-based learning tool, The Blown Film Extrusion Simulator, is provided to enhance the reader’s understanding. This software was developed specifically to teach blown film extrusion equipment operation and processing principles, and is available for download. Throughout this book, exercises using the simulator are described to complement the methods and principles explained. New in this third edition is a chapter on polymer rheology, with an overview of the rheology of polymer melts and its effect on extruding blown film. Additionally, improvements and corrections have been made throughout the book. Contents: ? Materials for Blown Film ? Polymer Rheology ? Extrusion Overview ? Hardware for Blown Film ? Processing ? Coextrusion ? Film Properties ? Troubleshooting

Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office

Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : PSU:000031042451
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Summary :

Multilayer Flexible Packaging

Multilayer Flexible Packaging
  • Author : John R. Wagner, Jr.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-29
  • Total pages :410
  • ISBN : 9780323477185
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Summary : Multilayer Flexible Packaging, Second Edition, provides a thorough introduction to the manufacturing and applications of flexible plastic films, covering materials, hardware and processes, and multilayer film designs and applications. The book gives engineers and technicians a better understanding of the capability and limitations of multilayer flexible films and how to use them to make effective packaging. It includes contributions from world renowned experts and is fully updated to reflect the rapid advances made in the field since 2009, also including an entirely new chapter on the use of bio-based polymers in flexible packaging. The result is a practical, but detailed reference for polymeric flexible packaging professionals, including product developers, process engineers, and technical service representatives. The materials coverage includes detailed sections on polyethylene, polypropylene, and additives. The dies used to produce multilayer films are explored in the hardware section, and the process engineering of film manufacture is explained, with a particular focus on meeting specifications and targets. In addition, a new chapter has been added on regulations for food packaging – including both FDA and EU regulations. Provides a complete introduction to multilayer flexible packaging, assisting plastics practitioners with the development, design, and manufacture of flexible packaging for food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and more Presents thorough, well-written, and up-to-date reviews of the current technology by experts in the field, making this an essential reference for any engineer or manager Includes discussion and analysis of the latest rules and regulations governing food packaging

Handbook of Plastic Films

Handbook of Plastic Films
  • Author : Elsayed M. Abdel-Bary
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :404
  • ISBN : 185957338X
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Summary : Plastic films are high-performance materials which play an essential part in modern life. The plastics films industry uses state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and is continuously seeking out new technologies to improve its performance. The understanding of the nature of plastic films, their production techniques, applications and their characterisation is essential for producing new types of plastic films. This handbook has been written to discuss the production and main uses of plastic films. Plastic films are high-performance materials which play an essential part in modern life. Plastic films are mostly used in packaging applications but as will be seen from this book they are also used in the agricultural, medical and engineering fields. The plastics films industry uses state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and is continuously seeking out new technologies to improve its performance. The understanding of the nature of plastic films, their production techniques, applications and their characterisation is essential for producing new types of plastic films. This handbook has been written to discuss the production and main uses of plastic films.

Plastic Films

Plastic Films
  • Author : Françoise Pardos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-01-01
  • Total pages :182
  • ISBN : 9781859574805
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Summary : This report considers the wide range of film materials including PE PP, PVC, PS and PET, describing their main characteristics (such as toughness, sealability, barrier performance, strength and stiffness) and commenting on the industry structure and consumption of each. Commodity plastics dominate, with PE and PP together accounting for around 34 million tons. The present and future demand for films is set to continue, fuelled by the strong base, the rapidly developing market in the 'rest of the world', the growing preference for flexible over rigid and the constant innovation in materials and conversion. Plastic Films - Situation and Outlook provides a snapshot of the industry and its future prospects.

Packaging Abstracts

Packaging Abstracts
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1978
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : CHI:102253197
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Summary :

Electromechanically Active Polymers

Electromechanically Active Polymers
  • Author : Federico Carpi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 3319317679
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Summary :

SPE/ANTEC 2000 Proceedings

SPE/ANTEC 2000 Proceedings
  • Author : Spe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-05-05
  • Total pages :3857
  • ISBN : 1566768551
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Summary :

Manufacturing and Novel Applications of Multilayer Polymer Films

Manufacturing and Novel Applications of Multilayer Polymer Films
  • Author : Deepak Langhe,Michael Ponting
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-01-04
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9780323374668
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Summary : Manufacturing and Novel Applications of Multilayer Polymer Films discusses the advancements in multilayer technology, including its capability to produce hundreds of layers in a single film by a melt coextrusion process. These engineered films can have significantly enhanced performance properties, allowing films to be made thinner, stronger, and with better sealing properties. As recent developments in feedblocks and materials have opened up a range of new possibilities, this book discusses different feedblocks, and viscosity and material considerations. It is the first comprehensive summary of the latest technology in multilayer film processing and related applications, and is written from a practical perspective, translating research into commercial production and real world products. The book provides fundamental knowledge on microlayer coextrusion processing technology, how to fabricate such structures, structure and properties of such microlayers, and potential applications, thus helping research scientists and engineers develop products which not only fulfill their primary function, but can also be manufactured reliably, safely, and economically. Provides a fundamental knowledge of microlayer coextrusion processing, including how to fabricate microlayer structures, the properties of microlayers, and potential applications, including optics, polymer film capacitors, and semiconductors Includes an in-depth analysis of all technologies used for producing multilayered films and structures by coextrusion processing Thoroughly assesses potential future trends in multilayer coextrusion technology, thus enabling engineers and scientists to stay ahead of the curve in this rapidly advancing area

Conference Proceedings

Conference Proceedings
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1230987654XX
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The East

The East
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCLA:L0098911472
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NASA Tech Briefs

NASA Tech Briefs
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : MINN:31951P01174892B
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Summary :