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Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter
  • Author : Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-02
  • Total pages :712
  • ISBN : 9780124071537
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Summary : Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter
  • Author : Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-06-20
  • Total pages :774
  • ISBN : 0123238412
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Summary : "Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic"--

The Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate

The Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate
  • Author : Mick Follows,Temel Oguz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :395
  • ISBN : 9781402020872
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Summary : Our desire to understand the global carbon cycle and its link to the climate system represents a huge challenge. These overarching questions have driven a great deal of scientific endeavour in recent years: What are the basic oceanic mechanisms which control the oceanic carbon reservoirs and the partitioning of carbon between ocean and atmosphere? How do these mechanisms depend on the state of the climate system and how does the carbon cycle feed back on climate? What is the current rate at which fossil fuel carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans and how might this change in the future? To begin to answer these questions we must first understand the distribution of carbon in the ocean, its partitioning between different ocean reservoirs (the "solubility" and "biological" pumps of carbon), the mechanisms controlling these reservoirs, and the relationship of the significant physical and biological processes to the physical environment. The recent surveys from the JGOFS and WOCE (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and World Ocean Circulation Ex periment) programs have given us a first truly global survey of the physical and biogeochemical properties of the ocean. These new, high quality data provide the opportunity to better quantify the present oceans reservoirs of carbon and the changes due to fossil fuel burning. In addition, diverse process studies and time-series observations have clearly revealed the complexity of interactions between nutrient cycles, ecosystems, the carbon-cycle and the physical envi ronment.

Aquatic Humic Substances

Aquatic Humic Substances
  • Author : Dag Hessen,Lars J. Tranvik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-09
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9783662037362
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Summary : Humic substances occur in all kinds of aquatic systems, but are particularly important in northern, coniferous areas. They strongly modify the aquatic ecosystems and also constitute a major problem in the drinking water supply. This volume covers all aspects of aquatic humic substances, from their origin and chemical properties, their effects on light and nutrient regimes and biogeochemical cycling, to their role regarding organisms, productivity and food web organization from bacteria to fish. Special emphasis is paid to carbon cycling and food web organization in humic lakes, but aspects of marine carbon cycling related to humus are treated as well.

Marine Carbon Biogeochemistry

Marine Carbon Biogeochemistry
  • Author : Jack J. Middelburg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-25
  • Total pages :118
  • ISBN : 9783030108229
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Summary : This open access book discusses biogeochemical processes relevant to carbon and aims to provide readers, graduate students and researchers, with insight into the functioning of marine ecosystems. A carbon centric approach has been adopted, but other elements are included where relevant or needed. The book focuses on concepts and quantitative understanding of primary production, organic matter mineralization and sediment biogeochemistry. The impact of biogeochemical processes on inorganic carbon dynamics and organic matter transformation are also discussed.

Linking Optical and Chemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Waters

Linking Optical and Chemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Waters
  • Author : Christopher L. Osburn,Thomas S. Bianchi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-17
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889450817
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Summary : A substantial increase in the number of studies using the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a proxy for its chemical properties in estuaries and the coastal and open ocean has occurred during the last decade. We are making progress on finding the actual chemical compounds or phenomena responsible for DOM’s optical properties. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, in particular, has made important progress in making the key connections between optics and chemistry. But serious questions remain and the last major special issue on DOM optics and chemistry occurred nearly 10 years ago. Controversies remain from the non-specific optical properties of DOM that are not linked to discrete sources, and sometimes provide conflicting information. The use of optics, which is relatively easier to employ in synoptic and high resolution sampling to determine chemistry, is a critical connection to make and can lead to major advances in our understanding of organic matter cycling in all aquatic ecosystems. The contentions and controversies raised by our poor understanding of the linkages between optics and chemistry of DOM are bottlenecks that need to be addressed and overcome.

Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence

Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence
  • Author : Paula Coble,Jamie Lead,Andy Baker,Darren Reynolds,Robert G. M. Spencer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-14
  • Total pages :418
  • ISBN : 9780521764612
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Summary : Core text on principles, laboratory/field methodologies, and data interpretation for fluorescence applications in aquatic science, for advanced students and researchers.

Photobiogeochemistry of Organic Matter

Photobiogeochemistry of Organic Matter
  • Author : Khan M.G. Mostofa,Takahito Yoshioka,Abdul Mottaleb,Davide Vione
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-15
  • Total pages :917
  • ISBN : 9783642322235
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Summary : Photoinduced processes, caused by natural sunlight, are key functions for sustaining all living organisms through production and transformation of organic matter (OM) in the biosphere. Production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from OM is a primary step of photoinduced processes, because H2O2 acts as strong reductant and oxidant. It is potentially important in many aquatic reactions, also in association with photosynthesis. Allochthonous and autochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM) can be involved into several photoinduced or biological processes. DOM subsequently undergoes several physical, chemical, photoinduced and biological processes, which can be affected by global warming. This book is uniquely structured to overview some vital issues, such as: DOM; H2O2 and ROOH; HO•; Degradation of DOM; CDOM, FDOM; Photosynthesis; Chlorophyll; Metal complexation, and Global warming, as well as their mutual interrelationships, based on updated scientific results.

Dynamics and Characterization of Marine Organic Matter

Dynamics and Characterization of Marine Organic Matter
  • Author : N. Handa,E. Tanoue,T. Hama
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-09
  • Total pages :562
  • ISBN : 9789401713191
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Summary : Over the past decade the scientific activities of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), which focuses on the role of the oceans in controlling climate change via the transport and storage of greenhouse gases and organic matter, have led to an increased interest in the study of the biogeochemistry of organic matter. There is also a growing interest in global climate fluctuations. This, and the need for a precise assessment of the dynamics of carbon and other bio-elements, has led to a demand for an improved understanding of biogeochemical processes and the chemical characteristics of both particulate and dissolved organic matter in the ocean. A large amount of proxy data has been published describing the changes of the oceanic environment, but qualitative and quantitative estimates of the vertical flux of (proxy) organic compounds have not been well documented. There is thus an urgent need to pursue this line of study and, to this end, this book starts with several papers dealing with the primary production of organic matter in the upper ocean. Thereafter, the book goes on to follow the flux and characterization of particulate organic matter, discussed in relation to the primary production in the euphotic zone and resuspension in the deep waters, including the vertical flux of proxy organic compounds. It goes on to explain the decomposition and transformation of organic matter in the ocean environment due to photochemical and biological agents, and the reactivity of bulk and specific organic compounds, including the air-sea interaction of biogenic gases. The 22 papers in the book reflect the interests of JGOFS and will thus serve as a valuable reference source for future biogeochemical investigations of both bio-elements and organic matter in seawater, clarifying the role of the ocean in global climate change.

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments
  • Author : David J. Burdige
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-04
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9780691216096
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Summary : The processes occurring in surface marine sediments have a profound effect on the local and global cycling of many elements. This graduate text presents the fundamentals of marine sediment geochemistry by examining the complex chemical, biological, and physical processes that contribute to the conversion of these sediments to rock, a process known as early diagenesis. Research over the past three decades has uncovered the fact that the oxidation of organic matter deposited in sediment acts as a causative agent for many early diagenetic changes. Summarizing and discussing these findings and providing a much-needed update to Robert Berner's Early Diagenesis: A Theoretical Approach, David J. Burdige describes the ways to quantify geochemical processes in marine sediment. By doing so, he offers a deeper understanding of the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, along with important metals such as iron and manganese. No other book presents such an in-depth look at marine sediment geochemistry. Including the most up-to-date research, a complete survey of the subject, explanatory text, and the most recent mathematical formulations that have contributed to our greater understanding of early diagenesis, Geochemistry of Marine Sediments will interest graduate students of geology, geochemistry, and oceanography, as well as the broader community of earth scientists. It is poised to become the standard text on the subject for years to come.

Estuarine Ecology

Estuarine Ecology
  • Author : John W. Day, Jr.,W. Michael Kemp,Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia,Byron C. Crump
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-09-19
  • Total pages :568
  • ISBN : 9781118391914
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Summary : Estuaries are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on the planet--critical to the life cycles of fish, other aquatic animals, and the creatures which feed on them. Estuarine Ecology, Second Edition, covers the physical and chemical aspects of estuaries, the biology and ecology of key organisms, the flow of organic matter through estuaries, and human interactions, such as the environmental impact of fisheries on estuaries and the effects of global climate change on these important ecosystems. Authored by a team of world experts from the estuarine science community, this long-awaited, full-color edition includes new chapters covering phytoplankton, seagrasses, coastal marshes, mangroves, benthic algae, Integrated Coastal Zone Management techniques, and the effects of global climate change. It also features an entriely new section on estuarine ecosystem processes, trophic webs, ecosystem metabolism, and the interactions between estuaries and other ecosystems such as wetlands and marshes

Physical Limnology

Physical Limnology
  • Author : Jorg Imberger,Clelia Marti
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-02
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 0124045650
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Summary : "Physical Limnology" provides the physical, chemical, and biological information practitioners need to effectively manage inland waters. Physical processes in lakes are known to have significant influence on driving the biology, chemistry, and geology in aquatic environments." "In addition to covering the current knowledge in the area of lake physics, this helpful guide also provides coverage of some of the latest challenges in physical limnology. "Physical Limnology" also covers the mathematical modeling necessary to make basic calculations related to what is happening in lakes. Authored by one of the recognized world leaders in the fieldCovers the latest physical, chemical, and biological process information, making the work accessible to the general limnologist, lake practitioner, or biologistProvides examples from the author's experience working with lakes around the worldFeatures coverage of the latest challenges in physical limnology

Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

Encyclopedia of Geochemistry
  • Author : William M. White
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-24
  • Total pages :1680
  • ISBN : 3319393111
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Summary : The Encyclopedia is a complete and authoritative reference work for this rapidly evolving field. Over 200 international scientists, each experts in their specialties, have written over 330 separate topics on different aspects of geochemistry including geochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, isotope and organic geochemistry, meteorites and cosmochemistry, the carbon cycle and climate, trace elements, geochemistry of high and low temperature processes, and ore deposition, to name just a few. The geochemical behavior of the elements is described as is the state of the art in analytical geochemistry. Each topic incorporates cross-referencing to related articles, and also has its own reference list to lead the reader to the essential articles within the published literature. The entries are arranged alphabetically, for easy access, and the subject and citation indices are comprehensive and extensive. Geochemistry applies chemical techniques and approaches to understanding the Earth and how it works. It touches upon almost every aspect of earth science, ranging from applied topics such as the search for energy and mineral resources, environmental pollution, and climate change to more basic questions such as the Earth’s origin and composition, the origin and evolution of life, rock weathering and metamorphism, and the pattern of ocean and mantle circulation. Geochemistry allows us to assign absolute ages to events in Earth’s history, to trace the flow of ocean water both now and in the past, trace sediments into subduction zones and arc volcanoes, and trace petroleum to its source rock and ultimately the environment in which it formed. The earliest of evidence of life is chemical and isotopic traces, not fossils, preserved in rocks. Geochemistry has allowed us to unravel the history of the ice ages and thereby deduce their cause. Geochemistry allows us to determine the swings in Earth’s surface temperatures during the ice ages, determine the temperatures and pressures at which rocks have been metamorphosed, and the rates at which ancient magma chambers cooled and crystallized. The field has grown rapidly more sophisticated, in both analytical techniques that can determine elemental concentrations or isotope ratios with exquisite precision and in computational modeling on scales ranging from atomic to planetary.

The Chemistry of Microbiomes

The Chemistry of Microbiomes
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Chemical Sciences Roundtable
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-19
  • Total pages :132
  • ISBN : 9780309458399
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Summary : The 21st century has witnessed a complete revolution in the understanding and description of bacteria in eco- systems and microbial assemblages, and how they are regulated by complex interactions among microbes, hosts, and environments. The human organism is no longer considered a monolithic assembly of tissues, but is instead a true ecosystem composed of human cells, bacteria, fungi, algae, and viruses. As such, humans are not unlike other complex ecosystems containing microbial assemblages observed in the marine and earth environments. They all share a basic functional principle: Chemical communication is the universal language that allows such groups to properly function together. These chemical networks regulate interactions like metabolic exchange, antibiosis and symbiosis, and communication. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Chemical Sciences Roundtable organized a series of four seminars in the autumn of 2016 to explore the current advances, opportunities, and challenges toward unveiling this "chemical dark matter" and its role in the regulation and function of different ecosystems. The first three focused on specific ecosystemsâ€"earth, marine, and humanâ€"and the last on all microbiome systems. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the seminars.

YOUMARES 9 - the Oceans: Our Research, Our Future

YOUMARES 9 - the Oceans: Our Research, Our Future
  • Author : Simon Jungblut,Viola Liebich,Maya Bode-Dalby
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-01
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9783030203894
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Summary :

The Role of Submarine Groundwater Discharge as Material Source to the Baltic Sea

The Role of Submarine Groundwater Discharge as Material Source to the Baltic Sea
  • Author : Beata Szymczycha,Janusz Pempkowiak
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-11-27
  • Total pages :136
  • ISBN : 9783319259604
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Summary : The book provides a review of experimental methods and presents the worldwide newest literature regarding chemical substances fluxes via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Thus, the book characterizes both the distribution of chemicals in groundwater impacted areas in the Baltic Sea and their fluxes via SGD to the Baltic Sea. This book presents the state of art regarding the SGD and detailed studies on SGD characterization in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is an example of a region highly influenced by a variety of human activities that affect the ecosystem. It is shown that SGD has been proven to be one of the important sources introducing dissolved substances into the Baltic Sea. The loads of chemical substances delivered to the Baltic sea with SGD have not been quantified so far.

Deep Carbon

Deep Carbon
  • Author : Beth N. Orcutt,Isabelle Daniel,Rajdeep Dasgupta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-31
  • Total pages :678
  • ISBN : 9781108477499
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Summary : A comprehensive guide to carbon inside Earth - its quantities, movements, forms, origins, changes over time and impact on planetary processes. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

Chemical Reference Materials

Chemical Reference Materials
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Reference Materials for Ocean Science
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-10-02
  • Total pages :146
  • ISBN : 0309182786
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Summary : The accuracy of chemical oceanographic measurements depends on calibration against reference materials to ensure comparability over time and among laboratories. Several key parameters lack reference materials for measurements in seawater, particles in the water column, and sediments. Without reference materials it is difficult to produce the reliable data sets or long-term baseline studies that are essential to verify global change and oceanic stability. Chemical Reference Materials : Setting the Standards for Ocean Science identifies the most urgently required chemical reference materials based on key themes for oceanographic research and provides suggestions as to how they can be developed within realistic cost constraints. Chemical analyses of seawater are uniquely difficult given the poorly known speciation and the low concentration of many of the analytes of interest. Analyses of suspended and sedimentary marine particulate materials present their own distinct challenges, primarily due to potential interference by predominant mineral phases of different types. Of all the analytical methods applied to marine waters and particles, at present only a small fraction can be systematically evaluated via comparison to reference materials that represent the appropriate natural concentrations and matrices. Specifically, the committee was charged with the following tasks: - compile from available sources a list of important oceanographic research questions that may benefit from chemical reference standards; - create a comprehensive list of reference materials currently available for oceanographic studies; - identify and prioritize the reference materials needed to study the identified research questions; - determine for each priority analyte whether reference materials and/or analytic methods should be standardized; and - identify the most appropriate approaches for the development and future production of reference materials for ocean sciences.

Sea Ice

Sea Ice
  • Author : David N. Thomas,Gerhard S. Dieckmann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-11-06
  • Total pages :640
  • ISBN : 1444317156
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Summary : As the Arctic perennial sea ice continues to disappear at an alarming rate, a full understanding of sea ice as a crucial global ecosystem, and the effects of its loss is vital for all those working with and studying global climate change. Building on the success of the previous edition, the second edition of Sea Ice, now much expanded and in full colour throughout, includes six completely new chapters with complete revisions of all the chapters included from the first edition. The Editors, Professor David Thomas and Dr Gerhard Dieckmann have once again drawn together an extremely impressive group of internationally respected contributing authors, ensuring a comprehensive worldwide coverage of this incredibly important topic. Sea Ice, second edition, is an essential purchase for oceanographers and marine scientists, environmental scientists, biologists, geochemists and geologists. All those involved in the study of global climate change will find this book to contain a wealth of important information. All libraries in universities and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught will need multiple copies of this book on their shelves. truly multidisciplinary approach world leading authors and editors international in scope, covering both Arctic and Antarctic work of vital interest to all those involved in global warming and climate change research highly illustrated full colour book with colour images throughout

Marine Geochemistry

Marine Geochemistry
  • Author : Horst D. Schulz,Matthias Zabel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-07-02
  • Total pages :574
  • ISBN : 9783540321446
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Summary : Since 1980 a considerable amount of scientific research dealing with geochemical processes in marine sediments has been carried out. This textbook summarizes the state-of-the-art in this field of research providing a complete representation of the subject and including the most recent findings. The topics covered include the examination of sedimentological and physical properties of the sedimentary solid phase. A new chapter describes properties, occurrence and formation of gas hydrates in marine sediments. The textbook ends with a chapter on model conceptions and computer models to quantify processes of early diagenesis.

New Radiocarbon and Size-franctionation Approaches for Examining Organic Matter Source and Reactivity in the Sea

New Radiocarbon and Size-franctionation Approaches for Examining Organic Matter Source and Reactivity in the Sea
  • Author : Brett D. Walker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :386
  • ISBN : UCAL:W269702
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Summary :