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Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
  • Author : Stuart H. James,Paul E. Kish,T. Paulette Sutton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-05-26
  • Total pages :576
  • ISBN : 9781420039467
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Summary : Bloodstain evidence has become a deciding factor in the outcome of many of the world's most notorious criminal cases. As a result, substantiation of this evidence is crucial to those on either side of the courtroom aisle. The challenge is to obtain an authoritative reference that provides the latest information in a comprehensive and effective manner. Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice presents an in-depth investigation of this important subject matter. A multidisciplinary approach is presented throughout the book that uses scene and laboratory examinations in conjunction with forensic pathology, forensic serology, and chemical enhancement techniques. Emphasis is on a thought process based on taxonomic classification of bloodstains that takes into account their physical characteristics of size, shape, and distribution, and the specific mechanisms that produce them. Individual chapters analyze case studies, with two chapters specifically discussing the details of legal issues as they pertain to bloodstain pattern analysis. Information highlighted throughout the book includes an examination of bloodstained clothing and footwear and information on bloodstain interpretation for crime scene reconstruction. Dramatic color images of bloodletting injuries, bloodstains, and crime scenes are also presented to compliment the technical content of this resource. Features § Provides 500 full color photographs - the first bloodstain pattern book presenting dramatic full color images of bloodletting injuries, bloodstains, and crime scenes § Contains appendices with scientific data that includes trigonometric tables and metric equivalents, as well as crime scene and laboratory check lists, and biohazard safety precautions § Discloses court decisions relating to bloodstain pattern analysis and presumptive blood testing § Written by authors with many years of experience in the field, and features chapters contributed by qualified and respected forensic scientists and attorneys

Bloodstain Pattern Evidence

Bloodstain Pattern Evidence
  • Author : Anita Y. Wonder
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-29
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 0080549713
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Summary : In Bloodstain Pattern Evidence, the concepts introduced in the author's first book, Blood Dynamics, are updated and applied to provide essential answers in the resolution of actual crimes. The book is accessible to all levels of investigators, regardless of academic background, and allows readers to develop a fundamental understanding of the underlying scientific principles behind bloodstain pattern evidence. Bloodstain Pattern Evidence builds on the fundamental ideas brought about by an understanding of Non-Newtonian dynamics, and illustrates through case work the practical forensic science applications of these principles to the analysis of bloodstain patterns. Extensive case examples provide practical application of essential pattern analysis principles Extensively illustrated with over 350 photos and line drawings Takes a unique and scientific approach to bloodstain pattern analysis by exploring the fundamentals of fluid behavior

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction
  • Author : Tom Bevel,Ross M. Gardner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-04-08
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9781420052725
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Summary : Objective establishment of the truth is the goal of any good crime scene investigator. This demands a consideration of all evidence available using proven scientific methodologies to establish objective snapshots of the crime. The majority of forensic disciplines shed light on thewho of a crime, bloodstain pattern analysis is one of the most imp

Bloodstain Patterns

Bloodstain Patterns
  • Author : Herbert Leon MacDonell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :182
  • ISBN : OCLC:29324450
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Bloodstain Patterns

Bloodstain Patterns
  • Author : Anita Y. Wonder
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-01-07
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9780124159655
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Summary : Bloodstain Patterns: Identification, Interpretation and Application combines material from Blood Dynamics (2001) and Bloodstain Pattern Evidence (2007) with updated case work and scientific advances from medical and hard sciences. The text expands coverage of such areas as arterial damage pattern identification, staging of crime scenes, legal applications and problems from both sides of the bench, and extending teaching and training to those outside criminal justice. With violent offenders more aware of crime scene investigation techniques and attempting to frame others, the text expands outdated basic training programs that are insufficient to identify attempts to confuse the investigation. This book clarifies previous understandings as well as bridges the gap toward future advance courses. Based on the work of Paul Leland Kirk, the book’s focus is on first line investigators’ accuracy in identifying specific bloodstain patterns, correctly interpreting and applying them to casework. Combines and updates material from Blood Dynamics and Bloodstain Pattern Evidence into one comprehensive reference Covers new topics, including arterial damage pattern identification, staging of crime scenes, legal applications, and problems from both sides of the bench More than 300 full color photographs, some with line overlays showing the objective criteria which identify patterns

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (First Edition)

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (First Edition)
  • Author : R. Craig Gravel,Mia White
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-15
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1516529979
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Summary : Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Level 1 Lab Manual provides students with basic knowledge about bloodstain pattern analysis and the opportunity to conduct experiments to demonstrate the dynamics of blood in flight. The manual and associated exercises show how bloodstain pattern analysis is used as a forensic science discipline, illustrate the information that can be obtained from bloodstain evidence, and help students analyze actual bloodstain patterns. Students learn the terminology and mathematics associated with the discipline and apply the information to sample bloodstain patterns. They are challenged to interpret specific patterns and to use their newfound knowledge to reconstruct a mock crime scene. Upon completion of a course that uses this lab manual, students are qualified to join the International Association for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, which is the first step toward taking the International Association of Identification Bloodstain Analysis certification test. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a dynamic lab manual that is ideal for students taking introductory forensic science, law enforcement, or criminology courses. This resource could be especially helpful for active police officers and forensic scientists.

Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation

Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation
  • Author : Stuart H. James
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-06-29
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 0849381088
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Summary : Since 1955 when Dr. Paul Kirk first presented a bloodstain evidence affidavit in State of Ohio v. Samuel Sheppard, expert testimony on bloodstain interpretation has gained wide acceptance in U.S. courts. Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation brings together some of the most respected and noted experts in forensic science, the law, and bloodstain interpretation to provide a comprehensive overview of the discipline. It discusses research, applications, and the current view of bloodstain pattern interpretation within the legal system at the trial and appellate court levels, as well as scientific approaches and developments in the field. Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation will help attorneys who are questioning and cross-examining expert witnesses have a good working knowledge of bloodstain interpretation. Included is a full-color atlas of bloodstains, in conjunction with a glossary of terms and an outline of basic laboratory experiments that are commonly used in the discipline. Among the outstanding contributions in this volume you will find: An excellent chapter by Carol Henderson discusses the legal and ethical aspects of bloodstain pattern evidence in detail. A post-conviction analysis by Marie Elena Saccoccio evaluates how bloodstain evidence can play a role in the appeal process. Misinterpretation and overinterpretation of bloodstain evidence can occur in our courts of law-be prepared to effectively analyze the evidence and the testimony with Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction
  • Author : Tom Bevel,Ross M. Gardner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-04-08
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9781420052725
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Summary : Objective establishment of the truth is the goal of any good crime scene investigator. This demands a consideration of all evidence available using proven scientific methodologies to establish objective snapshots of the crime. The majority of forensic disciplines shed light on thewho of a crime, bloodstain pattern analysis is one of the most imp

"What are the Features of a Bloodstain Pattern?"

'What are the Features of a Bloodstain Pattern?'
  • Author : Ravishka Marishi Arthur
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018
  • Total pages :242
  • ISBN : OCLC:1090090484
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Summary : The discipline of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) is founded on the visual evaluation of the diagnostic properties of bloodstain patterns and an interpretation of the mechanistic cause(s) leading up to their deposition at scenes of violent crime. The lack of objective bloodstain pattern measures and the often subjective opinions of bloodstain pattern analysts are among some of the main criticisms of the discipline. It is also argued, that the process of characterising the main properties of a bloodstain pattern is tantamount to assigning a cause to the bloodstain pattern. These persisting issues reflect the dire need for an established and discipline-standard BPA methodology. In light of this, an argument exists for the development of a completely new method of bloodstain pattern characterisation, that is based on objective and measurable pattern features. In this thesis, it is proposed that leveraging on technology could potentially assist with the development of specific solutions to problems associated with the interpretation of bloodstain patterns. To that end, the role of digital image-processing, eye tracking technology and pattern recognition were each considered in three important areas of bloodstain pattern characterisation. These areas were: data collection, understanding the mindset of the BPA analyst and the development of an automated bloodstain pattern recognition system. One of the major outcomes of this research, and an original contribution to the discipline, is the validation of an automated system capable of distinguishing bloodstain patterns. This system is fundamentally reliant on the extraction of bloodstain pattern features. Upto now, this has remained a process confined to the opinions and subjective experience of a bloodstain pattern analyst. These features, based on common spatter bloodstain pattern properties, were extracted using a comprehensive image-processing methodology. It is noteworthy to mention that this thesis provides a unique insight into the mindset of the bloodstain pattern analyst. To do this, eye tracking technology was used to capture the viewing behaviour of BPA analysts during a pattern classification task. The eye tracking study demonstrated that BPA analysts tend to focus greater attention on distinct regions of a bloodstain pattern. It is shown that these regions may reflect properties that are crucial in forming a pattern classification. An understanding of the properties as they related to these diagnostic regions formed an important outcome of this study. Overall, this research exposes the immense possibilities that technology could contribute to improving objectivity and consistency in the discipline.

Blood Dynamics

Blood Dynamics
  • Author : Anita Y. Wonder
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :168
  • ISBN : 0127624570
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Summary : Today's resources on bloodstain analysis are still based on methods that were derived in the 1920s. Although medical and clinical research have provided a growing body of information on blood composition and behavior, this information has been ignored in favor of historical bloodstain analysis methods-until now. With 25 years of experience in the field, author Anita Wonder shows how to use these new methods for interpreting bloodstains, including non-Newtonian fluid behavior (a process that does not conform to Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion) and three-dimensional dispersion modeling. Blood Dynamics focuses on how to accurately identify eight bloodstain pattern types and their permutations. It covers every aspect of bloodstain analysis, and shows how some standard practices of reconstruction are not only unnecessary for identification of blood dynamics, but can even be misleading. This book presents completely new scientific evaluations of blood dynamics and will fundamentally change the way in which bloodstains are interpreted. As such, it will be required reading for anyone who deals with blood evidence at the crime scene, in the lab, or in the courtroom. * Presents groundbreaking new methods for interpreting bloodstains, including non-Newtonian fluid behaviour and three-dimensional dispersion modelling * Covers every aspect of bloodstain analysis * Focuses on how to accurately identify eight bloodstain pattern types and their permutations * Author, Anita Wonder has 25 years of experience in the field of blood dynamics

Crime Scene Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Workbook

Crime Scene Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Workbook
  • Author : N. Leroy Parker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-01-22
  • Total pages :132
  • ISBN : 9781491848395
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Summary : This workbook is designed to assist the Crime Scene Analyst, Technician or Investigator in documenting bloodstained patterns that are located at the crime scene or on bloodstained items that are submitted for an analysis. It is also designed to assist the Crime Scene Analyst, Technician or Investigator in reconstructing or analyzing a bloodstained crime scene or a bloodstained item for which a bloodstain pattern analysis is requested The documentation could be accomplished with overall, midrange photographs and close-up photographs with 2, 3 or 6 centimeter stick-on tapes that should be placed in the center of each rectangular area. The documentation should also consist of notes and rough sketches with measurements. The close-up photographs of the rectangular areas with the 2, 3 or 6 inches stick-on tapes that were placed in the center of those areas should be taken with a parallel film /camera plane. The stick-on tapes should be labeled according to the surface on which they would be placed. Example: West wall of living room #1 (ww of lr #1) and west wall of living room #2 (ww of lr #2) etc. The number of close-up photographs would be determined by the number of rectangular areas with the stick-on tapes. Example: At least ten (10) close-up photographs should be taken if ten (10) stick-on tapes were placed on the bloodstained surface. The bloodstain pattern reconstruction or analysis should be done by first recognizing and or identifying the many different types of patterns in a bloodstained scene or on a bloody item. The next step should involve the reconstruction of the points or areas of convergence and origin and then a determination of how the other patterns were most likely created. The workbook contains several tasks and assignments that would provide the student with the tools to accomplish the documentation and analysis. The Crime Scene Analyst, Technician or Investigator after successfully completing the workbook / workshop should be aware that: 1.0 Single drops of blood in a crime scene or on an item were influenced by the surface from which the blood fell (the volume); the diameter, the shape, the impact angle, the scalloping of the perimeter and the direction of travel of the dropped blood that impacted the target surface (the volume, the height from which the blood fell, the texture of the target surface on which the blood fell, the angle of the targeted bloodstained surface and the horizontal speed of the source that issued the blood). 2.0 Numerous drops of blood in the same pattern in a crime scene or on an item were influenced by the force or the impact (less than 25 feet per second – dropped blood and cast-off bloodstain); (25 to 100 feet per second – medium velocity bloodstain); (over 100 feet per second – high velocity bloodstain); projected blood (arterial bleeding); transfer of blood from one object to another (contact or transfer bloodstains, imprint bloodstains, smears or swipes and wipes); large volumes of blood (splashed or pooled blood) 3.0 The reconstruction or analysis of the points or areas of origin could be determined by strings, scaled drawings or calculations. The interpretation of the other patterns (non impact) along with the Medical Examiner’s autopsy report should allow the crime scene analyst, technician or Investigator to complete a bloodstain pattern analysis report and if possible explain and or testify to the sequence of events that occurred at the crime scene.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
  • Author : Tom Bevel,Ross M. Gardner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-09-26
  • Total pages :424
  • ISBN : 9781420041255
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Summary : Bloodstain pattern analysis helps establish events associated with violent crimes. It is a critical bridge between forensics and the definition of a precise crime reconstruction. The second edition of this bestselling book is thoroughly updated to employ recent protocols, including the application of scientific method, the use of flow charts, and the inter-relationship of crime scene analysis to criminal profiling. It provides more illustrations, including color photographs, and explains the use of computer programs to create demonstrative evidence for court.

Bloodstain Size, Shape and Formation

Bloodstain Size, Shape and Formation
  • Author : Mark Reynolds
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :564
  • ISBN : OCLC:903877280
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Summary : [Truncated abstract] Bloodstains and bloodstain patterns are some of the most common forms of physical evidence encountered during the forensic investigation of incidents involving violence against a person. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) is the forensic discipline that integrates these physical evidence records into complex forensic matrices with a view to offering reconstructive dialogue on events where blood has been shed. Whilst fingerprint or DNA analysis can supply information on "who" may have been involved in a violent event, BPA can provide information on "how" they were involved. Impact spatter patterns are formed when force applied to a source of blood results in the distribution of small blood droplets through the air that subsequently land on adjacent surfaces. Using a fundamental mathematical relationship that exists between the length and width axis of these spattered bloodstains and the angle at which the blood droplet impacted the surface, it is possible to determine within a 3D spatial context the location of the contributing blood source. The level of confidence that can be held in any such blood source determination is dependant upon two criteria; selection of the most physically appropriate bloodstains; being those caused by fast upward moving droplets, and the accurate measurement of those bloodstains selected. ... Following the analysis of bloodstains created by small droplets falling vertically onto angled surfaces and spatter deposited on vertical surfaces following an impact to a blood source, an apparent shift in the relative influence of inertia, surface tension and viscosity on the formation of small bloodstains was detected. As the angle of droplet-surface impact angle became increasingly oblique vi (

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
  • Author : Sonya Ching-Ying Siu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1267969733
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Summary : Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) provides significant evidentiary value in crime scene interpretation and reconstruction, but many aspects of BPA are controversial due to the heavy reliance on qualitative and subjective interpretation. For example, the differentiation between so-called "medium" and "high" velocity impact spatter patterns - legacy terminology typically associated with blunt instrument and gunshot impacts, respectively - has traditionally relied on visual assessment of the average drop size in the pattern. Because this methodology is subjective and susceptible to context bias, most BPA organizations recommend against even attempting to describe the velocity that creates a spatter pattern, despite the clear forensic value of such determinations in crime scene interpretation. In this work, we develop a quantitative methodology using digital image analysis techniques to differentiate medium and high velocity impact spatter patterns in an objective manner. Bloodstain spatter patterns were created under controlled conditions by impacting either blunt instruments or bullets into blood-soaked sponges. The impact velocities were determined using high-speed video, and the resulting spatter patterns were digitally imaged at high resolution then analyzed using custom image analysis algorithms. Our analysis of 72 unique spatter patterns, comprising more than 490,000 individual droplets, indicates that the mean drop size in a gunshot spatter pattern is at most 30% smaller than the mean drop size in blunt instrument patterns. In contrast, we demonstrate that the spatially-dependent size distribution of droplets - i.e. drop sizes as a function of position in the pattern - significantly differs between bullet and blunt instrument patterns, with a spatially-dependent metric as much as 400% larger for bullet impacts. Our findings suggest that quantitative metrics involving the spatial distribution of droplets within a spatter pattern can be useful for objective differentiation between blunt instrument and gunshot spatter patterns.

The Accuracy and Reliability of the Methods Used in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

The Accuracy and Reliability of the Methods Used in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
  • Author : Sita Ka Yan Yuen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : OCLC:794156061
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Summary : " Due to increasing awareness of incompleteness in the forensic disciplines and increasing expectation from the legislative requirements, it leads to the urgency to develop studies that analyse the validity of the methods employed by the forensic community. The purpose of this project is therefore to establish some baseline data on the accuracy and reliability of some of the quantitative and semi-quantitative measures used in BPA. The experiment was carried out in the form of a survey where 12 experienced bloodstain pattern analysts were recruited from the Institution of Environmental and Science Research (ESR). The analysts were asked to analyse sets of bloodstain patterns to determine the gamma angle, swipe/wipe motion and directionality, pattern sequencing and pattern recognition. A separate analysis on the accuracy and reliability of alpha angle determination was evaluated by extracting results from previous reports from Collaborative Testing Service (CTS). The quantitative methodologies were examined for the response rate by proportion analysis and Chi-square analysis. The correlation between the estimated and guessed answers was also compared against the true value by the use of scatter plots. The accuracy and precision were then evaluated by the use of a statistical tool known as multiple linear regression analysis. From this analysis, the accuracy can be estimated by regressing the observed error against the variables used in the study. Similar procedure was followed for the estimation of precision, but the square difference between the observed error and expected error was used instead. For semi-quantitative methodologies, the response rate was also examined by proportion analysis and Chi-square analysis, as with the quantitative methods. The reliability for these methodologies was performed by examining the proportion of accurate and inaccurate answers under each testing conditions. Findings from this study showed that the methodologies used by BPA are in need of improvements. Currently, the reliability of results is highly dependent on the conditions that the bloodstain pattern was created under. It is important to develop more markers that can assists BPA analysts in identifying the bloodstain patterns with confidence. In this project, some features were being identified during the examination of bloodstain patterns, which may be valuable markers for BPA interpretations"--Abstract.

Practical Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstruction

Practical Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstruction
  • Author : Ross M. Gardner,Tom Bevel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-06-26
  • Total pages :302
  • ISBN : 9781420065527
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Summary : Crime scene reconstruction (CSR) is today‘s hot topic. The immense proliferation of television, print, and electronic media directed at this area has generated significant public interest, albeit occasionally encouraging inaccurate perceptions. Practical Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstruction bridges the gap between perception and reality, helping

A Dictionary of Forensic Science

A Dictionary of Forensic Science
  • Author : Suzanne Bell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-02-09
  • Total pages :303
  • ISBN : 9780199594009
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Summary : This new dictionary covers a wide range of terms used in the field of forensic science, touching on related disciplines such as chemistry, biology, and anthropology. Case examples, figures, and photographs make it the ideal reference for students and practitioners of forensic science, as well as those with an interest in forensic science.

Bloodstain Patterns on Textile Surfaces

Bloodstain Patterns on Textile Surfaces
  • Author : Namrata Ashok Parekh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :150
  • ISBN : OCLC:885360351
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Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes, Second Edition

Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes, Second Edition
  • Author : William G. Eckert,Stuart H. James
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-07-14
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 0849381266
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Summary : As witnessed in landmark criminal cases, the quality and integrity of bloodstain evidence can be a crucial factor in determining a verdict. Since the first edition of Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes was published nearly a decade ago, bloodstain pattern interpretation has continued to grow as a branch of forensic science. Revised and updated to reflect new technology and developments in the field, the second edition is packed with new information and illustrations-including 421 photographs and diagrams of improved quality that will aid in interpretation of evidence. Expanding on a single chapter presented in the bestselling first edition, the second edition details, in four chapters, an introduction to bloodstain interpretation; low-velocity impact and angular considerations; medium and high-velocity impact; and the significance of partially dried, clotted, aged, and physically altered bloodstains in four new chapters. A full chapter on the detection of blood with luminol, featuring high-quality, full-color photographs of luminol reactions, has been added. This new edition also includes 12 new case studies in addition to 8 original case studies from the first edition that have been retained for their interpretative value. Everyone involved in crime scene evaluation and interpretation-law enforcement officers, criminologists, medical examiners, forensic pathologists, medicolegal personnel, and prosecutors and defense attorneys-will benefit from the improved and expanded second edition of this definitive reference.

Complete Crime Scene Investigation Handbook

Complete Crime Scene Investigation Handbook
  • Author : Everett Baxter Jr.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-20
  • Total pages :610
  • ISBN : 9781498701457
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Summary : Crime scene investigators are the foundation for every criminal investigation. The admissibility and persuasiveness of evidence in court, and in turn, the success of a case, is largely dependent upon the evidence being properly collected, recorded, and handled for future analysis by investigators and forensic analysts in the lab. Complete Crime Sce

Impact Bloodstain Patterns on Textiles

Impact Bloodstain Patterns on Textiles
  • Author : Jiaying Wu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :114
  • ISBN : OCLC:1015972276
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Summary :