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Bone Repair Biomaterials

Bone Repair Biomaterials
  • Author : Kendell Pawelec,J. A. Planell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-29
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780081024522
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Summary : Bone Repair Biomaterials: Regeneration and Clinical Applications, Second Edition, provides comprehensive reviews on materials science, engineering principles and recent advances. Sections review the fundamentals of bone repair and regeneration, discuss the science and properties of biomaterials used for bone repair, including metals, ceramics, polymers and composites, and discuss clinical applications and considerations, with chapters on such topics as orthopedic surgery, tissue engineering, implant retrieval, and ethics of bone repair biomaterials. This second edition includes more chapters on relevant biomaterials and a greatly expanded section on clinical applications, including bone repair applications in dental surgery, spinal surgery, and maxilo-facial and skull surgery. In addition, the book features coverage of long-term performance and failure of orthopedic devices. It will be an invaluable resource for researchers, scientists and clinicians concerned with the repair and restoration of bone. Provides a comprehensive review of the materials science, engineering principles and recent advances in this important area Presents new chapters on Surface coating of titanium, using bone repair materials in dental, spinal and maxilo-facial and skull surgery, and advanced manufacturing/3D printing Reviews the fundamentals of bone repair and regeneration, addressing social, economic and clinical challenges Examines the properties of biomaterials used for bone repair, with specific chapters assessing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites

Bone Repair Biomaterials

Bone Repair Biomaterials
  • Author : J A Planell,S M Best,D Lacroix,A Merolli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-08-26
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9781845696610
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Summary : Bone repair is a fundamental part of the rapidly expanding medical care sector and has benefited from many recent technological developments. With an increasing number of technologies available, it is vital that the correct technique is selected for specific clinical procedures. This unique book will provide a comprehensive review of the materials science, engineering principles and recent advances in this important area. The first part of the book reviews the fundamentals of bone repair and regeneration. Chapters in the second part discuss the science and properties of biomaterials used for bone repair such as metals, ceramics, polymers and composites. The final section of the book discusses clinical applications and considerations with chapters on such topics as orthopaedic surgery, tissue engineering, implant retrieval and ethics of bone repair biomaterials. With its distinguished editors and team of international contributors, Bone repair biomaterials is an invaluable reference for researchers and clinicians within the biomedical industry and academia. Provides a comprehensive review of the materials science, engineering principles and recent advances in this important area Reviews the fundamentals of bone repair and regeneration addressing social, economic and clinical challenges Examines the properties of biomaterials used for bone repair with specific chapters assessing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites

Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration
  • Author : P. Dubruel,S. Van Vlierberghe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-09
  • Total pages :502
  • ISBN : 9780857098108
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Summary : Novel Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration provides a comprehensive review of currently available biomaterials and how they can be applied in bone regeneration. In recent decades, there has been a shift from the idea of using biomaterials as passive substitutes for damaged bones towards the concept of biomaterials as aids for the regeneration of a host's own bone tissue. This has generated an important field of research and a range of technological developments. Part one of this book discusses a wide range of materials, including calcium phosphate cements, hydrogels, biopolymers, synthetic polymers, and shape memory polymers. Part two then turns to the processing and surface modification of biomaterials, as well as how biomaterials can be evaluated both for their mechanical properties and for immunocompatibility with the host. Finally, part three covers a variety of cellular approaches, and production and delivery of biomaterials for bone regeneration. Chapters also consider the potential of electromagnetic and ultrasonic stimulation of biomaterials to aid in the regenerative process. Novel Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration represents an important resource for academics, clinicians, and industry professionals working in the area of biomedical materials, providing them with both an overview of the current state-of-the-art, and an indication of potential future developments. Provides comprehensive coverage of novel materials, techniques, and applications of biomaterials for bone regeneration Provides vital information on the various types of materials used in bone regeneration Discusses processing, modification, and evaluation techniques of biomaterials, and looks at cellular approaches and stimulation of biomaterials for bone regeneration

Bone Substitute Biomaterials

Bone Substitute Biomaterials
  • Author : K. Mallick
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-05
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9780857099037
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Summary : Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic polymer composites, and marine organisms. Provides a detailed and accurate overview of the bone substitute biomaterials, a fundamental part of the biomaterials and biomedical sector Provides readers with the principles of bone substitute biomaterials Reviews biomaterials for bone regeneration

A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair

A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair
  • Author : Hala Zreiqat,Colin R. Dunstan,Vicki Rosen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-05
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 9783319132662
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Summary : Reviewing exhaustively the current state of the art of tissue engineering strategies for regenerating bones and joints through the use of biomaterials, growth factors and stem cells, along with an investigation of the interactions between biomaterials, bone cells, growth factors and added stem cells and how together skeletal tissues can be optimised, this book serves to highlight the importance of biomaterials composition, surface topography, architectural and mechanical properties in providing support for tissue regeneration. Maximizing reader insights into the importance of the interplay of these attributes with bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes), this book also provides a detailed reference as to how key signalling pathways are activated. The contribution of growth factors to drive tissue regeneration and stem cell recruitment is discussed along with a review the potential and challenges of adult or embryonic mesenchymal stem cells to further enhance the formation of new bone and cartilage tissues. This book serves to demonstrate the interconnectedness of biomaterials, bone/cartilage cells, growth factors and stem cells in determining the regenerative process and thus the clinical outcome.

Bioactive Materials for Bone Regeneration

Bioactive Materials for Bone Regeneration
  • Author : Jiang Chang,Xingdong Zhang,Kerong Dai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-28
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9780128135044
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Summary : Bioactive Materials for Bone Regeneration summarizes research advances on the topic, including sections on the characteristics of biomaterial-induced microenvironments, interactions of bioactive materials with stem cells and tissues, and the immunomodulatory microenvironment induced by biomaterials and its effects on osteogenesis. As the regeneration of large-size bone tissue defects represents a significant clinical challenge, this book demonstrates how new biomaterials with specific chemical and physical characteristics may interact with the host and create a unique micro-environment that actively facilitates stem cell differentiation along a specific lineage, thus stimulating tissue regeneration. Provides readers with the latest research developments in the fabrication techniques of bioactive materials for tissue regeneration and tissue engineering applications Presents the latest research advancements on how bioactive materials interact with the host and induce micro-environments for stem cell differentiation, immunomodulation and tissue regeneration Covers the methods, strategies, principle and mechanisms on constructing beneficial biomaterial microenvironments

Mineralized Collagen Bone Graft Substitutes

Mineralized Collagen Bone Graft Substitutes
  • Author : Xiu-Mei Wang,Zhi-Ye Qiu,Helen Cui
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-18
  • Total pages :258
  • ISBN : 9780081027394
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Summary : Mineralized Collagen Bone Graft Substitutes presents a comprehensive study of biomimetic mineralized collagen, synthesized in vitro, a next generation biomaterial for bone regeneration. By focusing both on fundamental research and the clinical use of this novel material, the book provides a complete examination, from bench to bedside. Chapters discuss natural bone and familiar biomaterials for bone repair, the preparation and safety of mineralized collagen, products made of mineralized collagen, and present clinical case studies. This book is an invaluable and unique resource for researchers, clinicians, students and industrialists in the area of orthopedics and dentistry. Provides a deep analysis of synthetic collagen, from bench to bedside Systematically examines the structure, principles, properties, biomimetic synthesis and characterization of mineralized collagen for bone repair Includes case studies that look at a range of clinical bone repair applications of Mineralized collagen and their clinical results

Materials and Devices for Bone Disorders

Materials and Devices for Bone Disorders
  • Author : Susmita Bose,Amit Bandyopadhyay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-03
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128028032
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Summary : Materials for Bone Disorders is written by a cross-disciplinary team of research scientists, engineers, and clinicians and bridges the gap between materials science and bone disorders, providing integrated coverage of biomaterials and their applications. The bioceramics, biopolymers, composites, and metallic materials used in the treatment of bone disorders are introduced, as are their interactions with cells, biomolecules, and body tissues. The main types of bone disorder and disease are covered including osteoporosis, spinal injury, load bearing joint diseases, bone cancer, and forms of cranio-maxillofacial disorders. Bone disorders are common across all ages. Various forms of bone disorders can change the lifestyle of otherwise normal and healthy people. With the development of novel materials, many forms of bone disorders are becoming manageable, allowing people to lead a fairly normal life. Specific consideration is given to areas where recent advances are enabling new treatments, such as the use of resorbable ceramics in bone tissue engineering and drug delivery, newer polymer-based implants in load-bearing contexts, and engineering biomaterials surfaces including modifying surface chemistry. Ethical and regulatory issues are also explored. Explores biomaterials for bone repair and related applications in orthopedics and dentistry in a clinical context Introduces biomaterials applications in the context of specific diseases, bone disorders, and theraputic contexts Includes input from a world-class team of research scientists, engineers, and clinicians Covers the main types of bone disorder and disease including osteoporosis, spinal injury, load bearing joint diseases, bone cancer, and forms of cranio-maxillofacial disorders

Peptides and Proteins as Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration and Repair

Peptides and Proteins as Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration and Repair
  • Author : Mario Barbosa,M Cristina L Martins
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-25
  • Total pages :390
  • ISBN : 9780081008522
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Summary : Peptides and Proteins as Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration and Repair highlights the various important considerations that go into biomaterial development, both in terms of fundamentals and applications. After covering a general introduction to protein and cell interactions with biomaterials, the book discusses proteins in biomaterials that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). The properties, fabrication and application of peptide biomaterials and protein-based biomaterials are discussed in addition to in vivo and in vitro studies. This book is a valuable resource for researchers, scientists and advanced students interested in biomaterials science, chemistry, molecular biology and nanotechnology. Presents an all-inclusive and authoritative coverage of the important role which protein and peptides play as biomaterials for tissue regeneration Explores protein and peptides from the fundamentals, to processing and applications Written by an international group of leading biomaterials researchers

Bone Repair Biomaterials

Bone Repair Biomaterials
  • Author : J A Planell,S M Best,D Lacroix,A Merolli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-08-26
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9781845696610
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Bone repair is a fundamental part of the rapidly expanding medical care sector and has benefited from many recent technological developments. With an increasing number of technologies available, it is vital that the correct technique is selected for specific clinical procedures. This unique book will provide a comprehensive review of the materials science, engineering principles and recent advances in this important area. The first part of the book reviews the fundamentals of bone repair and regeneration. Chapters in the second part discuss the science and properties of biomaterials used for bone repair such as metals, ceramics, polymers and composites. The final section of the book discusses clinical applications and considerations with chapters on such topics as orthopaedic surgery, tissue engineering, implant retrieval and ethics of bone repair biomaterials. With its distinguished editors and team of international contributors, Bone repair biomaterials is an invaluable reference for researchers and clinicians within the biomedical industry and academia. Provides a comprehensive review of the materials science, engineering principles and recent advances in this important area Reviews the fundamentals of bone repair and regeneration addressing social, economic and clinical challenges Examines the properties of biomaterials used for bone repair with specific chapters assessing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites

Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering
  • Author : José A. Sanz-Herrera
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-27
  • Total pages :244
  • ISBN : 9783039289653
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Summary : Bone tissue engineering aims to develop artificial bone substitutes that partially or totally restore the natural regeneration capability of bone tissue lost under circumstances of injury, significant defects, or diseases such as osteoporosis. In this context, biomaterials are the keystone of the methodology. Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering have evolved from biocompatible materials that mimic the physical and chemical environment of bone tissue to a new generation of materials that actively interacts with the physiological environment, accelerating bone tissue growth. Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools in the overall methodology. This book presents an overview of the current investigations and recent contributions in the field of bone tissue engineering. It includes several successful examples of multidisciplinary collaboration in this transversal area of research. The book is intended for students, researchers, and professionals of a number of disciplines, such as engineering, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biomedicine, biology, and veterinary. The book is composed of an editorial section and 16 original research papers authored by leading researchers of this discipline from different laboratories across the world

Nanocomposites for Musculoskeletal Tissue Regeneration

Nanocomposites for Musculoskeletal Tissue Regeneration
  • Author : Huinan Liu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-02-23
  • Total pages :406
  • ISBN : 9781782424758
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Summary : Nanocomposites for Musculoskeletal Tissue Regeneration discusses the advanced biomaterials scientists are exploring for use as tools to mimic the structure of musculoskeletal tissues. Bone and other musculoskeletal tissues naturally have a nanocomposite structure, therefore nanocomposites are ideally suited as a material for replacing and regenerating these natural tissues. In addition, biological properties such as biointegration and the ability to tailor and dope the materials make them highly desirable for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. Provides a comprehensive discussion on the design and advancements made in the use of nanocomposites for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration Presents an In-depth coverage of material properties Includes discussions on polymers, ceramics, and glass

Biomaterials in Orthopaedics and Bone Regeneration

Biomaterials in Orthopaedics and Bone Regeneration
  • Author : Preetkanwal Singh Bains,Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu,Marjan Bahraminasab,Chander Prakash
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-09
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9789811399770
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Summary : This book focuses on the recent advances in the field of orthopaedic biomaterials, with a particular emphasis on their design and fabrication. Biomimetic materials, having similar properties and functions to that of the natural tissue, are becoming a popular choice for making customized orthopaedic implants and bone scaffolds. The acceptability of these materials in the human body depends on the right balance between their mechanical and biological properties. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research in this rapidly evolving field. The chapters cover different aspects of multi-functional biomaterials design, and cutting-edge methods for the synthesis and processing of these materials. Advanced manufacturing techniques, like additive manufacturing, used for developing new biomimetic materials are highlighted in the book. This book is a valuable reference for students and researchers interested in biomaterials for orthopaedic applications.

Biomineralization and Biomaterials

Biomineralization and Biomaterials
  • Author : Conrado Aparicio,Maria Pau Ginebra
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-28
  • Total pages :482
  • ISBN : 9781782423560
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Summary : Biomineralization is a natural process by which living organisms form minerals in association with organic biostructures to form hybrid biological materials such as bone, enamel, dentine and nacre among others. Scientists have researched the fundamentals of these processes and the unique structures and properties of the resulting mineralized tissues. Inspired by them, new biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed in recent years. Biomineralization and biomaterials: fundamentals and applications looks at the characteristics of these essential processes and natural materials and describes strategies and technologies to biomimetically design and produce biomaterials with improved biological performance. Provides a thorough overview of the biomineralization process Presents the most recent information on the natural process by which crystals in tissues form into inorganic structures such as bone, teeth, and other natural mineralized tissues Investigates methods for improving mineralization Explores new techniques that will help improve the biomimetic process

Biomimetic Biomaterials

Biomimetic Biomaterials
  • Author : Andrew J Ruys
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9780857098887
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Summary : A significant proportion of modern medical technology has been developed through biomimetics, which is biologically inspired by studying pre-existing functioning systems in nature. Typical biomimetically inspired biomaterials include nano-biomaterials, smart biomaterials, hybrid biomaterials, nano-biocomposites, hierarchically porous biomaterials and tissue scaffolds. This important book summarises key research in this important field. The book is divided into two parts: Part one is devoted to the biomimetics of biomaterials themselves while part two provides overviews and case studies of tissue engineering applications from a biomimetics' perspective. The book has a strong focus on cutting edge biomimetically inspired biomaterials including chitin, hydrogels, calcium phosphates, biopolymers and anti-thrombotic coatings. Since many scaffolds for skin tissue engineering are biomimetically inspired, the book also has a strong focus on the biomimetics of tissue engineering in the repair of bone, skin, cartilage, soft tissue and specific organs. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Biomimetic biomaterials is a standard reference for both the biomaterials research community and clinicians involved in such areas as bone regeneration, skin tissue and wound repair. Places strong focus on cutting edge biomimetically-inspired biomaterials including chitin, hydrogels, calcium phosphates, biopolymers and anti-thrombotic coatings Provides overviews and case studies of tissue engineering applications from a biomimetics perspective Also places focus on the biomimetics of tissue engineering in the repair of bone, skin, cartilage, soft tissue and specific organs

Bone Grafting

Bone Grafting
  • Author : Raja Kummoona
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-19
  • Total pages :130
  • ISBN : 9781789848823
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Summary : This valuable book presents clinical experiences and research of bone grafting. Bone grafting is an essential technique practiced by craniofacial, maxillofacial, orthopedic, neuro, reconstructive and oral surgeons. Bone grafting can be used for reconstruction and restoring missing bone in trauma and tumor surgery of the facial bone or in road traffic accidents with multiple injuries and in post-traumatic missile war injuries to the face or limbs. Bone grafts, in the form of Kummoona Chondro-Ossous graft or Costo-Chondral graft, are used for reconstruction of damage TMJ for restoration of growth, function, and repair. Bone grafting is a surgical procedure where the iliac crest or rib or tibia is used to perform grafting. In this book, we examine the experimental studies on rabbits to understand the cellular changes associated with bone grafting. From this, we noticed that mesenchymal stem cells and growth factor are released from platelets and these play an important role in healing the bone graft. We recommend this valuable book to all cranio-maxillofacial, orthopedic, plastic, reconstructive, neuro and oral surgeons and to all postgraduate students studying bone grafting.

Advanced Techniques in Bone Regeneration

Advanced Techniques in Bone Regeneration
  • Author : Alessandro Rozim Zorzi,João Batista de Miranda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-31
  • Total pages :386
  • ISBN : 9789535125389
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Summary : Advanced Techniques in Bone Regeneration is a book that brings together over 15 chapters, written by leading practitioners and researchers, of the latest advances in the area, including surgical techniques, new discoveries, and promising methods involving biomaterials and tissue engineering. This book is intended for all who work in the treatment of disorders involving problems with the regeneration of bone tissue, are doctors or dentists, as well as are researchers and teachers involved in this exciting field of scientific knowledge.

Octacalcium Phosphate Biomaterials

Octacalcium Phosphate Biomaterials
  • Author : Laurence C. Chow
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11
  • Total pages :374
  • ISBN : 0081025114
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Summary : Octacalcium Phosphate Biomaterials: Past, Present and Future is a comprehensive study of octacalcium phosphate (OCP), a next generation biomaterial for bone regeneration. By focusing both on fundamental research and the use of OCP as a scaffold material, this book explores its potential to deliver improved clinical results. Early chapters in the book discuss OCP's effects on bone cell activity, cellular interactions and their role in bone formation, repair and replacement. Later chapters cover topics such as drug delivery, synthesis methodologies and future analysis techniques. This will be an invaluable and unique resource for researchers, clinicians, students and industrialists in the area of orthopedics and dentistry. OCP is known to be a pre-cursor to hydroxyapatite in the human biomineralization process that forms bone and tooth enamel. Research studies that have emerged in recent years suggest OCP's tremendous potential as a bioactive material. Contains comprehensive, up-to-date information on the basic science, including physical, chemical and biological properties Presents the clinical potential of octacalcium phosphate biomaterials Provides a reference point for new research and increased activity in the area of next generation smarter biomaterials for hard tissue repair and regeneration

Manual of INTERNAL FIXATION

Manual of INTERNAL FIXATION
  • Author : Martin Allgöwer,Maurice E. Müller,Robert Schneider,Hans Willenegger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-09
  • Total pages :752
  • ISBN : 9783662026953
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Summary : The Manual of INTERNAL FIXATION is well known internationally as a standard work for every specialist dealing with osteosynthesis. Due to the many changes that have taken place, an international faculty of orthopaedic surgeons and traumatologists completely revised and expanded the manual. In its third edition the manual reflects the state of the art and is the necessary reference for every AO specialist.

Cellular Response to Biomaterials

Cellular Response to Biomaterials
  • Author : Lucy Di Silvio
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-12-22
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9781845695477
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Summary : The response of cells to biomaterials is critical in medical devices. Traditionally inert biomaterials were used to minimise the reaction in cells in contact with the material. However, it has been realised that specific cell responses may be beneficial in such areas as encouraging adhesion, healing or cell multiplication. Cellular response to biomaterials discusses the response of cells to a wide range of biomaterials targeted at specific medical applications. Part one discusses cell responses to a variety of polymers and ceramics with chapters on such topics as degradable polymers and biocompatibility. Part two covers cell responses and regenerative medicine with coverage of themes such as vascular grafts, nerve repair and Bioglass®. Part three examines the effect of surfaces and proteins on cell response. Specific chapters review nano-engineered surfaces, the influence of plasma proteins on bone cell adhesion and surface modification of titanium implants. With its distinguished editor and team of international contributors, Cellular response to biomaterials is an essential read for those researching or studying medical devices in industry and academia. Examines the response of cells to a wide range of biomaterials targeted at specific medical applications Discusses cell responses and regenerative medicine with specific chapters on vascular grafts and nerve repair Assesses the effect of surfaces and proteins on cell response including the influence of plasma proteins on cell adhesion and surface modification of titanium implants

Biomechanics in Orthopedics

Biomechanics in Orthopedics
  • Author : Shigeo Niwa,Stephan M. Perren,Tomokazu Hattori
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :325
  • ISBN : 9784431682165
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Summary : A major part of orthopedics is the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases caused by structural disorders and mechanical breakdown of living tissue. Therefore, biomechanical consideration of static structures and dynamic mechanisms is compulsory for both diagnosis and treatment of orthopedic diseases. Previous biomechanical studies have enabled great advances in orthopedic implant technology, such as artificial joint replacement and instrumentation for spinal fusion. Consequently the importance of biomechanics is increasing more and more in daily clinical practice and development. In addition, biomaterial research into mechanical properties and tissue reactions of implant materials is certainly an important area of related study. This book is comprised of 22 papers presented at the International Seminar on Biomechanics in Orthopedics and the 17th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Orthopedic Biomechanics, held in Nagoya in 1990. The volume contains full descriptions of both conventional and updated knowledge of the spine, ligaments, artificial joint replacement in the hip and knee, fracture treatment, and gait analysis, as well as biomaterials. I earnestly hope that this book will be of benefit to readers in daily clinical work and research. To close, I would like to thank profoundly the two coeditors, Prof. S.M. Perren and Mr. T. Hattori, and also a quiet supporter Mrs. J. Buchanan in Davos, for their cooperation in producing this book.