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Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore,William J. Wade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :374
  • ISBN : 0444538313
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Summary : The 2nd Edition of Carbonate Reservoirs aims to educate graduate students and industry professionals on the complexities of porosity evolution in carbonate reservoirs. In the intervening 12 years since the first edition, there have been numerous studies of value published that need to be recognized and incorporated in the topics discussed. A chapter on the impact of global tectonics and biological evolution on the carbonate system has been added to emphasize the effects of global earth processes and the changing nature of life on earth through Phanerozoic time on all aspects of the carbonate system. The centerpiece of this chapter-and easily the most important synthesis of carbonate concepts developed since the 2001 edition-is the discussion of the CATT hypothesis, an integrated global database bringing together stratigraphy, tectonics, global climate, oceanic geochemistry, carbonate platform characteristics, and biologic evolution in a common time framework. Another new chapter concerns naturally fractured carbonates, a subject of increasing importance, given recent technological developments in 3D seismic, reservoir modeling, and reservoir production techniques. Detailed porosity classifications schemes for easy comparison Overview of the carbonate sedimentologic system Case studies to blend theory and practice

Geology of Carbonate Reservoirs

Geology of Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Wayne M. Ahr
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-09-20
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : 9781118210383
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Summary : An accessible resource, covering the fundamentals of carbonatereservoir engineering Includes discussions on how, where and why carbonate areformed, plus reviews of basic sedimentological and stratigraphicprinciples to explain carbonate platform characteristics andstratigraphic relationships Offers a new, genetic classification of carbonate porosity thatis especially useful in predicting spatial distribution of porenetworks. Includes a solution manual

Petro-physics and Rock Physics of Carbonate Reservoirs

Petro-physics and Rock Physics of Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Kumar Hemant Singh,Ritesh Mohan Joshi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-16
  • Total pages :299
  • ISBN : 9789811312113
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Summary : This book presents selected articles from the workshop on "Challenges in Petrophysical Evaluation and Rock Physics Modeling of Carbonate Reservoirs" held at IIT Bombay in November 2017. The articles included explore the challenges associated with using well-log data, core data analysis, and their integration in the qualitative and quantitative assessment of petrophysical and elastic properties in carbonate reservoirs. The book also discusses the recent trends and advances in the area of research and development of carbonate reservoir characterization, both in industry and academia. Further, it addresses the challenging concept of porosity portioning, which has huge implications for exploration and development success in these complex reservoirs, enabling readers to understand the varying orders of deposition and diagenesis and also to model the flow and elastic properties.

Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore,William J. Wade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780444538321
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Summary : The 2nd Edition of Carbonate Reservoirs aims to educate graduate students and industry professionals on the complexities of porosity evolution in carbonate reservoirs. In the intervening 12 years since the first edition, there have been numerous studies of value published that need to be recognized and incorporated in the topics discussed. A chapter on the impact of global tectonics and biological evolution on the carbonate system has been added to emphasize the effects of global earth processes and the changing nature of life on earth through Phanerozoic time on all aspects of the carbonate system. The centerpiece of this chapter—and easily the most important synthesis of carbonate concepts developed since the 2001 edition—is the discussion of the CATT hypothesis, an integrated global database bringing together stratigraphy, tectonics, global climate, oceanic geochemistry, carbonate platform characteristics, and biologic evolution in a common time framework. Another new chapter concerns naturally fractured carbonates, a subject of increasing importance, given recent technological developments in 3D seismic, reservoir modeling, and reservoir production techniques. Detailed porosity classifications schemes for easy comparison Overview of the carbonate sedimentologic system Case studies to blend theory and practice

Carbonate Reservoir Characterization

Carbonate Reservoir Characterization
  • Author : F. Jerry Lucia
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :227
  • ISBN : 9783662039854
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Summary : One main target in petroleum recovery is the description of of the three-dimensional distribution of petrophysical properties on the interwell scale in carbonate reservoirs, in order to improve performance predictions by means of fluid-flow computer simulations The book focuses on the improvement of geological, petrophysical, and geostatistical methods, describes the basic petrophysical properties, important geology parameters, and rock fabrics from cores, and discusses their spatial distribution. A closing chapter deals with reservoir models as an input into flow simulators.

Seismic Imaging of Carbonate Reservoirs and Systems

Seismic Imaging of Carbonate Reservoirs and Systems
  • Author : Gregor P. Eberli,Jose Luis Masaferro,J. Frederick Sarg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-01-01
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9780891813620
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Summary :

Carbonate Reservoir Rocks

Carbonate Reservoir Rocks
  • Author : Ksenia I. Bagrintseva
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-31
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9781119083993
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Summary : Most of the world’s energy still comes from fossil fuels, and there are still many strides being made in the efficiency and cost effectiveness of extracting these important and increasingly more elusive natural resources. This is only possible if the nature of the emergence, evolution, and parameter estimation of high grade reservoir rocks at great depths is known and a theory of their forecast is developed. Over 60 percent of world oil production is currently associated with carbonate reservoir rocks. The exploration, appraisal and development of these fields are significantly complicated by a number of factors. These factors include the structural complexity of the carbonate complexes, variability of the reservoir rock types and properties within a particular deposit, many unknowns in the evaluation of fracturing and its spatial variability, and the preservation of the reservoir rock qualities with depth. The main objective of most studies is discovering patterns in the reservoir rock property changes of carbonate deposits of different genesis, composition and age. A short list of the unsolved issues includes: the role of facies environment in the carbonate formation; the major geologic factors affecting the formation of high-capacity reservoir rocks and preservation of their properties; recommendations as to the use of the new techniques in studies of the structural parameters; and establishing a correlation between the major evaluation parameters. The focus of this volume is to show the scientific and engineering community a revolutionary process. The author perfected an earlier developed methodology in studies of the void space structure (Bagrintseva’s method, 1982). This methodology is based on carbonate rock saturation with luminophore and on special techniques in processing of photographs made under UV light. The luminophore technique was combined with the raster electron microscopy and its variation, the studies under the cathode luminescence regime. This combination enabled a more detailed study of the reservoir void space, the nonuniformity in the open fracture evolution, their morphology, length and variability of openness. Over recent years these techniques have found wide application. Useful for the veteran engineer or scientist and the student alike, this book is a must-have for any geologist, engineer, or student working in the field of upstream petroleum engineering.

Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore,William J. Wade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780128080962
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Summary : The biological influence over the origin, distribution, composition, texture, and mineralogy of carbonate sediments is stressed. Environmental factors such as light, temperature, and water depth directly affect these biological processes. Abiotic carbonate precipitation is discussed. Three carbonate factories are identified: shallow water tropical; deep water mud mound; cool-water factory developed in high and low latitudes. Basic attributes of each factory are developed. The rimmed shelf and ramp facies models of the tropical factory are detailed with the Belize shelf and Middle East Abu Dhabi as examples. The facies tract of the mud mound factory is detailed and the Devonian Canning Basin used as an example. The role of sea-level changes and carbonate sedimentation in platform development is discussed. High sea-level carbonate sediment shedding combined with lowstand sediment starvation is opposite to what is seen in regions of siliciclastic sedimentation. The dominance and importance of the Dunham rock classification is stressed. Finally, lacustrine carbonates are discussed using the African rift lakes as modern examples and developing a simple model of continental rift lake carbonate sedimentation emphasizing potential source rock and reservoir facies. The Brazil Cretaceous subsalt play of the south Atlantic rift and the potential of its African counterpart are discussed.

Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore,William J. Wade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780128080993
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Summary : The porosity of carbonates as compared to sandstones is vastly more complex with simple intergrain porosity dominates sandstones while carbonates commonly exhibit complex secondary pore systems that may evolve during burial. Initial porosity of carbonates is much greater than that seen in sandstones due to common intragranular porosity. Fractures, both natural and induced, are much more important in carbonates. Diagenesis is a major factor in the development of ultimate pore systems in carbonates. The geologically based Choquette–Pray carbonate porosity classification is the most commonly used scheme. Their 15 different pore types are based on fabric selectivity. A major feature of the classification is its recognition of the potential of porosity evolution through time and burial. Three porosity development zones are recognized: eogenetic, dealing with surface processes; mesogenetic, dealing with burial processes; and telogenetic, exhumed rocks dealing again with surface processes. This classification is best used during exploration, while other engineering-based classifications such as the one developed by Lucia should be used in reservoir characterization and as input for reservoir modeling. Examples of all 15 pore types are given.

Carbonate Reservoir Characterization: A Geologic-Engineering Analysis

Carbonate Reservoir Characterization: A Geologic-Engineering Analysis
  • Author : S.J. Mazzullo,H.H. Rieke,G.V. Chilingarian
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996-11-22
  • Total pages :993
  • ISBN : 0080528562
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Summary : This second volume on carbonate reservoirs completes the two-volume treatise on this important topic for petroleum engineers and geologists. Together, the volumes form a complete, modern reference to the properties and production behaviour of carbonate petroleum reservoirs. The book contains valuable glossaries to geologic and petroleum engineering terms providing exact definitions for writers and speakers. Lecturers will find a useful appendix devoted to questions and problems that can be used for teaching assignments as well as a guide for lecture development. In addition, there is a chapter devoted to core analysis of carbonate rocks which is ideal for laboratory instruction. Managers and production engineers will find a review of the latest laboratory technology for carbonate formation evaluation in the chapter on core analysis. The modern classification of carbonate rocks is presented with petroleum production performance and overall characterization using seismic and well test analyses. Separate chapters are devoted to the important naturally fractured and chalk reservoirs. Throughout the book, the emphasis is on formation evaluation and performance. This two-volume work brings together the wide variety of approaches to the study of carbonate reservoirs and will therefore be of value to managers, engineers, geologists and lecturers.

Fractured Vuggy Carbonate Reservoir Simulation

Fractured Vuggy Carbonate Reservoir Simulation
  • Author : Jun Yao,Zhao-Qin Huang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-08
  • Total pages :245
  • ISBN : 9783662550328
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Summary : This book solves the open problems in fluid flow modeling through the fractured vuggy carbonate reservoirs. Fractured vuggy carbonate reservoirs usually have complex pore structures, which contain not only matrix and fractures but also the vugs and cavities. Since the vugs and cavities are irregular in shape and vary in diameter from millimeters to meters, modeling fluid flow through fractured vuggy porous media is still a challenge. The existing modeling theory and methods are not suitable for such reservoir. It starts from the concept of discrete fracture and fracture-vug networks model, and then develops the corresponding mathematical models and numerical methods, including discrete fracture model, discrete fracture-vug model, hybrid model and multiscale models. Based on these discrete porous media models, some equivalent medium models and methods are also discussed. All the modeling and methods shared in this book offer the key recent solutions into this area.

Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore,William J. Wade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780128081051
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Summary : The overarching diagenetic drive during progressive burial of carbonate rocks is toward the loss of porosity through mechanical and chemical compaction (the latter consisting of pressure solution plus related cementation). The passive margin diagenetic regime is marked by relatively rapid burial with steadily rising temperatures and pressures. Once a mechanically stable grain framework is achieved, the effective stress from sediment loading can eventually suffice to cause chemical compaction. Early cementation, the presence of organic frameworks, overpressuring, dolomitization, and especially the filling of reservoir pores with oil all act to retard the onset and efficiency of chemical compaction. Aggressive pore fluids, the presence of metastable mineral phases, and admixtures of siliciclastics or other insolubles tend to accelerate the process. Catagenesis of organic matter in source rocks yields aggressive formation waters capable of calcite dissolution just prior to hydrocarbon maturation. But despite evidence of local late secondary porosity generation, theoretical considerations lead to the conclusion that such evidence represents limited and local porosity rearrangement. Hydrocarbon-filled deep carbonate reservoirs experience progressive loss of porosity with increasing depth, due to precipitation of pyrobitumen as circumgranular linings, and also—during very deep burial—by renewed precipitation of calcite cement (with carbon derived from destruction of methane) and resumption of mechanical and/or chemical compaction. The active margin diagenetic regime is characterized by rapid movement of large volumes of warm-to-hot basinal fluids, mobilized by tectonism, through complex subsurface conduits. Reactions between expelled fluids and conduit carbonates include recrystallization of earlier dolomites and calcites, replacement dolomitization, dissolution of calcite, dolomite and/or evaporites, and sulfide mineralization. Ascending hydrothermal fluids associated with wrench faults and rifting may result in fault-localized leaching of calcite, dolomitization, and dolomite cementation capable of creating or enhancing “hydrothermal dolomite” reservoirs. The most abundant diagenetic product is saddle dolomite. The postorogenic diagenetic regime is characterized by topographically driven meteoric recharge into deeply buried aquifers. There is minimal impact on carbonate porosity unless meteoric waters are dissolving anhydrite/gypsum. Where this occurs, a chemical drive can promote dissolution of dolomite and precipitation of calcite, accompanied by porosity enhancement. In the absence of evaporite dissolution, meteoric waters equilibrate with carbonate aquifers and minimal porosity modification occurs downstream. Crossplots of porosity versus thermal maturity appear to possess porosity predictive capability. Carbonate reservoirs are relatively prone to souring at depth; hydrocarbons in sour reservoirs can be partially or entirely consumed by destructive redox reactions with sulfur in the forms of H2S and S0. The initiation and extent of these reactions depend upon the availability of reactant sulfur (from evaporites and organosulfur compounds) and dissolved iron (derived from Fe-rich siliciclastics, if proximal).

Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs

Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs
  • Author : P.O. Roehl,P.W. Choquette
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :622
  • ISBN : 9781461250401
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Summary : The case history approach has an impressive record of success in a variety of disciplines. Collections of case histories, casebooks, are now widely used in all sorts of specialties other than in their familiar application to law and medicine. The case method had its formal beginning at Harvard in 1871 when Christopher Lagdell developed it as a means of teaching. It was so successful in teaching law that it was soon adopted in medical education, and the col lection of cases provided the raw material for research on various diseases. Subsequently, the case history approach spread to such varied fields as busi ness, psychology, management, and economics, and there are over 100 books in print that use this approach. The idea for a series of Casebooks in Earth Sciences grew from my ex perience in organizing and editing a collection of examples of one variety of sedimentary deposits. The project began as an effort to bring some order to a large number of descriptions of these deposits that were so varied in pre sentation and terminology that even specialists found them difficult to compare and analyze. Thus, from the beginning, it was evident that something more than a simple collection of papers was needed. Accordingly, the nearly fifty contributors worked together with George de Vries Klein and me to establish a standard format for presenting the case histories.

Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore,William J. Wade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780128080979
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Summary : Sequence stratigraphic principals can be applied to carbonate rock sequences. Typical tropical shallow-water carbonate shelves lead to sequence boundary exposure across carbonate platforms, and carbonate deep water deposits during highstands. Rapid carbonate sedimentation across a shelf leads to vertical accretion during the TST and progradation during the HST. Reef-bound shelf margins tend to evolve into escarpment margins with megabreccia development on the slope. Examples are the Devonian of the Canning Basin and the Cretaceous of Mexico. Carbonate ramps typically develop lowstand prograding complexes. Cool-water carbonates develop ramp morphology, independent of light with no framework reefs, and parallel the sequence stratigraphic framework of siliciclastics. The cool water sediments of the Great Australian Bight is an example Mud mound sequences as seen in Morocco are generally independent of sea-level changes, so most sequence stratigraphic concepts are not applicable. In mixed carbonate-siliciclastic situations reciprocal sedimentation results with HST carbonates dominating in the basin and LST clastics dominating in the basin. Sequence stratigraphic concepts are generally not applicable to lacustrine carbonates, but lake dessication cycles present a similar stratigraphic framework as seen in the Tertiary Green River of the Western United States.

Development Theories and Methods of Fracture-Vug Carbonate Reservoirs

Development Theories and Methods of Fracture-Vug Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Yang Li
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-01
  • Total pages :514
  • ISBN : 9780128132470
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Summary : Development Theories and Methods of Fracture-Vug Carbonate Reservoirs explores the theories and methods for successful development of a fracture-vug reservoir by presenting the developmental strategies used in the Tahe oilfield. Some of the theories and methods of developing the Tahe fracture-vug reservoirs have been inspired by two China national research projects: The ‘Basic research on development of fracture-vug carbonate reservoirs’ (2006-2010), and the ‘Basic research on production mechanism and oil recovery enhancement of fracture-vugcarbonate reservoirs’ (2011-2015), with support by the National Basic Research Program of China. These theories and methods have facilitated the successful development of the fracture-vug reservoir in the Tahe oilfield, providing effective technologies and inspirations to developing similar reservoirs everywhere. Provides information on both theoretical developments and technological innovations Applies the modern karst formation characterization and the fracture-vug hierarchical structure to geological investigations of fracture-vug carbonate reservoirs Introduces the karst facies-controlling 3D geologic modeling of fracture-vug reservoir formations Proposes the coupled-processing and equivalent multi-medium numerical simulation methods of fracture-vug reservoirs Presents development methodologies and techniques of water/gas flooding

Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstone and Carbonate Reservoirs

Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstone and Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Emad Walid Al Shalabi,Kamy Sepehrnoori
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-14
  • Total pages :178
  • ISBN : 9780128136058
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Summary : Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstones and Carbonate Reservoirs provides a first of its kind review of the low salinity and engineered water injection (LSWI/EWI) techniques for today’s more complex enhanced oil recovery methods. Reservoir engineers today are challenged in the design and physical mechanisms behind low salinity injection projects, and to date, the research is currently only located in numerous journal locations. This reference helps readers overcome these challenging issues with explanations on models, experiments, mechanism analysis, and field applications involved in low salinity and engineered water. Covering significant laboratory, numerical, and field studies, lessons learned are also highlighted along with key areas for future research in this fast-growing area of the oil and gas industry. After an introduction to its techniques, the initial chapters review the main experimental findings and explore the mechanisms behind the impact of LSWI/EWI on oil recovery. The book then moves on to the critical area of modeling and simulation, discusses the geochemistry of LSWI/EWI processes, and applications of LSWI/EWI techniques in the field, including the authors’ own recommendations based on their extensive experience. It is an essential reference for professional reservoir and field engineers, researchers and students working on LSWI/EWI and seeking to apply these methods for increased oil recovery. Teaches users how to understand the various mechanisms contributing to incremental oil recovery using low salinity and engineering water injection (LSWI/EWI) in sandstones and carbonates Balances guidance between designing laboratory experiments, to applying the LSWI/EWI techniques at both pilot-scale and full-field-scale for real-world operations Presents state-of-the-art approaches to simulation and modeling of LSWI/EWI

Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore,William J. Wade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780128081068
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Summary : Carbonate reservoirs are prone to natural fracturing. Fractures can act as enhanced permeability pathways, which may increase, decrease, or complicate reservoir production and development; healed fractures contribute to reservoir compartmentalization. A primary focus is placed upon the predictability of fracture set patterns and orientations, which vary according to carbonate lithofacies and the stress field(s) under which different types of fractures form. Extension fractures can form at the surface or at reservoir depths. Certain types of extension fracture sets (e.g., syndepositional, regional, and—to a lesser extent—karst-related fracture sets) exhibit predictable patterns and orientations with respect to the stress field under which they originated. Surface outcrops commonly exhibit multiple fracture sets; these are most frequently related to relaxation of compaction and/or thermal cooling. Such fracture sets are considered unlikely to resemble fracture sets in nearby reservoirs at depth; therefore, the use of surface fracture patterns as analogs for same-formation reservoirs, without comparative analysis of burial stress histories, is risky. Fault-related fractures have very high permeability potentials when newly formed, but their resulting role as fluid conduits typically leads to rapid healing, and therefore a higher likelihood of causing reservoir compartmentalization. These fractures typically cut across multiple beds. Fold-related fracture patterns are complex, typically consisting of both extension and conjugate shear-pair fractures, and show variable orientations in space and/or over time. However, they tend to follow the geometries of individual beds and are often confined to single beds, rather than aligning according to overall structural axes. Ekofisk Field, a naturally fractured North Sea chalk reservoir, is presented as an illustrative case of fold-related fracture abundance and effectiveness in enhancing fieldwide permeability parameters, without the drawback of creating major production problems during waterflooding.

Handbook of Log Evaluation Techniques for Carbonate Reservoirs

Handbook of Log Evaluation Techniques for Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : George B. Asquith
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1985
  • Total pages :47
  • ISBN : UOM:39015012610864
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Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :444
  • ISBN : 0444508503
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Summary : Clyde H. Moore

Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore,William J. Wade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780128080986
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Summary : Phanerozoic Global tectonic cycles (rifting of supercontinents, drifting and disassembly, closure and assembly) have a major impact of the development of the carbonate system. Volcanism during rifting affects global climate, leading to icehouse and greenhouse global climate conditions which affects marine abiotic carbonate mineralogy (aragonite seas during icehouse times, calcite seas during greenhouse times). During rifting and drifting stages, well-developed shelf margins and deep oceanic basins prevail, while during the assembly stage, shallow cratonic basins are characteristic. Ice house and greenhouse conditions impact the development of carbonate shelves. During icehouse conditions, high amplitude sea-level cycles favor development of rimmed shelves, thick fourth-order cycles, and deep karsting at sequence boundaries. Greenhouse conditions favor accretionary shelves with many thin parasequences and mild exposure surfaces. Biologic evolution also has a major impact on the carbonate system. The development of framework reefs is cyclical through the Phanerozoic as reef-building organisms evolve, leading to reef-free periods. The majority of carbonate sediments owe their mineralogy to the preferred mineralogy of the biota responsible for the sediments. As these groups evolve and become extinct, the sediment mineralogy mirrors these changes. A major carbonate database developed by Exxon/Mobil (termed the CATT hypothesis) has enormous potential as a tool to assist the exploration geoscientist in developing well-constrained conceptual geologic models and the development team to develop viable analogs for their reservoirs.

Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Clyde H. Moore,William J. Wade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780128081020
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Summary : Two marine evaporative settings are presented in detail: the sabkha and the evaporative lagoon/salina. In each, diagenetic pathways affect porosity evolution in associated marine carbonate sequences, with common dolomitization being a principal factor. Dolomitization is favored where hypersaline waters possess high Mg/Ca ratios (postprecipitation of Ca-bearing evaporites) and potential for hydrologic drive (high fluid densities). Surficial dolomites in modern environments are poorly ordered “protodolomites”. Modern marginal marine sabkha diagenetic environments are thin (