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Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts

Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts
  • Author : Claudiu T Supuran,Giuseppina De Simone
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-01-14
  • Total pages :398
  • ISBN : 9780444632630
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Summary : Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes, present throughout most living organisms and encoded by five evolutionarily unrelated gene families. The Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts: From Theory to Medical and Industrial Applications presents information on the growing interest in the study of this enzyme family and their applications to both medicine and biotechnology. Offers comprehensive coverage of the carbonic anhydrases enzyme family and their properties as biocatalysts Includes current applications of carbonic anhydrases in biotechnology on the basis of their catalytic efficiency, including new technologies for CO2 capture processes Identifies new targets for drug design studies Provides a selectivity profile for the different carbonic anhydrases and their related biomedical applications

Carbonic Anhydrases

Carbonic Anhydrases
  • Author : Claudiu Supuran,Alessio Nocentini
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-17
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128167458
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Summary : Carbonic Anhydrases provides an interdisciplinary review of the burgeoning carbonic anhydrase (CA) research area, spanning from CAs classification (biochemical and structural features) to drug design and pharmacology of CA inhibitors and activators, finally touching on the biotechnological applications of these metalloenzymes. The book adopts a clear step-by-step approach and introduction to this intricate and highly interdisciplinary field. A diverse range of chapters from international experts speak to CA classification and distribution, the mechanisms of action and drug design of inhibitors and activators, the druggability of the various isoforms in the treatment of a multitude of diseases, and threats to human health. Carbonic Anhydrases provides biology, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry students and researchers a thorough discussion and update on the evergreen and expanding research area of CAs. Offers a full overview of CAs’ biochemical and structural features, as well as drug design and pharmacology of inhibitors and activators Provides a thorough update on the newly identified isoforms, modulating chemotypes, and innovative biomedical applications Describes the current biotechnological applications of CAs, including processes for CO2 capture Features chapter contributions from international leaders in CA biology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis
  • Author : Peter Grunwald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-27
  • Total pages :774
  • ISBN : 9781000020946
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Summary : This book provides an overview of the world market of therapeutic enzymes and enzyme inhibitors, rare diseases, orphan drugs, the costs of drug development and therapies, and enzymes in downstream processing of pharmaceuticals. It discusses carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and their multiple drug interactions, carboxylesterase inhibitors for pharmaceutical applications, employment of inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, use of engineered proteins, bioactive peptides, and fibrinolytic enzymes for thrombolytic therapy, and enzymes important for the design and development of new drugs/drug metabolites such as aldehyde oxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes and the role the latter play in vascular biology and pathophysiology. The treatment of cancer is explored in connection with enzymatic amino acid deprivation therapies and new drugs that act as chemical degraders of oncogenic proteins. The book also introduces the resistance mechanisms of cancer. Furthermore, it provides an insight into the relationship between pathological conditions of cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. The text also focuses on the potential use of nanoparticles as carriers for enzymes with medical relevance, computer-aided drug design for the identification of multi-target directed ligands, and the development of improved therapeutics through a glycan-“designer” approach. It concludes with an introduction to the chemoenzymatic synthesis of drugs.

Carbonic Anhydrases

Carbonic Anhydrases
  • Author : Claudiu Supuran,Alessio Nocentini
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-17
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128167458
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Summary : Carbonic Anhydrases provides an interdisciplinary review of the burgeoning carbonic anhydrase (CA) research area, spanning from CAs classification (biochemical and structural features) to drug design and pharmacology of CA inhibitors and activators, finally touching on the biotechnological applications of these metalloenzymes. The book adopts a clear step-by-step approach and introduction to this intricate and highly interdisciplinary field. A diverse range of chapters from international experts speak to CA classification and distribution, the mechanisms of action and drug design of inhibitors and activators, the druggability of the various isoforms in the treatment of a multitude of diseases, and threats to human health. Carbonic Anhydrases provides biology, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry students and researchers a thorough discussion and update on the evergreen and expanding research area of CAs. Offers a full overview of CAs’ biochemical and structural features, as well as drug design and pharmacology of inhibitors and activators Provides a thorough update on the newly identified isoforms, modulating chemotypes, and innovative biomedical applications Describes the current biotechnological applications of CAs, including processes for CO2 capture Features chapter contributions from international leaders in CA biology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology

Biocatalysis

Biocatalysis
  • Author : Gonzalo de Gonzalo,Pablo Domínguez de María
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-02
  • Total pages :511
  • ISBN : 9781782626190
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Summary : Implementing biocatalytic strategies in an industrial setting is a challenging task, especially when commercial scale necessitates a balance between industrial need and economic viability. With invited contributions from a wide range of chemical and pharmaceutical companies, this book bridges the gap between academia and industry. Contributors discuss current processes, types of biocatalysts and improvements, industrial motivation and the key aspects needed for economic success. Focussing on industry related issues, this book will be a useful tool for future research by both practitioners and academics.

Carbonic Anhydrase: Mechanism, Regulation, Links to Disease, and Industrial Applications

Carbonic Anhydrase: Mechanism, Regulation, Links to Disease, and Industrial Applications
  • Author : Susan C. Frost,Robert McKenna
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :430
  • ISBN : 9789400773592
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Summary : The study of carbonic anhydrase has spanned multiple generations of scientists. Carbonic anhydrase was first discovered in 1932 by Meldrum and Roughton. Inhibition by sulfanilamide was shown in 1940 by Mann and Keilin. Even Hans Krebs contributed to early studies with a paper in 1948 showing the relationship of 25 different sulfonamides to CA inhibition. It was he who pointed out the importance of both the charged and uncharged character of these compounds for physiological experiments. The field of study that focuses on carbonic anhydrase (CA) has exploded in recent years with the identification of new families and isoforms. The CAs are metalloenzymes which are comprised of 5 structurally different families: the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and epsilon classes. The alpha class is found primarily in animals with several isoforms associated with human disease. The beta CAs are expressed primarily in plants and are the most divergent. The gamma CAs are the most ancient. These are structurally related to the beta CAs, but have a mechanism more similar to the alpha CAs. The delta CAs are found in marine algae and diflagellates. The epsilon class is found in prokaryotes in which it is part of the carboxysome shell perhaps supplying RuBisCO with CO2 for carbon fixation. With the excitement surrounding the discovery of disease-related CAs, scientists have redoubled their efforts to better understand structure-function relationships, to design high affinity, isotype-specific inhibitors, and to delineate signaling systems that play regulatory roles over expression and activity. We have designed the book to cover basic information of mechanism, structure, and function of the CA families. The authors included in this book bring to light the newest data with regard to the role of CA in physiology and pathology, across phylums, and in unique environmental niches.

The Carbonic Anhydrases

The Carbonic Anhydrases
  • Author : W.R. Chegwidden,N.D. Carter,Y.H. Edwards
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-11
  • Total pages :619
  • ISBN : 9783034884464
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Summary : Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a seemingly ubiquitous enzyme of profound physiological importance, which plays essential roles in respiration, acid-base homeostasis, bone resorption, calcification, photosynthesis, several biosynthetic pathways and a variety of processes involving ion, gas and fluid transfer. This enzyme, which is present in at least three gene families (a, ß, ?), has found favour as a model for the study of evolution of gene families and for site-directed mutagenesis in structure/function relationships, for protein folding and for transgenic and gene target studies. Since the early use of CA inhibitors as diuretics and in treating congestive heart failure, the enzyme has been target of considerable clinical attention. Much of this is now focused on endeavours to produce a new generation of such drugs for the effective treatment of glaucoma and other potential applications. Recent data, suggesting links between CA and various disease processes, including cancer, have stimulated further...

Applied Biocatalysis in Specialty Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals

Applied Biocatalysis in Specialty Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals
  • Author : American Chemical Society Division Of Biochemical,Badal C. Saha,David Charles Demirjian,American Chemical Society. Division of Biochemical Technology,American Chemical Society. Meeting
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : UOM:39015049560207
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Summary : Written for a wide variety of biotechnologists, this book provides a major review of the state-of-the-art in bioethanol production technologies, enzymatic biomass conversion, and biodiesel. It also provides a detailed explanation of a breakthrough in photosynthetic water splitting which could result in a doubling of the efficiency of solar energy conversion by green plants. The book covers production of lactic acid, succinic acid, 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, and polyhydroxybutyrate and xylitol. It also includes a chapter on synthesis-gas fermentation.

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism
  • Author : Claudiu T. Supuran
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-08
  • Total pages :184
  • ISBN : 9783038978008
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Summary : Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933, these enzymes have been extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 is a very slow process and the physiological demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacological applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial, and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis, and thus selective inhibitors of such enzymes may be useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As tumor metabolism is diverse compared to that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and so on, since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate, not CO2, as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity, however, have been scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites aims to fill this gap by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis
  • Author : Peter Grunwald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-26
  • Total pages :424
  • ISBN : 9781000067408
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Summary : Volume 7 of the Jenny Stanford Series on Biocatalysis deals with several different aspects of pharmaceuticals, which include not only various applications of drugs and their metabolism but also natural resources for active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as the removal of pharmaceutical pollution. In detail, novel approaches for developing microbial fermentation processes to produce vitamin B6 using microorganisms are described together with novel routes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis. The other topics discussed are new approaches for producing the successful anticancer drug Taxol from naturally occurring precursors, molecular farming through plant engineering as a cost-effective means to produce therapeutic and prophylactic proteins, and successful screening of potent microorganisms producing L-asparaginase for various chemotherapeutic applications. Furthermore, microbial biotransformations in the production and degradation of fluorinated pharmaceuticals are described. The other chapters inform the reader about the biotransformation of xenobiotics/drugs in living systems, the degradation of pharmaceuticals by white-rot fungi and their ligninolytic enzymes, and the removal of pharmaceutical pollution from municipal sewage using laccase.

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis
  • Author : Peter Grunwald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-27
  • Total pages :774
  • ISBN : 9781000020946
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Summary : This book provides an overview of the world market of therapeutic enzymes and enzyme inhibitors, rare diseases, orphan drugs, the costs of drug development and therapies, and enzymes in downstream processing of pharmaceuticals. It discusses carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and their multiple drug interactions, carboxylesterase inhibitors for pharmaceutical applications, employment of inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, use of engineered proteins, bioactive peptides, and fibrinolytic enzymes for thrombolytic therapy, and enzymes important for the design and development of new drugs/drug metabolites such as aldehyde oxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes and the role the latter play in vascular biology and pathophysiology. The treatment of cancer is explored in connection with enzymatic amino acid deprivation therapies and new drugs that act as chemical degraders of oncogenic proteins. The book also introduces the resistance mechanisms of cancer. Furthermore, it provides an insight into the relationship between pathological conditions of cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. The text also focuses on the potential use of nanoparticles as carriers for enzymes with medical relevance, computer-aided drug design for the identification of multi-target directed ligands, and the development of improved therapeutics through a glycan-“designer” approach. It concludes with an introduction to the chemoenzymatic synthesis of drugs.

Chemo-Biological Systems for CO2 Utilization

Chemo-Biological Systems for CO2 Utilization
  • Author : Ashok Kumar,Swati Sharma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-21
  • Total pages :302
  • ISBN : 9781000174823
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Summary : Chemo-Biological Systems for CO2 Utilization describes the most recent advanced tools and techniques for carbon dioxide capture and its utilization. It discusses and compares the advantages of different systems and aids researchers and industrialists in understanding energy generation in the form of biofuels, bioelectricity, or biogas using chemicals; nanomaterials; and microbial, enzymatic, and chemo-enzymatic-integrated systems. It describes the importance and utilization of CO2 in living systems, and provides an overview of the various fundamental methods, policies, and techniques involved in CO2 conversion. Emphasis is placed on the production of value-added products using CO2, including biomethanol, industrial carbonates, and liquid or gaseous fuels. Features: Explains the correlations between microbial, biological, and chemical products and their roles in the conversion of CO2 into usable energy and related products. Being suitable for a broad audience, it addresses fundamental treatment methods for reusing environmental waste materials. Aids in decision-making and policy planning for environmental professionals. The information provided throughout this book will help researchers and professionals working in various industries to better understand the conversion of CO2 into energy-based products. Chemo-Biological Systems for CO2 Utilization also serves as a useful guide to seek alternative methods for clean energy and mitigating global climate change.

Handbook of Carbohydrate-Modifying Biocatalysts

Handbook of Carbohydrate-Modifying Biocatalysts
  • Author : Peter Grunwald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-25
  • Total pages :1056
  • ISBN : 9781351733977
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Summary : This book provides an actual overview of the structure, function, and application of carbohydrate-modifying biocatalysts. Carbohydrates have been disregarded for a long time by the scientific community, mainly due to their complex structure. Meanwhile, the situation changed with increasing knowledge about the key role carbohydrates play in biological processes such as recognition, signal transduction, immune responses, and others. An outcome of research activities in glycoscience is the development of several new pharmaceuticals against serious diseases such as malaria, cancer, and various storage diseases. Furthermore, the employment of carbohydrate-modifying biocatalysts—enzymes as well as microorganisms—will contribute significantly to the development of environmentally friendly processes boosting a shift of the chemical industry from petroleum- to bio-based production of chemicals from renewable resources. The updated content of the second edition of this book has been extended by discussing the current state of the art of using recombinantly expressed carbohydrate-modifying biocatalysts and the synthesis of minicellulosomes in connection with consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulosic material. Furthermore, a synthetic biology approach for using DAHP-dependent aldolases to catalyze asymmetric aldol reactions is presented.

Microorganisms in Environmental Management

Microorganisms in Environmental Management
  • Author : T. Satyanarayana,Bhavdish Narain Johri,Anil Prakash
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-02
  • Total pages :819
  • ISBN : 9789400722293
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Summary : Microbes and their biosynthetic capabilities have been invaluable in finding solutions for several intractable problems mankind has encountered in maintaining the quality of the environment. They have, for example, been used to positive effect in human and animal health, genetic engineering, environmental protection, and municipal and industrial waste treatment. Microorganisms have enabled feasible and cost-effective responses which would have been impossible via straightforward chemical or physical engineering methods. Microbial technologies have of late been applied to a range of environmental problems, with considerable success. This survey of recent scientific progress in usefully applying microbes to both environmental management and biotechnology is informed by acknowledgement of the polluting effects on the world around us of soil erosion, the unwanted migration of sediments, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and the improper treatment of human and animal wastes. These harmful phenomena have resulted in serious environmental and social problems around the world, problems which require us to look for solutions elsewhere than in established physical and chemical technologies. Often the answer lies in hybrid applications in which microbial methods are combined with physical and chemical ones. When we remember that these highly effective microorganisms, cultured for a variety of applications, are but a tiny fraction of those to be found in the world around us, we realize the vastness of the untapped and beneficial potential of microorganisms. At present, comprehending the diversity of hitherto uncultured microbes involves the application of metagenomics, with several novel microbial species having been discovered using culture-independent approaches. Edited by recognized leaders in the field, this penetrating assessment of our progress to date in deploying microorganisms to the advantage of environmental management and biotechnology will be widely welcomed.

Biocatalysis

Biocatalysis
  • Author : Andreas S. Bommarius,Bettina R. Riebel-Bommarius
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-02-27
  • Total pages :634
  • ISBN : 9783527606054
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Summary : The whole range of biocatalysis, from a firm grounding in theoretical concepts to in-depth coverage of practical applications and future perspectives. The book not only covers reactions, products and processes with and from biological catalysts, but also the process of designing and improving such biocatalysts. One unique feature is that the fields of chemistry, biology and bioengineering receive equal attention, thus addressing practitioners and students from all three areas.

Enzyme Functionality

Enzyme Functionality
  • Author : Allan Svendsen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-10-28
  • Total pages :712
  • ISBN : 9780824756918
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Summary : Enzyme Functionality serves as a conduit for trailblazing research in enzyme engineering-relating current understanding of sequence families, the new notion of enzyme structure classes, and modern methods in protein engineering, design, and directed evolution to accelerate the development of novel enzyme functionalities. This reference gathers the diverse perspectives of nearly 80 scientists from around the globe and surveys all leading rational and random approaches to the artificial evolution of enzymes. Citing more than 1500 notable works, it outlines assays for enzyme activity, stability, and specificity and a wide variety of site-directed, redesign, and evolutionary engineering methods.

Industrial Biocatalysis

Industrial Biocatalysis
  • Author : Peter Grunwald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-11
  • Total pages :1232
  • ISBN : 9789814463898
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Summary : Biocatalysis has become an essential tool in the chemical industry and is the core of industrial biotechnology, also known as white biotechnology, making use of biocatalysts in terms of enzymes or whole cells in chemical processes as an alternative to chemical catalysts. This shift can be seen in the many areas of daily life where biocatalysts—with their environmentally friendly properties—are currently employed. Drivers are the big societal challenges resulting from concerns about the global climate change and the need for an assured energy supply. Modern biocatalysis relies to a large extent on the tremendous advances in the so-called omics techniques and the structural elucidation of biomolecules, which have led to synthetic biology and metabolic engineering as new research fields with high application potential for the rational design of enzymes and microbial production strains. In this book, renowned scientists discuss the actual developments in these research fields together with a variety of application-oriented topics.

Biocatalysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry

Biocatalysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Author : Junhua (Alex) Tao,Guo-Qiang Lin,Andreas Liese
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-07-23
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9780470823156
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Summary : Biocatalysis is rapidly evolving into a key technology for the discovery and production of chemicals, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, where high yielding chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective reactions are critical. Taking the latest breakthroughs in genomics and proteomics into consideration, Biocatalysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry concisely yet comprehensively discusses the modern application of biocatalysis to drug discovery, development, and manufacturing. Written by a team of leading experts, the book offers deep insight into this cutting edge field. Covers a wide range of topics in a systematic manner with an emphasis on industrial applications Provides a thorough introduction to the latest biocatalysts, modern expression hosts, state-of-the-art directed evolution, high throughput screening, and bioprocess engineering Addresses frontier subjects such as emerging enzymes, metabolite profiling, combinatorial biosynthesis, metabolic engineering, and autonomous enzymes for the synthesis and development of chiral molecules, drug metabolites, and semi-synthetic medicinal compounds and natural product analogs Highlights the impact of biocatalysis on green chemistry Contains numerous graphics to illustrate concepts and techniques Biocatalysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry is an essential resource for scientists, engineers, and R&D policy makers in the fine chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries. It is also an invaluable tool for academic researchers and advanced students of organic and materials synthesis, chemical biology, and medicinal chemistry.

Biocatalysis

Biocatalysis
  • Author : D.A. Abramowicz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-09
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9789401091244
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Summary : The action of enzymes fascinated mankind long before they were rec ognized for the complex chemicals that they are. The first application of these remarkable compounds to produce ethanol by fermentation is lost to antiquity. Payer and Persoz (Ann. Chim. Phys. , 53, 73 (1833ii)) appear to have provided the first step toward understanding this com plex area when they reported the isolation of diastase in 1833. These workers showed that diastase could catalyze the hydrolysis of starches to sugars. Somewhat earlier Kirchhoff (Schwigger's Journal, 4, 108 (1812)) had shown that a small amount of dilute acid could hydrolyze a seemingly endless amount of starch to sugars. The genius of Berzelius recognized the commonality of these two observations in connection with a few other isolated observations and in 1834 coined the term catalysis to describe such actions. Professor Leibig was one of the giants of the chemical world in 1840. In addition to his own work, Liebig was training the world's next generation of chemists in his laboratory in Giessen. This cadre of chemists were very impressed by the master teacher so that is it only natural that Liebig's views should dominate with this next generation of chemists. Leibig was, in the 1830s and 1840s, developing his mastery of agricultural chemistry. The mechanism of putrefication was of great concern to Leibig, and he turned to the newly defined area of catalysis for an explanation.

Biotransformations in Organic Chemistry

Biotransformations in Organic Chemistry
  • Author : Kurt Faber
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :403
  • ISBN : 9783662004319
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Summary : The use of natural catalysts -enzymes -for the transformation of non-natural man-made organic compounds is not at all new: they have been used for more than one hundred years, employed either as whole cells, cell organelles or isolated enzymes [1, 2]. Certainly, the object of most of the early research was totally different from that of the present day. Thus the elucidation of biochemical pathways and enzyme mechanisms was the main reason for research some decades ago. It was mainly during the 1980s that the enormous potential of applying natural catalysts to transform non-natural organic compounds was recognized. What started as a trend in the late 1970s could almost be called a fashion in synthetic organic chemistry in the 1990s. Although the early euphoria during the 'gold rush' in this field seems to have eased somewhat, there is still no limit to be seen for the future development of such methods. As a result of this extensive, recent research, there have been an estimated 12000 papers published on the subject. To collate these data as a kind of 'super-review' would clearly be an impossible task and, furthermore, such a hypothetical book would be unpalatable for the non-expert [3-6].

Biocatalysis and Nanotechnology

Biocatalysis and Nanotechnology
  • Author : Peter Grunwald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-25
  • Total pages :836
  • ISBN : 9781351767552
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Summary : Nanobiocatalysis has rapidly developed into a subarea of enzyme biotechnology. It combines the advances in nanotechnology that have generated nanoscale materials of different sizes, shapes, and physicochemical properties, and the excellent characteristics of biocatalysts into an innovative technology. This book provides an overview of the various relations between nanotechnology and biocatalysis. It discusses the fabrication and application of nanomaterials for the immobilization of enzymes used in the sustainable production of goods and chemicals. Nanosupports have several advantages compared with bulk solid materials because of their high surface area, which results in a significantly reduced mass transfer limitation and comparatively high enzyme loading. These characteristics are also of great use for applications in the fields of enzymatic biosensors, biofuel cells, bioelectronics, and photoelectrochemical analyte detection, where conductive nanomaterials improve the rate of electron transfer. The book also presents an overview of nanotoxicology and covers nanostructured enzyme catalysis in organic solvents and its potential application for biodiesel production, probing of enzymatic activity, and identification of enzyme functions of inorganic nanoparticles as enzyme mimics.