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Chalcogenide-Based Nanomaterials as Photocatalysts

Chalcogenide-Based Nanomaterials as Photocatalysts
  • Author : Mohammad Mansoob Khan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-04-15
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9780128209172
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Summary : Chalcogenide-Based Nanomaterials as Photocatalysts deals with the different types of chalcogenide-based photocatalytic reactions, covering the fundamental concepts of photocatalytic reactions involving chalcogenides for a range of energy and environmental applications. Sections focus on nanostructure control, synthesis methods, activity enhancement strategies, environmental applications, and perspectives of chalcogenide-based nanomaterials. The book offers guidelines for designing new chalcogenide-based nanoscale photocatalysts at low cost and high efficiency for efficient utilization of solar energy in the areas of energy production and environment remediation. Provides information on the development of novel chalcogenide-based nanomaterials Outlines the fundamentals of chalcogenides-based photocatalysis Includes techniques for heterogeneous catalysis based on chalcogenide-based nanomaterials

Heterostructured Photocatalysts for Solar Energy Conversion

Heterostructured Photocatalysts for Solar Energy Conversion
  • Author : Srabanti Ghosh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-10
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128200735
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Summary : Heterostructured Photocatalysts for Solar Energy Conversion provides a comprehensive description of novel z-scheme hybrid materials based on metal oxide or chalcogenides-based semiconductor, or carbon-based nanomaterials (conducting polymers, graphene, and other carbon materials). The book explores energy conversion applications, such as hydrogen generation, water splitting, CO2 reduction or degradation of organic pollutants, and their associated new material and technology development. The book addresses a variety of topics, such as photochemical processes, materials and fabrication, degradation mechanisms, as well as challenges and strategies. The book includes in-depth discussions ranging from comprehensive understanding, to engineering of materials and applied devices. The concept of visible light active catalysis emerged in recent decades and continues to attract the scientific community. Driven primarily by an opportunity to develop novel multifunctional materials on one hand, and sustainable technologies on the other, several successful approaches have been explored. However, preparation, characterization, and application of visible light active Z-scheme heterojunction-based catalytic nanostructures are still at the foreground of research activity. Provides an overview on recently developed Z-scheme photocatalysts to stress their performance as catalysts Covers most of the important topics in photocatalysis Explores the most recent advances in synthesis to enable deeper understanding of the principles underlying electronic behavior of catalytic nanostructures, mechanistic details, and the evaluation of their effectiveness, as well as perspectives in solar light harvesting Serves as a valuable resource for better understanding of the current state of photocatalysis research and its possible applications in energy domain

Current Developments in Photocatalysis and Photocatalytic Materials

Current Developments in Photocatalysis and Photocatalytic Materials
  • Author : Xinchen Wang,Masakazu Anpo,Xianzhi Fu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-29
  • Total pages :566
  • ISBN : 9780128190036
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Summary : Photocatalytic materials can improve the efficiency and sustainability of processes and offer novel ways to address issues across a wide range of fields—from sustainable chemistry and energy production to environmental remediation. Current Developments in Photocatalysis and Photocatalytic Materials provides an overview of the latest advances in this field, offering insight into the chemistry and activity of the latest generation of photocatalytic materials. After an introduction to photocatalysis and photocatalytic materials, this book goes on to outline a wide selection of photocatalytic materials, not only covering typical metal oxide photocatalysts such as TiO2 but also exploring newly developed organic semiconducting photocatalysts, such as g-C3N4. Drawing on the experience of an expert team of contributors, Current Developments in Photocatalysis and Photocatalytic Materials highlights the new horizons of photocatalysis, in which photocatalytic materials will come to play an important role in our day-to-day lives. Reviews developments in both organic- and inorganic-based materials for use in photocatalysis Presents the fundamental chemistry and activity of a broad range of key photocatalytic materials, including both typical and novel materials Highlights the role photocatalytic materials can play in sustainable applications

Nanostructured Materials for Visible-Light-Photocatalysis

Nanostructured Materials for Visible-Light-Photocatalysis
  • Author : Arpan Kumar Nayak,Niroj Kumar Sahu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-10-15
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 0128230185
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Summary : Nanostructured Materials for Visible-Light-Photocatalysis describes the various methods of synthesizing different classes of nanostructured materials that are used as photocatalysts for the degradation of organic hazardous dyes under visible light irradiation. The first two chapters include a general introduction, basic principles and mechanisms of nanomaterials for visible-light-photocatalysis. Recent advances in carbon, transition metal oxide, and chalcogenides-based nanostructured materials for visible light photocatalysis are discussed in Chapters 3 to 5. Chapters VI and VII describe the role of sulphides, carbides, nitrides, and rare earth-based nanostructured-based materials over visible-light-photocatalysis. The above chapters also explain the characteristics, synthesis, and fabrication of photocatalysts. The role of doping, composites, defects, different facets, and morphology of nanostructured materials for efficient dye removal under visible-light irradiation, are explained in Chapters VIII to XII. Large-scale production of nanostructured materials, used for industrial scales and their problems, including solutions, are discussed in Chapters XIII and XIV. In the conclusion of the book, the challenges in present photocatalytic research, research gaps, and the future scope of nanostructured materials over environmental hazard remediation under visible-light, as well as solar light harvesting are addressed. This book presents a valuable reference to researchers that enables them to learn more about designing advanced nanostructured materials for waste water treatment and visible-light irradiation. Covers all the recent developments of nanostructured photocatalytic materials Provides a clear overview of the mechanism of visible light photocatalysis and the controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials Assesses the major challenges of creating visible light photocatalysis systems at the nanoscale

Nanoscience: Volume 6

Nanoscience: Volume 6
  • Author : Neerish Revaprasadu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-21
  • Total pages :173
  • ISBN : 9781788016933
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Summary : The field of nanoscience continues to grow and, with such a vast landscape of material, careful distillation of the most important discoveries will help researchers find the key information they require. Nanoscience provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the most recent research and opinion from across the globe. Topics covered in this volume include metal halide perovskite nanomaterials, properties and applications, nanoparticles and nanocomposites for new permanent magnets and graphene-based materials for energy conversion applications. Anyone practising in any nano-allied field, or wishing to enter the nano-world will benefit from this resource, presenting the current thought and applications of nanoscience.

Bismuth

Bismuth
  • Author : Ying Zhou,Fan Dong,Shengming Jin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-20
  • Total pages :230
  • ISBN : 9781789232622
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Summary : Bismuth (Bi) is a post-transition metal element with the atomic number of 83, which belongs to the pnictogen group elements in Period 6 in the elemental periodic table. As a heavy metal, the hazard of Bi is unusually low in contrast to its neighbors Pb and Sb. This property, along with other typical characteristics like strong diamagnetism and low thermal conductivity, makes Bi attractive in industrial applications. There are more than 100 commercial bismuth products, from pharmaceutical to industrial catalysts. Based on the wide applications of Bi materials, this book goes further and mainly focuses on the potential uses of Bi-based materials, which consist of nine chapters. In addition, a special chapter concerning the defect in bismuth is also presented.

Nanomaterials for CO2 Capture, Storage, Conversion and Utilization

Nanomaterials for CO2 Capture, Storage, Conversion and Utilization
  • Author : Phuong Nguyen Tri,Haobin Wu,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Simon Barnabe,Pierre Benard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-04-15
  • Total pages :394
  • ISBN : 9780128230848
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Summary : The gradual increase of population and the consequential rise in the energy demands in recent years have led to the widespread use of fossil fuels. CO2 transformation by various processes is considered as a promising alternative technology. This book sets out the fundaments of how nanomaterials are being used for this purpose. Nanomaterials for CO2 Capture, Storage, Conversion and Utilization summarizes the research, development and innovations in the capture, storage, transformation and utilization of CO2 into useful products and raw chemicals for industry. This is achieved by using advanced processes such as CO2 reforming, bi-reforming and tri-reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass derivatives; homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrogenation; photochemical reduction; photoelectrochemical reduction; electrochemical reduction; biochemical reduction; supercritical CO2 technology; advanced catalyst synthesis for CO2 conversion; organic carbonates for polymers synthesis from CO2, and CO2 capture and sequestration. The systematic and updated reviews on the mentioned sectors, especially on the use of nanotechnology for the transformation of CO2 is scarce in the literature. Thus, the book addresses the recent knowledge gaps and potential solutions of the storage, utilization and transformation of CO2 as well as its promising applications. This is an important reference source for materials scientists, engineers and energy scientists who want to understand how nanotechnology is helping us to solve some of the world’s major energy problems. Shows how nanomaterials are being used to create more efficient CO2 capture, storage and conversation systems Outlines the major nanomaterials-based techniques to create such systems Assesses the major challenges in using nanomaterials for energy capture, storage and conversion

Visible-Light-Active Photocatalysis

Visible-Light-Active Photocatalysis
  • Author : Srabanti Ghosh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-29
  • Total pages :280
  • ISBN : 9783527808151
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Summary : A comprehensive and timely overview of this important and hot topic, with special emphasis placed on environmental applications and the potential for solar light harvesting. Following introductory chapters on environmental photocatalysis, water splitting, and applications in synthetic chemistry, further chapters focus on the synthesis and design of photocatalysts, solar energy conversion, and such environmental aspects as the removal of water pollutants, photocatalytic conversion of CO2. Besides metal oxide-based photocatalysts, the authors cover other relevant material classes including carbon-based nanomaterials and novel hybrid materials. Chapters on mechanistic aspects, computational modeling of photocatalysis and Challenges and perspectives of solar reactor design for industrial applications complete this unique survey of the subject. With its in-depth discussions ranging from a comprehensive understanding to the engineering of materials and applied devices, this is an invaluable resource for a range of disciplines.

Photocatalytic Nanomaterials for Environmental Applications

Photocatalytic Nanomaterials for Environmental Applications
  • Author : Rajesh J. Tayade,Vimal Gandhi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-02-25
  • Total pages :486
  • ISBN : 9781945291593
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Summary : Photocatalytic nanomaterials have a great potential in such applications as reduction of carbon dioxide and degradation of various pollutants. They are equally important in the production and storage of energy, e.g. in the conversion of solar energy to electricity, and the production of hydrogen in photoelectrochemical cells. Research on synthesis, characterization and specific applications is reported for titanium oxide and a number of other promising catalysts, such as silver phosphate, cerium oxide, zinc oxide and zinc sulfide.

Photocatalytic Functional Materials for Environmental Remediation

Photocatalytic Functional Materials for Environmental Remediation
  • Author : Alagarsamy Pandikumar,Kandasamy Jothivenkatachalam
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-10
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9781119529897
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Summary : A comprehensive volume on photocatalytic functional materials for environmental remediation As the need for removing large amounts of pollution and contamination in air, soil, and water grows, emerging technologies in the field of environmental remediation are of increasing importance. The use of photocatalysis—a green technology with enormous potential to resolve the issues related to environmental pollution—breaks down toxic organic compounds to mineralized products such as carbon dioxide and water. Due to their high performance, ease of fabrication, long-term stability, and low manufacturing costs, photofunctional materials constructed from nanocomposite materials hold great potential for environmental remediation. Photocatalytic Functional Materials for Environmental Remediation examines the development of high performance photofunctional materials for the treatment of environmental pollutants. This timely volume assembles and reviews a broad range of ideas from leading experts in fields of chemistry, physics, nanotechnology, materials science, and engineering. Precise, up-to-date chapters cover both the fundamentals and applications of photocatalytic functional materials. Semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, layered double hydroxides, metal-organic frameworks, polymer nanocomposites, and other photofunctional materials are examined in applications such as carbon dioxide reduction and organic pollutant degradation. Providing interdisciplinary focus to green technology materials for the treatment of environmental pollutants, this important work: Provides comprehensive coverage of various photocatalytic materials for environmental remediation useful for researchers and developers Encompasses both fundamental concepts and applied technology in the field Focuses on novel design and application of photocatalytic materials used for the removal of environmental contaminates and pollution Offers in-depth examination of highly topical green-technology solutions Presents an interdisciplinary approach to environmental remediation Photocatalytic Functional Materials for Environmental Remediation is a vital resource for researchers, engineers, and graduate students in the multi-disciplinary areas of chemistry, physics, nanotechnology, environmental science, materials science, and engineering related to photocatalytic environmental remediation.

Two Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

Two Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
  • Author : Narayanasamy Sabari Arul,Vellalapalayam Devaraj Nithya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-30
  • Total pages :355
  • ISBN : 9789811390456
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Summary : This book presents advanced synthesis techniques adopted to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) materials with its enhanced properties towards their utilization in various applications such as, energy storage devices, photovoltaics, electrocatalysis, electronic devices, photocatalysts, sensing and biomedical applications. It provides detailed coverage on everything from the synthesis and properties to the applications and future prospects of research in 2D TMD nanomaterials.

Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications
  • Author : Juan M. Coronado,Fernando Fresno,María D. Hernández-Alonso,Raquel Portela
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-27
  • Total pages :348
  • ISBN : 9781447150619
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Summary : Research for the development of more efficient photocatalysts has experienced an almost exponential growth since its popularization in early 1970’s. Despite the advantages of the widely used TiO2, the yield of the conversion of sun power into chemical energy that can be achieved with this material is limited prompting the research and development of a number of structural, morphological and chemical modifications of TiO2 , as well as a number of novel photocatalysts with very different composition. Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications provides a systematic account of the current understanding of the relationships between the physicochemical properties of the catalysts and photoactivity. The already long list of photocatalysts phases and their modifications is increasing day by day. By approaching this field from a material sciences angle, an integrated view allows readers to consider the diversity of photocatalysts globally and in connection with other technologies. Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications provides a valuable road-map, outlining the common principles lying behind the diversity of materials, but also delimiting the imprecise border between the contrasted results and the most speculative studies. This broad approach makes it ideal for specialist but also for engineers, researchers and students in related fields.

Nanochemistry, Biotechnology, Nanomaterials, and Their Applications

Nanochemistry, Biotechnology, Nanomaterials, and Their Applications
  • Author : Olena Fesenko,Leonid Yatsenko
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-26
  • Total pages :525
  • ISBN : 9783319925677
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Summary : This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features selected peer-reviewed contributions from participants in the 5th International Science and Practice Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials (NANO2017) held in Chernivtsi, Ukraine on August 23-26, 2017. The International Conference was organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine), University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from energy storage to biomedical applications. This book's companion volume also addresses nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies.

Solar Fuel Generation

Solar Fuel Generation
  • Author : Yatendra S. Chaudhary
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-20
  • Total pages :169
  • ISBN : 9781315353449
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Summary : As the search for renewable sources of energy grows more urgent, more and more attention is focusing on the blueprint offered by biological photosynthesis for translating the energy of our Sun into energy rich molecules like H2 and carbohydrates, commonly known as "solar fuels." These solar fuels have enormous potential to store high densities of energy in the form of chemical bonds as well as being transportable. This book offers a complete overview of the promising approaches to solar fuel generation, including the direct pathways of solar H2?generation and CO2?photocatalytic reduction. Solar Fuel Generation is an invaluable tool for graduate students and researchers (especially chemists, physicists, and material scientists) working in this field.

Nanoplasmonics

Nanoplasmonics
  • Author : Grégory Barbillon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-21
  • Total pages :494
  • ISBN : 9789535132776
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Summary : Nanoplasmonics is a young topic of research, which is part of nanophotonics and nano-optics. Nanoplasmonics concerns to the investigation of electron oscillations in metallic nanostructures and nanoparticles. Surface plasmons have optical properties, which are very interesting. For instance, surface plasmons have the unique capacity to confine light at the nanoscale. Moreover, surface plasmons are very sensitive to the surrounding medium and the properties of the materials on which they propagate. In addition to the above, the surface plasmon resonances can be controlled by adjusting the size, shape, periodicity, and materials' nature. All these optical properties can enable a great number of applications, such as biosensors, optical modulators, photodetectors, and photovoltaic devices. This book is intended for a broad audience and provides an overview of some of the fundamental knowledges and applications of nanoplasmonics.

Introduction to Graphene-Based Nanomaterials

Introduction to Graphene-Based Nanomaterials
  • Author : Luis E. F. Foa Torres,Stephan Roche,Jean-Christophe Charlier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-29
  • Total pages :504
  • ISBN : 9781108476997
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Summary : An introduction to the electrical and transport properties of graphene and other two dimensional nanomaterials.

Advanced Catalytic Materials

Advanced Catalytic Materials
  • Author : Noreña Luis,Jin-An Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-02-03
  • Total pages :498
  • ISBN : 9789535122449
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Summary : Todays chemical industry processes worldwide largely depend on catalytic reactions and the desirable future evolution of this industry toward more selective products, more environmentally friendly products, more energy-efficient processes, a smaller use of hazardous reagents, and a better use of raw materials also largely involves the development of better catalysts and, specifically, purposely designed catalytic materials. The careful study and development of the new-generation catalysts involve relatively large groups of specialists in universities, research centers, and industries, joining forces from different scientific and technical disciplines. This book has put together recent, state-of-the-art topics on current trends in catalytic materials and consists of 16 chapters.

Photocatalysis

Photocatalysis
  • Author : Rakshit Ameta,Suresh C. Ameta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-25
  • Total pages :325
  • ISBN : 9781482254945
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Summary : Photocatalysis, reactions carried out in the presence of a semiconductor and light, is rapidly becoming one of the most active areas of chemical research, with applications in areas such as electrochemistry, medicine, and environmental chemistry, Photocatalysis: Principles and Applications stresses the development of various types of photocatalytic semiconductors, including binary, ternary, quaternary, and composite, and their modifications by metallization, sensitization, and doping to enhance their photocatalytic activities. In addition to describing the principles and mechanisms of photocatalysis, it also discusses other possible applications of photocatalysis such as use as antifouling agents, controlling air pollution by degrading contaminants present in the environment, self-cleaning of glasses and tiles in the presence of light/artificial light, green composites, wastewater treatment, hydrogen generation, and inactivation of microorganisms. The book also describes medical applications and summarizes efforts in the field of photosplitting of water as a newer energy source and photoreduction of carbon dioxide for providing synthetic fuels and also a step towards mimicking photosynthesis. Introduces the basic principle of photocatalysis. Provides an overview of the types of semiconductors, their immobilization, and modifications to make them more active. Gives possible applications of photocatalysis in wastewater treatment and strategy to combat against different kinds of pollutions like water, air, and soil. Summarizes efforts in the field of photosplitting of water as a newer energy source and photoreduction of carbon dioxide for providing synthetic fuels and as a step towards mimicking photosynthesis. Discusses inactivation of different kinds of microorganisms. Covers medical applications. Features Introduces the basic principle of photocatalysis. Provides an overview of the types of semiconductors, their immobilization, and modifications to make them more active. Gives possible applications of photocatalysis in wastewater treatment and strategy to combat against different kinds of pollutions like water, air, and soil. Summarizes efforts in the field of photosplitting of water as a newer energy source and photoreduction of carbon dioxide for providing synthetic fuels and as a step towards mimicking photosynthesis. Discusses inactivation of different kinds of microorganisms. Covers medical applications.

Semiconductor Photocatalysis

Semiconductor Photocatalysis
  • Author : Wenbin Cao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-24
  • Total pages :676
  • ISBN : 9789535124849
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Summary : Photocatalysis is a hot topic because it is an environmentally friendly approach toward the conversion of light energy into chemical energy at mild reaction environments. Also, it is well applied in several major areas such as water splitting, bacterial inactivation, and pollutants elimination, which is a possible solution to energy shortage and environmental issues. The fundamental knowledge and the frontier research progress in typical photocatalytic materials, such as TiO2-based and non-TiO2-based photocatalysts, are included in this book. Methods to improve the photocatalytic efficiency and to provide a hint for the rational design of the new photocatalysts are covered.

Nanostructured, Functional, and Flexible Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage Systems

Nanostructured, Functional, and Flexible Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage Systems
  • Author : Alagarsamy Pandikumar,Perumal Rameshkumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-12
  • Total pages :542
  • ISBN : 9780128227695
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Summary : Nanostructured, Functional, and Flexible Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage Systems gathers and reviews developments within the field of nanostructured functional materials towards energy conversion and storage. Contributions from leading research groups involved in interdisciplinary research in the fields of chemistry, physics and materials science and engineering are presented. Chapters dealing with the development of nanostructured materials for energy conversion processes, including oxygen reduction, methanol oxidation, oxygen evolution, hydrogen evolution, formic acid oxidation and solar cells are discussed. The work concludes with a look at the application of nanostructured functional materials in energy storage system, such as supercapacitors and batteries. With its distinguished international team of expert contributors, this book will be an indispensable tool for anyone involved in the field of energy conversion and storage, including materials engineers, scientists and academics. Covers the importance of energy conversion and storage systems and the application of nanostructured functional materials toward energy-relevant catalytic processes Discusses the basic principles involved in energy conversion and storage systems Presents the role of nanostructured functional materials in the current scenario of energy-related research and development

Carbon Nanomaterial-Based Adsorbents for Water Purification

Carbon Nanomaterial-Based Adsorbents for Water Purification
  • Author : Suprakas Sinha Ray,Rashi Gusain,Neeraj Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-27
  • Total pages :420
  • ISBN : 9780128219607
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Summary : The deterioration of water quality and unavailability of drinkable water are pressing challenges worldwide. The removal of toxic organic and inorganic pollutants from water is vital for a clean environment, as a response to water scarcity. Adsorption-based water technologies are among the most widely used because of their high efficiency and low cost, without relying on a complex infrastructure. In recent years, carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), such as graphene and derivatives, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, nanoporous carbon, fullerenes, graphitic carbon nitride, and nanodiamonds have been extensively exploited as adsorbents due to their extraordinary surface properties, ease of modification, large surface area, controlled structural varieties, high chemical stability, porosity, low density, ease of regeneration, and reusability. This book provides a thorough overview of the state of the art in carbon nanomaterials as they are used for adsorption applications in water purifications, as well as addressing their toxicological challenges. This volume primarily explores the fundamentals of adsorption, its mechanical aspects, synthesis and properties of CNMs, and adsorption performances of CNMs and their nanocomposites with organic and inorganic materials. Structural engineering and activation processes produce materials with enhanced adsorptive properties and separation efficiencies. Furthermore, the formation of CNMs with 2D and 3D macro-and microstructures and high porosities is a potential approach to improve adsorption performances and extend CNM use at the industrial level. The book also addresses important issues regarding these adsorbents that potentially affect future research and industrial applications of carbon-based nanoadsorbents in water security. Presents advances in multifunctional 3D superstructures of carbon nanomaterials and their composites for adsorption applications Outlines the fundamentals on synthesis and characterization techniques of carbon-based nanostructures and their composites Assesses the major toxicological challenges in using nanostructured materials as adsorbents for water purification