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Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and Their Applications

Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and Their Applications
  • Author : A. Zakery,S.R. Elliott
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-06-19
  • Total pages :199
  • ISBN : 9783540710660
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Summary : Photonics, whichusesphotonsforinformationandimageprocessing, islabeled as one of the technologies of the 21st century, for which nonlinear op- cal processes provide the key functions of frequency conversion and optical switching. Chalcogenide glasses are based on the chalcogen elements S, Se, and Te. These glasses are formed by the addition of other elements such as Ge, As, Sb, Ga, etc. These glasses are low-phonon energy materials and are generally transparentfromthevisibletoinfrared.Chalcogenideglassescanbedopedby rare-earth elements such as Er, Nd, Pr, etc., and hence numerous applications ofactiveopticaldeviceshavebeenproposed.Theseglassesareopticallyhighly nonlinear and could therefore be useful for all-optical switching. This book is a review of recent progress in the science and technology of chalcogenide glasses, with an emphasis on their nonlinear optical properties, forgraduatestudents, practisingengineersandscientistsfromawidemultid- ciplinary area such as physics, chemistry, electrical engineering and material science. Since the interest in this area is growing worldwide, a book dealing with this subject will be of great value to researchers of varied backgrounds. Chalcogenide glasses and their electronic, structural, and photoinduced properties are introduced. Techniques to characterize the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these glasses are introduced and used to measure the optical constants of chalcogenide glasses in the form of bulk, thin ?lm and ?ber. The possibilities of fabricating passive and active devices are present

Semiconducting Chalcogenide Glass I

Semiconducting Chalcogenide Glass I
  • Author : Robert Fairman,Boris Ushkov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-05-10
  • Total pages :306
  • ISBN : 0080525261
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Summary : Chalcogenide glass is made up of many elements from the Chalcogenide group. The glass is transparent to infrared light and is useful as a semiconductor in many electronic devices. For example, chalcogenide glass fibers are a component of devices used to perform laser surgery. This book is a comprehensive survey of the current state of science and technology in the field of chalcogenide semiconductor glasses. While the majority of the book deals with properties of chalcogenide glass, chapters also deal with industrial applications, synthesis and purification of chalcogenide glass, and glass structural modification. The first individual or collective monograph written by Eastern European scientists known to Western readers regarding structural and chemical changes in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors(CVS) Chapters written by B.G. Kolomiets who discovered the properties of chalcogenide glass in 1955 Provides evidence and discussion for problems discussed by authors from opposing positions.

Chalcogenide Photovoltaics

Chalcogenide Photovoltaics
  • Author : Roland Scheer,Hans-Werner Schock
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-03-31
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 3527633723
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Summary : This first comprehensive description of the most important material properties and device aspects closes the gap between general books on solar cells and journal articles on chalcogenide-based photovoltaics. Written by two very renowned authors with years of practical experience in the field, the book covers II-VI and I-III-VI2 materials as well as energy conversion at heterojunctions. It also discusses the latest semiconductor heterojunction models and presents modern analysis concepts. Thin film technology is explained with an emphasis on current and future techniques for mass production, and the book closes with a compendium of failure analysis in photovoltaic thin film modules. With its overview of the semiconductor physics and technology needed, this practical book is ideal for students, researchers, and manufacturers, as well as for the growing number of engineers and researchers working in companies and institutes on chalcogenide photovoltaics.

Semiconducting Chalcogenide Glass III

Semiconducting Chalcogenide Glass III
  • Author : Robert Fairman,Boris Ushkov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-12-17
  • Total pages :144
  • ISBN : 0080541062
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Summary : Chalcogenide glass is made up of many elements from the Chalcogenide group. The glass is transparent to infrared light and is useful as a semiconductor in many electronic devices. For example, chalcogenide glass fibers are a component of devices used to perform laser surgery. Semiconducting Chalcogenide Glass III: Applications of Chalcogenide Glasses is a comprehensive overview of designs of various chalcogenide glass devices are presented, including switches, phase inverters, voltage stabilizers, oscillators, indicators and display control circuits, memory devices, and sensors. A special chapter is devoted to chalcogenide glass applications in optical fibers. This collective monograph is intended to survey the current state of chalcogenide glass applications to facilitate further development. The first collective monograph written by Eastern European scientists covering electrical and optical properties of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors (CVS) Contributions by B.G. Kolomiets, who discovered the properties of chalcogenide glass in 1955! Provides evidence and discussion by authors from opposing positions

Amorphous Chalcogenide Semiconductors and Related Materials

Amorphous Chalcogenide Semiconductors and Related Materials
  • Author : Keiji Tanaka,Koichi Shimakawa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-05-24
  • Total pages :242
  • ISBN : 1441995102
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Summary : "Amorphous Chalcogenide Semiconductors and Glasses" describes developments in the science and technology of this class of materials. This book offers an up-to-date treatment of chalcogenide glasses and amorphous semiconductors from basic principles to applications while providing the reader with the necessary theoretical background to understanding the material properties technology of this class of materials. This book offers an up-to-date treatment of chalcogenide glasses and amorphous semiconductors from basic principles to applications while providing the reader with the necessary theoretical background to understanding the material properties. Chalcogenides form a special class of materials, which have one or more of the elements from the chalcogen group, Group VI in the Periodic Table (S, Se. or Te) as a constituent; the chalcogen is mixed with other elements to form various "new" compounds and alloys. Chalcogenides are noncrystalline solids because their structure is "amorphous" or "glassy". Such structures have totally different properties than crystalline solids. Chalcogenide glasses have a number of very interesting and useful properties, which have been already exploited in the commercialization of new devices.

Metastable States in Amorphous Chalcogenide Semiconductors

Metastable States in Amorphous Chalcogenide Semiconductors
  • Author : Victor I. Mikla,Victor V. Mikla
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-12-24
  • Total pages :122
  • ISBN : 3642027458
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Summary : This book presents experimental results on the structural and electronic metastable states in Se-rich chalcogenides. Coverage includes states in the mobility gap, structural transformation, photocrystallization, and many potential related applications.

Chalcogenide Glasses

Chalcogenide Glasses
  • Author : J-L Adam,X. Zhang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-14
  • Total pages :704
  • ISBN : 9780857093561
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Summary : The unique properties and functionalities of chalcogenide glasses make them promising materials for photonic applications. Chalcogenide glasses are transparent from the visible to the near infrared region and can be moulded into lenses or drawn into fibres. They have useful commercial applications as components for lenses for infrared cameras, and chalcogenide glass fibres and optical components are used in waveguides for use with lasers, for optical switching, chemical and temperature sensing and phase change memories. Chalcogenide glasses comprehensively reviews the latest technological advances in this field and the industrial applications of the technology. Part one outlines the preparation methods and properties of chalcogenide glasses, including the thermal properties, structure, and optical properties, before going on to discuss mean coordination and topological constraints in chalcogenide network glasses, and the photo-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glasses. This section also covers the ionic conductivity and physical aging of chalcogenide glasses, deposition techniques for chalcogenide thin films, and transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics. Part two explores the applications of chalcogenide glasses. Topics discussed include rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glass for lasers and amplifiers, the applications of chalcogenide glasses for infrared sensing, microstructured optical fibres for infrared applications, and chalcogenide glass waveguide devices for all-optical signal processing. This section also discusses the control of light on the nanoscale with chalcogenide thin films, chalcogenide glass resists for lithography, and chalcogenide for phase change optical and electrical memories. The book concludes with an overview of chalcogenide glasses as electrolytes for batteries. Chalcogenide glasses comprehensively reviews the latest technological advances and applications of chalcogenide glasses, and is an essential text for academics, materials scientists and electrical engineers working in the photonics and optoelectronics industry. Outlines preparation methods and properties, and explores applications of chalcogenide glasses. Covers the ionic conductivity and physical aging of chalcogenide glasses, deposition techniques for chalcogenide thin films, and transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics Discusses the control of light on the nanoscale with chalcogenide thin films, chalcogenide glass resists for lithography, and chalcogenide for phase change optical and electrical memories

Semiconducting Chalcogenide Glass II

Semiconducting Chalcogenide Glass II
  • Author : Robert Fairman,Boris Ushkov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-12-17
  • Total pages :182
  • ISBN : 9780080541051
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Summary : Chalcogenide glass is made up of many elements from the Chalcogenide group. The glass is transparent to infrared light and is useful as a semiconductor in many electronic devices. For example, chalcogenide glass fibers are a component of devices used to perform laser surgery. The properties of chalcogenide glass result not only from their chemical composition and atomic structure, but also from the impact of numerous external factors. A comprehensive survey is presented of the properties of chalcogenide glass under various external impacts. Practical recommendations are presented for a wide range of applications. Part II is the second part of a three-volume work within the Semiconductors and Semimetals series. * The first collective monograph written by Eastern European scientists on the electrical and optical properties of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors (CVS). * Contributions by B.G. Kolomiets, who discovered the properties of chalcogenide glass in 1955! * Provides objective evidence and discussion by authors from opposing positions.

Metal Chalcogenide Nanostructures for Renewable Energy Applications

Metal Chalcogenide Nanostructures for Renewable Energy Applications
  • Author : Ahsanulhaq Qurashi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-21
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9781119008927
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Summary : This first ever reference book that focuses on metalchalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures for renewable energyapplications encapsulates the state-of-the-art in multidisciplinaryresearch on the metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures(nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts,nanoflowers, nanoribbons and more). The properties and synthesis of a class of nanomaterials isessential to renewable energy manufacturing and this book focuseson the synthesis of metal chalcogendie nanostructures, their growthmechanism, optical, electrical, and other important properties andtheir applications in different diverging fields likephotovoltaics, hydrogen production, theromelectrics, lithiumbattery, energy storage, photocatalysis, sensors. An important reference source for students, scientists,engineers, researchers and industrialists working onnanomaterials-based energy aspects associated with chemistry,physics, materials science, electrical engineering, energy scienceand technology, and environmental science.

1-D Chalcogenide Nanomaterials for Electronics

1-D Chalcogenide Nanomaterials for Electronics
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:vh072qq0446
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Summary : Chalcogenides are ubiquitous in academia and industry. We focus on chalcogenides for phase-change memory and topological insulators. Phase change memory (PCM) utilizes the resistivity contrast between the crystalline and amorphous phases of certain chalcogenides to store information. Industry is making progress in PCM, which could someday compete with flash memory due to its superior scalability, fast switching and high endurance. In contrast, the field of topological insulators is very young. Topological insulators, bulk insulators with conductive surface states, have attracted great attention since their discovery five years ago. They have exotic properties and are exciting for both fundamental studies and potential applications. Our studies of chalcogenide nanomaterials for PCM and topological insulators provided new insights into these fascinating materials. We developed a method to switch PCM cells inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM), allowing direct correlation of electrical behavior with structural changes. Using this technique, we found that the electrical behavior of Ge2Sb2Te3 lateral phase-change cells depends strongly on the highly variable microstructure of the amorphous domain. In search of new PCM materials, we developed the VLS synthesis of GeTe and Sb2Te3 phase-change nanowires. In situ TEM observation of these nanowires revealed a new switching mechanism via the opening and closing of voids. We also synthesized single-crystalline topological insulator nanoribbons, whose large surface to bulk conduction ratio increases the relative contribution of the surface states. We successfully measured Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the nanoribbons, thereby observing one of the first electrical signatures of the topological states in this material system.

Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions in AB2X4 Chalcogenide Compounds

Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions in AB2X4 Chalcogenide Compounds
  • Author : Francisco Javier Manjon,Ion Tiginyanu,Veaceslav Ursaki
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-01-21
  • Total pages :243
  • ISBN : 9783642403675
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Summary : This book on pressure-induced phase transitions in AB2X4 chalcogenide compounds deals with one important AmBnXp material. The interest in these materials is caused by their properties. The results are discussed for three main groups of structural families: cubic-spinel structures, defective tetragonal structures, and other structures like layered and wurtzite-type modifications. A systematic analysis of the behavior of cubic (spinel), tetragonal (defect chalcopyrites and stannites) and other crystal modifications of AB2X4 compounds under hydrostatic pressure is performed. The behavior of AIIAl2S4, AIIGa2S4, AIIAl2Se4 and AIIGa2Se4 compounds with defective tetragonal structures, compounds with layered and wurtzite structures under hydrostatic pressure and the pressure dependence of the band gap, lattice parameters, interatomic distances, vibrational modes and pressure-induced phase transitions is discussed. Many of these compounds, except oxide spinels, undergo a pressure-induced phase transition towards the rocksalt-type structure. The phase transition is preceded by disorder in the cation sublattice. The dependence of the transition pressure to the rocksalt-type structure as a function of the compound ionicity and the size criterion is analyzed. At high pressures, all ordered-vacancy compounds are found to exhibit a band anticrossing between several conduction bands that leads to a strong decrease of its pressure coefficient and consequently to a strong non-linear pressure dependence of the direct bandgap energy. Theoretical studies of phase transitions in several ordered-vacancy compounds reveal that the existence of ordered vacancies alter the cation-anion bond distances and their compressibilities. The book is written for students, Ph D. students and specialists in materials science, phase transitions and new materials.

Amorphous Chalcogenides

Amorphous Chalcogenides
  • Author : Rong Ping Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-05
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9789814411301
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive overview of the chalcogenide glass science and various applications based on the glasses. It starts with a review on the glass-forming ability of various systems, followed by a discussion on the structural and physical properties of various chalcolgenide glasses and their application in integrated optics. The chapters have been contributed by prominent experts from all over the world, and therefore, the book presents the recent research advances in the area. This book will appeal to anyone who is involved in glass science and technology and glass application.

Chalcogenide Glasses for Infrared Optics

Chalcogenide Glasses for Infrared Optics
  • Author : A. Ray Hilton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-01-25
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780071596985
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Summary : Cutting-edge techniques for yielding high-quality chalcogenide glasses This pioneering work describes the technology, developed over a 50-year period, to utilize chalcogenide glasses as infrared optical materials. Methods for qualitatively identifying chalcogenide glass compositions and producing high-purity homogeneous glass are discussed. Chalcogenide Glasses for Infrared Optics includes unique production techniques developed through the author's work at both Texas Instruments (TI) and Amorphous Materials, Inc. (AMI). The production of vacuum float zoned silicon, gallium arsenide, and cadmium telluride, all useful in infrared technology, is explained. The book highlights examples of how glass composition can be changed to enhance a particular property. Coverage includes: Transmission of light by solids Physical properties of chalcogenide glasses Glass production Careful characterization of glass properties Conventional lens fabrication--spherical surfaces Molding of unconventional aspheric lenses with diffractive surfaces Glass processes for other applications IR imaging bundles made from chalcogenide glass fibers Production of infrared crystalline materials at AMI Development of an automatic ellipsometer system at TI

Lead Chalcogenides

Lead Chalcogenides
  • Author : D. Khokhlov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-11-15
  • Total pages :720
  • ISBN : 1560329165
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Summary : Lead Chalcogenides remain one of the basic materials of modern infrared optoelectronics. This volume presents the [roperties of lead chalcogenides, including the basic physical features, the bulk and epitaxial growth technique, and the 2-D physics of lead chalcogenide-based structures. In addition, the theoretical appraoches for band structure and impurity state calculations are reviewed.

Development of Pb and Cd Chalcogenide Nanomaterials, Nanocomposites and Thin Films

Development of Pb and Cd Chalcogenide Nanomaterials, Nanocomposites and Thin Films
  • Author : Jayeshkumar Dineshbhai Patel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :214
  • ISBN : OCLC:936538050
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Summary :

Chalcogenide

Chalcogenide
  • Author : Xinyu Liu,Sanghoon Lee,Jacek K. Furdyna,Tengfei Luo,Yong-Hang Zhang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-14
  • Total pages :398
  • ISBN : 9780081027363
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Summary : Chalcogenide: From 3D to 2D and Beyond reviews graphene-like 2D chalcogenide systems that include topological insulators, interesting thermoelectric structures, and structures that exhibit a host of spin phenomena that are unique to 2D and lower-dimensional geometries. The book describes state-of-the-art materials in growth and fabrication, magnetic, electronic and optical characterization, as well as the experimental and theoretical aspects of this family of materials. Bulk chalcogenides, chalcogenide films, their heterostructures and low-dimensional chalcogenide-based quantum structures are discussed. Particular attention is paid to findings that are relevant to the continued search for new physical phenomena and new functionalities. Finally, the book covers the enormous opportunities that have emerged as it has become possible to achieve lower-dimensional chalcogenide structures by epitaxial techniques. Provides readers with foundational information on the materials growth, fabrication, magnetic, electronic and optical characterization of chalcogenide materials Discusses not only bulk chalcogenides and chalcogenide thin films, but also two-dimensional chalcogenide materials systems Reviews the most important applications in optoelectronics, photovoltaics and thermoelectrics

Disordered Materials

Disordered Materials
  • Author : Navdeep Goyal,S. K. Tripathi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :276
  • ISBN : 8173194637
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Summary : Proceedings of the National Conference on "Recent Developments on Disordered Materials", held in Dept. of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, on 15-16 March, 2001; contributed papers.

Thermoelectrics

Thermoelectrics
  • Author : G.S. Nolas,J. Sharp,J. Goldsmid
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-06-20
  • Total pages :293
  • ISBN : 354041245X
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Summary : An in-depth analysis of thermoelectric theory, an overview of present day thermoelectric materials and devices, and updated information on the most studied thermoelectric materials development. The main emphasis is on a basic understanding of the concepts as well as experimental techniques needed to propel researchers towards new and novel classes of thermoelectric materials with enhanced properties.

Semiconducting Chalcogenide Glass I

Semiconducting Chalcogenide Glass I
  • Author : Robert Fairman,Boris Ushkov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 0127521879
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Summary : Chalcogenide glass is made up of many elements from the Chalcogenide group. The glass is transparent to infrared light and is useful as a semiconductor in many electronic devices. For example, chalcogenide glass fibers are a component of devices used to perform laser surgery. This book is a comprehensive survey of the current state of science and technology in the field of chalcogenide semiconductor glasses. While the majority of the book deals with properties of chalcogenide glass, chapters also deal with industrial applications, synthesis and purification of chalcogenide glass, and glass structural modification. The first individual or collective monograph written by Eastern European scientists known to Western readers regarding structural and chemical changes in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors(CVS) Chapters written by B.G. Kolomiets who discovered the properties of chalcogenide glass in 1955 Provides evidence and discussion for problems discussed by authors from opposing positions.

Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices: Chalcogenide glasses and sol-gel materials

Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices: Chalcogenide glasses and sol-gel materials
  • Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015051311572
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Summary :

Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses

Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses
  • Author : Peter Thielen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :216
  • ISBN : UCAL:X70156
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Summary :