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Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : Amit Bandyopadhyay,Susmita Bose
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-12
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780124158634
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Summary : One of the key challenges current biomaterials researchers face is identifying which of the dizzying number of highly specialized characterization tools can be gainfully applied to different materials and biomedical devices. Since this diverse marketplace of tools and techniques can be used for numerous applications, choosing the proper characterization tool is highly important, saving both time and resources. Characterization of Biomaterials is a detailed and multidisciplinary discussion of the physical, chemical, mechanical, surface, in vitro and in vivo characterization tools and techniques of increasing importance to fundamental biomaterials research. Characterization of Biomaterials will serve as a comprehensive resource for biomaterials researchers requiring detailed information on physical, chemical, mechanical, surface, and in vitro or in vivo characterization. The book is designed for materials scientists, bioengineers, biologists, clinicians and biomedical device researchers seeking input on planning on how to test their novel materials, structures or biomedical devices to a specific application. Chapters are developed considering the need for industrial researchers as well as academics. Biomaterials researchers come from a wide variety of disciplines: this book will help them to analyze their materials and devices taking advantage of the multiple experiences on offer. Coverage encompasses a cross-section of the physical sciences, biological sciences, engineering and applied sciences characterization community, providing gainful and cross-cutting insight into this highly multi-disciplinary field. Detailed coverage of important test protocols presents specific examples and standards for applied characterization

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : M Jaffe,W. Hammond,P Tolias,T Arinzeh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-19
  • Total pages :334
  • ISBN : 9780857093684
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Summary : Biomaterials and medical devices must be rigorously tested in the laboratory before they can be implanted. Testing requires the right analytical techniques. Characterization of biomaterials reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials. Beginning with an introduction to microscopy techniques for analyzing the phase nature and morphology of biomaterials, Characterization of biomaterials goes on to discuss scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, motility and differentiation, and the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors. Further topics considered include studying molecular-scale protein-surface interactions in biomaterials, analysis of the cellular genome and abnormalities, and the use of microarrays to measure cellular changes induced by biomaterials. Finally, the book concludes by outlining standards and methods for assessing the safety and biocompatibility of biomaterials. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Characterization of biomaterials is an authoritative reference tool for all those involved in the development, production and application of biomaterials. Reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials Discusses scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, and motility and differentiation Examines the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : T.S. Sampath Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-12
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128070963
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Summary : The physicochemical properties of biomaterials exert a major influence over their interaction with cells and subsequently play an important role on the materials' in vivo performance . Physical characteristics involve internal microstructural features, shape and size of particles, porosity, density, and surface area. Characterization in terms of the chemistry involves determination of the chemical composition and distribution of the elements within the biomaterial. The last decade has seen several innovations in the armory of tools to image and analyze materials, as well as advancement in the collection and processing of those results. In this chapter, the most commonly used methods, which are available for the microstructural characterization of biomaterials, are explained with suitable examples. This chapter starts with microstructural characterization using different types of microscopic techniques including optical and electron microscopy. These techniques can provide information from atomic-scale to microscale to macroscale information. Specific examples are also used for specialized microscopic techniques such as scanning probe microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Some discussions were also used in -related surface characterization using microscopic techniques. Followed by microscopic techniques, phase analysis techniques are discussed based on X-ray diffraction. Short discussion is also placed on infrared (IR)-based spectroscopic characterization for chemical analysis. Further discussion on IR spectroscopy can be found in for surface analysis. The last part of this chapter deals with size, shape, porosity, surface area and surface energy characterization. Particle size analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) is discussed in detail followed by IR spectroscopic analysis. Contact angle measurement for surface energy, mercury intrusion porosimetry for analysis of pore structures and gas adsorption measurements for surface area analysis are presented in detail with relevant examples. Throughout this chapter, specific discussions are focused on examples based on applications as well as advantages, disadvantages, and challenges.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : Ryan K. Roeder
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-12
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128070970
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Summary : The design of biomedical devices almost always involves some form of mechanical characterization of biomaterials. This chapter provides a broad overview of experimental methods and important considerations for mechanical characterization of biomaterials, with special attention to the practical needs of engineers and scientists who encounter a need to characterize the mechanical properties of a biomaterial but may not know where to begin or what the key considerations should be. Many details are necessarily omitted from this broad overview, but numerous references are provided for greater technical depth on a particular topic, standardized methodologies, and exemplary studies. Fundamental concepts are introduced, beginning with stress and strain versus force and displacement. The mechanical properties measured from a stress–strain curve, different types of stress–strain curves, and corresponding constitutive models are reviewed, including differences in material classes and anisotropy. Three primary methods of analysis for fracture mechanics are introduced, including stress concentrations, energy criteria for crack initiation and propagation (fracture toughness), and statistical methods for the probability of fracture. The mechanical characterization of biomaterials begins with selection and preparation of standardized test specimens, which are critical to obtaining accurate and reproducible measurements of material properties. Practical considerations are outlined for selection and preparation of the specimen size, geometry, surface finish, and precracking. The mechanical characterization of biomaterial test specimens always involves the application and measurement of load and deformation. Practical considerations are outlined for the selection and use of load frames, load cells, load fixtures, extensometers, and strain gauges. A number of common loading modes are introduced and compared: uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, biaxial tension, torsion, diametral compression, three-point bending, four-point bending, and in-plane shear (including biomaterial-tissue interfacial shear strength). Strain-rate sensitivity or time-dependent behavior can profoundly influence stress–strain behavior and thus measured mechanical properties. The effects of high strain rates may be characterized by impact testing using a pendulum, drop tower, or split Hopkinson pressure bar. The effects of low strain rates may be characterized by creep deformation or creep rupture tests. The time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic materials is introduced, including creep, stress relaxation, common constitutive models, and practical considerations for testing. The frequency of loading, or cyclic loading, is another aspect of time-dependent behavior, which is critical for mechanical characterization of biomaterials, leading to fatigue deformation and failure or viscoelastic creep and stress relaxation. Practical considerations are described for selecting the waveform, frequency, cyclic stress/strain levels, loading mode, and test duration. Common methods are introduced for fatigue lifetime testing (including S-N curves, notch factors, and fatigue damage), fatigue crack propagation, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Nondestructive tests are particularly useful for sampling small volumes of a biomaterial (e.g., implant retrieval or biopsy) or characterizing spatial heterogeneity in mechanical properties. Various indentation tests and indenter geometries are introduced and compared, including classic hardness (Brinell and Rockwell), microhardness (Knoop and Vickers), and instrumented nanoindentation (Berkovich, cube corner, etc.). Methods and limitations are described for characterizing the reduced modulus, viscoelasticity, and fracture toughness using indentation. Ultrasonic wave-propagation methods are also introduced with an emphasis on methods for characterizing anisotropic elastic constants. Biomaterials are typically subjected to various sterilization methods prior to service and an aqueous physiological environment in service. Therefore, the effects of temperature, pressure, various aqueous media (water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), media, foetal bovine serum (FBS), lipids, etc.), and irradiation on mechanical characterization of biomaterials are considered, including the degradation of mechanical properties by various mechanisms involving water uptake, hydrolysis, and oxidation. Finally, methods and guidelines are provided for data acquisition from transducers and data analysis, including an introduction to some basic statistical methods.

Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials

Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials
  • Author : Maria Cristina Tanzi,Silvia Farè
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-20
  • Total pages :500
  • ISBN : 9780081007433
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Summary : Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials presents a comprehensive introduction on the topic before discussing the morphology and surface characterization of biomedical polymers. The structural, mechanical, and biological characterization is described in detail, followed by invaluable case studies of polymer biomaterial implants. With comprehensive coverage of both theoretical and experimental information, this title will provide scientists with an essential guide on the topic of these materials which are regularly used for clinical applications, such as implants and drug delivery devices. However, a range of novel polymers and the development and modification of existing medical polymers means that there is an ongoing need to satisfy particular design requirements. This book explains the critical and fundamentals methods to characterize polymer materials for biomedical applications. Presents a self-contained reference on the characterization of polymeric biomaterials Provides comprehensive information on how to characterize biomedical polymers in order to improve design and synthesis Includes useful case studies that demonstrate the characterization of biomaterial implants

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : Huaiyu Wang,Paul K. Chu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-12
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128070987
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Summary : The biomaterials surface, which may only be a few atomic layers thick, constitutes the important interface between the biomaterials and the external biological environment and plays a key role in the chemical and biological actions in vitro and in vivo. Hence, in order to monitor and fathom the biological performance of biomaterials, the surface properties must be well known. Recently, surface modification of biomaterials has attracted considerable attention as selective surface properties such as cytocompatibility can be altered while desirable bulk properties such as mechanical strength can be retained. In this respect, surface characterization techniques are indispensable in this important and burgeoning research area. No single technique can provide all the information, and quite often, different analytical tools are required to address a problem related to biomaterials research. To obtain surface chemical and morphological information, spectroscopic techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and microscopic methods such as confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) are typically carried out. Other surface characterization methods such as contact angle (CA) measurement and ellipsometry are also widely used in biomaterials research. It should be emphasized that each technique has its strengths and weaknesses, and complete characterization frequently requires more than one method. In this chapter, we introduce and describe some of the common surface characterization techniques suitable for biomaterials. Initial discussion starts with spectroscopic techniques, their operation principles, and data analysis with specific examples. The discussions related to spectroscopic characterization are focused on XPS, AES, SIMS, surface matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (Surface-MALDI-MS), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy. After spectroscopic characterization techniques, this chapter focuses on microscopic characterization. This part of the chapter is specifically focused on optical, electron and confocal microscopic techniques. Microscopic technique also discusses recent advances in atomic level characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and AFM. Finally, the chapter deals with specific surface characterization techniques for morphology with profilometry followed by surface charge measurement using CAs. The last section of the chapter deals with ellipsometry, a specular optical technique which provides unequalled capabilities for thin film metrology. Throughout this chapter, specific discussions are focused on examples based on applications as well as advantages, disadvantages, and challenges.

Nano- and Biomaterials

Nano- and Biomaterials
  • Author : Zhypargul Abdullaeva
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-21
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9783527807055
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Summary : A comprehensive introduction to nano- and biomaterials shining light on the different research disciplines from various perspectives. The straightforward and well-structured concept is designed to cater for entrants as well as experienced researchers in the field of nanotechnology. The initial chapters introduce nanomaterials, their classification and synthesis techniques, while subsequent chapters discuss the various characterization tools as well as mechanical properties and their applications in biotechnological and biomedical fields. Further understanding of the topic is supported by case studies used for practical purposes. The book concludes with a look at future technology advances. With its explanation of a wide variety of materials, this is an essential reference for chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biomedical engineers.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : Nehal I. Abu-Lail,Haluk Beyenal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-12
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128071007
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Summary : Bacterial adhesion to biomaterials is generally accepted to be the first step in the development of biomaterial-centred bacterial infections (BCBIs). A better understanding of how bacteria interact with biomaterials is essential to the development of surgical intervention strategies that can be used to reduce BCBIs and coatings capable of preventing bacterial adhesion to their surfaces. Bacterial adhesion to a surface is a multi-step process during which single bacterial cells first initiate attachment to the biomaterial, followed by biofilm formation. The first part of this chapter is devoted to an exploration of how the initial bacterial adhesion to biomaterials can be quantified while the second part focuses on how biofilms can be imaged and how such images can be processed to quantify biofilm structure. We have paid special attention to guiding future biomaterials scientists on the best practices currently used in quantifying bacterial interactions with biomaterials at the nano- and macroscales.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : Mangal Roy,Amit Bandyopadhyay,Susmita Bose
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-12
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128071038
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Summary : In joint replacement surgery with suboptimal bone, allograft materials are often used to achieve biological fixation of the metallic implant to the host bone and reducing the implant fixation time. The most commonly used techniques are cemented and hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated metallic implants. Typically, HA coatings are suggested for patients with better bone stock, whereas recommended implant fixation process for most other osteoporotic patients is bone cements. In general, there is a long-standing need to improve the performance of hip and other devices for longer in vivo implant lifetime that can help in reducing the number of revision surgeries, as well as minimizing physical and mental trauma to the patient. To achieve these goals, it is important to understand the mechanical and biological properties of coatings that can influence not only its short- and long-term bioactivity but also life span in vivo. Over the years, it has been recognized that the stability of a coated implant is governed by its physical and mechanical properties. A coating that separates from the implant provides no advantage over an uncoated implant and undesirable due to problems with debris materials, which can lead to osteolysis. Therefore, it is important to properly characterize the coated implants in terms of its physical and mechanical properties. In this chapter, specific details on coating characterization techniques including sample dimensions, sample preparation, experimental procedure and data interpretation are discussed. In particular, the standards and requirements of regulatory organizations are presented elucidating the significance and use of each characterization. It is important to appreciate that mechanical properties of coatings can only be determined with certain coating specification such as coating thickness. This chapter is designed even for non-experts to follow mechanical property characterizations of coatings on medical implants.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : Samit K. Nandi,Subhasish Biswas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-12
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128071014
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Summary : The use of biomaterials has become indispensable in modern medicine that includes primarily for the restoration of function as well as drug carriers. Biomaterials developed for bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, skeletal muscle, dental, and other musculoskeletal applications almost always necessitate mechanical properties characterization to guarantee that they are robust enough for their in vivo functionality. In addition, mechanical conditioning often has a direct consequence on cellular behaviors such as differentiation, extracellular matrix production, migration, and proliferation. There is imperative necessity to get real-time data of tissue development in vivo in response to various biomechanical stimuli such as tension/compression, bending, torsion, and steady or dynamic fluid flow of construct that allows experimental protocol changes to be made early. In vitro characterization is unable to exhibit the tissue response to materials, instead being limited to the response of individual cell lines or primary cells taken from animals. Considering the wide and ever-increasing use of biomaterials in different fields of veterinary and medical sciences with its effective use in emerging fields, the characterization in respect to cellular response in the living system and its effect thereafter for leading a physiologic life, a comprehensive understanding have to be developed in totality. Further, implant safety such as avoidance of adverse tissue reaction and resistance to wear and corrosion are of high clinical significance for implants used in long-term clinical situations. The characterization along with related factors like histological, histomorphological, biochemical, radiological, scanning and transmission electron microscopic, fluorochrome labelling, biomechanical, micro-CT analysis, immunohistochemistry in orthopaedic and soft tissue surgery have been tried to elucidate with emphasis on in vivo applications of biomaterials. Amid various characterization parameters, histology is one of the most important tools to assess cellular reactions in the implant–tissue interface that can be carried out by both undecalcified and decalcified bone specimens. Histomorphometry can directly help in quantitative measurement (percentage) of newly formed bone in the implanted scaffold using semiautomatic image analysis software and also sometimes determines the host's vascularization. Histochemistry can be used to observe connective tissue ingrowth within the scaffold. The morphology and the proliferating cells can be evaluated by immunohistochemical technique. Biochemical markers like serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin help in evaluating the progress of healing and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase for determining the osteoclasts activity. To understand the mechanisms of unusual bone remodelling, a number of different fluorescent stains like calcein green, tetracycline, alizarin red derivatives and xylenol orange have been developed to detect and quantify bone mineralization. Angiogenesis within the scaffold can be observed and quantified by angiography, osteomedullography, micro-CT, immunostaining with von Willebrand factor stain and intravital microscopy. Biomechanical testing is essential for quantitative assessment of implant integration and contact percentage between implant materials with the host tissue and can be performed by pull-out or push-out tests. Surface analysis and the interaction with bone tissue can be best detected by scanning electron microscopy. Non-invasive techniques include radiological, micro-CT analysis, densitometry study and ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI). Radiological study helps to assess the union at the host bone–implant interfaces during the follow-up period and should be carried out at regular and calculated interval. Micro-CT is also a non-invasive technique and has great potential in characterization of biomaterials in regard to pore size and spatial distribution of newly formed bone together with quantitative information. Densitometric evaluation is helpful for estimating bone mineral content and density. UEI provides more information of scaffold degradation and tissue development. Finally, targeted delivery system needs quantitative measurements of biodistributable materials which can be best accomplished by computed tomography (CT), fluorescence imaging, inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, micro-positron emission tomography, MRI imaging, and radiography. This chapter is primarily on hands-on experience in surgical manipulation of different biomaterials like hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, bioactive glass, metals, chitosan, as well as natural coralline hydroxyapatite. Different characterization techniques elaborated in this chapter can show a road map to the researchers, scientists, teachers and readers in this field of biomaterials to understand fundamental aspects of materials and related tissue response to the system in vivo. It can also provide clues for further research in the future towards this emerging field.

Introduction to Biomaterials

Introduction to Biomaterials
  • Author : J. L. Ong,Mark R. Appleford,Gopinath Mani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-07
  • Total pages :419
  • ISBN : 9780521116909
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Summary : A succinct introduction to the field of biomaterials engineering, packed with practical insights.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : Julia Will,Rainer Detsch,Aldo R. Boccaccini
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-12
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128071021
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Summary : In order to enhance the application potential of scaffolds in tissue engineering, comprehensive characterization of scaffold micro- and macro-structure, porosity, permeability and mechanical properties are required. In addition, before in vivo studies can be carried out, a complete assessment of the in vitro behavior of scaffolds, e.g. in selected cell culture studies, is required. The present chapter revises the wide range of methods applied to characterize scaffolds and emphasizes the need for a combination of different characterization techniques for understanding scaffold performance required for successful bone regeneration.

Characterisation and Design of Tissue Scaffolds

Characterisation and Design of Tissue Scaffolds
  • Author : Paul Tomlins
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-30
  • Total pages :294
  • ISBN : 9781782420958
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Summary : Characterisation and Design of Tissue Scaffolds offers scientists a useful guide on the characterization of tissue scaffolds, detailing what needs to be measured and why, how such measurements can be made, and addressing industrially important issues. Part one provides readers with information on the fundamental considerations in the characterization of tissue scaffolds, while other sections detail how to prepare tissue scaffolds, discuss techniques in characterization, and present practical considerations for manufacturers. Summarizes concepts and current practice in the characterization and design of tissue scaffolds Discusses design and preparation of scaffolds Details how to prepare tissue scaffolds, discusses techniques in characterization, and presents practical considerations for manufacturers

Surface Characterization of Biomaterials

Surface Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : Buddy D. Ratner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988-01-01
  • Total pages :334
  • ISBN : 0444430164
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Summary : Surface Characterization of Biomaterials is the first book to define the scope of contemporary research in this area by presenting articles from almost all the groups worldwide who are utilizing both new and traditional methods to explore the surfaces of biomaterials. The book contains introductory, tutorial articles on important methods, perspective articles clarifying why these methods are important to biomaterials science, and sixteen research articles illustrating how these tools are being used by most of the leaders in this field. The techniques featured include ESCA, static SIMS, contact angle methods, scanning electron stimulated desorption microscopy, Fourier transform infrared methods, and transmission electron microscopy. The classes of materials described include polymers, ceramics and metals. Surface modification of many of these materials is discussed. The biological problems addressed include blood compatibility, cell adhesion, osteointegration, and protein adsorption. The book will be welcomed by researchers and manufacturers interested in biomaterials. Experts in the field will find an overview of contemporary research.

Structural Biomaterials

Structural Biomaterials
  • Author : Cuie Wen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-04-20
  • Total pages :462
  • ISBN : 9780128188323
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Summary : Structural Biomaterials: Properties, Characteristics, and Selection serves as a single point of reference to digest current research and develop a deeper understanding in the field of biomaterials engineering. This book uses a materials-focused approach, allowing the reader to quickly access specific, detailed information on biomaterials characterization and selection. Relevant to a range of readers, this book provides holistic coverage of the broad categories of structural biomaterials currently available and used in medical applications, highlighting the property requirements for structural biomaterials, their biocompatibility performance and their safety regulation in key categories such as metals, ceramics and polymers. The materials science perspective of this text ensures the content is accessible even to those without an extensive background in applied medicine, positioning this text not just for students, but as an overview and reference for researchers, scientists and engineers entering the field from related materials science disciplines. Provides a unique, holistic approach, covering key biomaterials categories in one text, including metals, ceramics and polymers Discusses advantages, disadvantages, biocompatibility performance and safety regulations, allowing for accurate materials selection in medical applications Utilizes a materials science perspective, allowing those without an extensive applied medical background to learn about the field

Characterization and Development of Biosystems and Biomaterials

Characterization and Development of Biosystems and Biomaterials
  • Author : Andreas Öchsner,Lucas F. M. da Silva,Holm Altenbach
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-16
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 9783642314704
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Summary : This collection of recent activities provides researchers and scientists with the latest trends in characterization and developments of biosystems and biomaterials. Well known experts present their research in materials for drug delivery, dental implants and filling materials, biocompatible membranes, bioactive surface coatings and bio-compatible and eco-sustainable building materials. In The book covers also topics like microorganisms, the human eye, the musculoskeletal system and human body parts.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
  • Author : Y.M. Thasneem,Chandra P. Sharma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-12
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128070994
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Summary : The development of biomaterials as a powerful regulator of the cellular microenvironment for application in drug discovery/delivery, tissue engineering, and implant biology, requires a better understanding of cell-surface interactions at macro, micro, and nanometre levels. Cell–substrate interactions are multifaceted, involving the integration of various physical and biochemical signals. The interactions among these micro-environmental factors cannot be facilely elucidated and quantified by conventional experimentations, and this necessitates multifactorial strategies. A major task in the biomaterials field would be to develop advanced tools that can offer greater insight into characterizing the cellular behavior and interactions on the material interface. Obtaining this information is crucial in taking biomaterial science to new realms for biomedical applications. The contribution of molecular techniques to elucidate the cell–biomaterial interactions is indispensable on the time-course and level of expression of particular genes that determine cellular phenotype. The amalgamation of multiple disciplines has already produced many interesting techniques and approaches for the cell–biomaterial characterization, of which we have tried to provide a comprehensive and integrated description. The main focus of this book chapter is to explore the toolbox contents available in elucidating the cell–biomaterial interactions. We brief about the topographical, mechanical and biochemical changes faced by a cell upon the rendezvous of any surface in particular with the cell–biomaterial interface. The material characteristics playing cards in directing cellular behavior are straightened out. We also discuss the current knowledge of how a cell can interact with a substrate at the nanoscale and the effect of size, morphology, organization and separation of nanofeatures on cell response.

Marine Biomaterials

Marine Biomaterials
  • Author : Se-Kwon Kim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-11
  • Total pages :840
  • ISBN : 9781466505643
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Summary : Oceans are an abundant source of diverse biomaterials with potential for an array of uses. Marine Biomaterials: Characterization, Isolation and Applications brings together the wide range of research in this important area, including the latest developments and applications, from preliminary research to clinical trials. The book is divided into four parts, with chapters written by experts from around the world. Biomaterials described come from a variety of marine sources, such as fish, algae, microorganisms, crustaceans, and mollusks. Part I covers the isolation and characterization of marine biomaterials—bioceramics, biopolymers, fatty acids, toxins and pigments, nanoparticles, and adhesive materials. It also describes problems that may be encountered in the process as well as possible solutions. Part II looks at biological activities of marine biomaterials, including polysaccharides, biotoxins, and peptides. Chapters examine health benefits of the biomaterials, such as antiviral activity, antidiabetic properties, anticoagulant and anti-allergic effects, and more. Part III discusses biomedical applications of marine biomaterials, including nanocomposites, and describes applications of various materials in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Part IV explores commercialization of marine-derived biomaterials—marine polysaccharides and marine enzymes—and examines industry perspectives and applications. This book covers the key aspects of available marine biomaterials for biological and biomedical applications, and presents techniques that can be used for future isolation of novel materials from marine sources.

Characterization of biomaterials

Characterization of biomaterials
  • Author : R.T. Dombrowski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-19
  • Total pages :334
  • ISBN : 9780128091678
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Summary : This chapter provides a review of all the major microscopy imaging techniques that are available to the modern researcher for the characterization of biomaterials. Today, with the melding of both biology and materials science to produce both natural and man-made biomaterials, imaging has become a major characterization technique to carry out the further development of these materials that will be implanted in the human body to perform, augment or replace natural bodily functions. Microstructural imaging techniques utilizing light, electrons and molecular mechanical probes are covered. The various chapter sections for each of these major imaging modes contain a mix of useful foundational theory and practical application knowledge which is meant to allow the researcher to maximize the imaging data obtained using each technique.

Self-assembling Biomaterials

Self-assembling Biomaterials
  • Author : Helena S. Azevedo,Ricardo M. P. da Silva
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-04-17
  • Total pages :612
  • ISBN : 9780081020128
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Summary : Self-assembling biomaterials: molecular design, characterization and application in biology and medicine provides a comprehensive coverage on an emerging area of biomaterials science, spanning from conceptual designs to advanced characterization tools and applications of self-assembling biomaterials, and compiling the recent developments in the field. Molecular self-assembly, the autonomous organization of molecules, is ubiquitous in living organisms and intrinsic to biological structures and function. Not surprisingly, the exciting field of engineering artificial self-assembling biomaterials often finds inspiration in Biology. More important, materials that self-assemble speak the language of life and can be designed to seamlessly integrate with the biological environment, offering unique engineering opportunities in bionanotechnology. The book is divided in five parts, comprising design of molecular building blocks for self-assembly; exclusive features of self-assembling biomaterials; specific methods and techniques to predict, investigate and characterize self-assembly and formed assemblies; different approaches for controlling self-assembly across multiple length scales and the nano/micro/macroscopic properties of biomaterials; diverse range of applications in biomedicine, including drug delivery, theranostics, cell culture and tissue regeneration. Written by researchers working in self-assembling biomaterials, it addresses a specific need within the Biomaterials scientific community. Explores both theoretical and practical aspects of self-assembly in biomaterials Includes a dedicated section on characterization techniques, specific for self-assembling biomaterials Examines the use of dynamic self-assembling biomaterials

Biomaterials

Biomaterials
  • Author : Rosario Pignatello,Teresa Musumeci
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-02
  • Total pages :114
  • ISBN : 9781789230642
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Summary : This contribution book collects five among reviews and original articles from eminent experts working in the interdisciplinary area of biomaterial synthesis and application. From their direct and recent experience, the readers can access the novel and ongoing potentialities of different synthetic and engineered biomaterials. Contributions reflect the fundamental studies, with a particular attention to the physico-chemical mechanical characterization of biomaterials, along with biocompatibility studies and potential clinical use. After an introductory chapter on the question of storage stability for biomaterial-based devices and products and for polymeric nanomedicines, a first review deals with the use and commercial sources of hydroxyapatite in tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. A study follows on optical fiber laser marking on the properties of stainless steel in implant manufacturing. Two other reviews, respectively, focused on the approaches to prevent or treat the effects of calcification that occurs in vivo on biomaterial-based implants and on the encapsulation of pancreatic islet cells for the treatment of type I diabetes will be presented. Finally, an overview on the physical bases and application in biomaterial science of the spray-drying process will close the volume. This setting will allow to achieve a general view of how classical and novel biomaterials can be applied, along with the methodologies necessary to design, develop, and characterize them, without the restrictions necessarily imposed by industrial or profit concerns. Readers will be apprised about the methodologies used to develop biomaterials possessing the physical and biological properties needed for specific medical and clinical applications.