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Chemical Bioavailability in Terrestrial Environments

Chemical Bioavailability in Terrestrial Environments
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-31
  • Total pages :828
  • ISBN : 0080557759
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Summary : This book begins with an overview of current thinking on bioavailability, its definition, cutting-edge research in speciation and advancement in tools for assessing chemical bioavailability in the terrestrial environment. The second section of the book focuses on the role of chemical speciation in bioavailability. Section three addresses bioavailability and ecotoxicity of contaminants and leads into the next section on bioavailability of nutrients and agrichemicals. Subsequent sections provide an overview of tools currently being used and new cutting-edge techniques to assess contaminant bioavailability. The last section of the book builds on previous sections in relating bioavailability to risk assessment and how this could be used for managing risks associated with contaminated land. Provides the latest information on developing concepts and definitions of bioavailability Includes a discussion of bioavailability and ecotoxicity of contaminants and bioavailability of nutrients and agrichemicals for applications in agriculture Analyzes tools for assessing bioavailability and the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and remediation

6th International Workshop of Chemical Bioavailability in the Terrestrial Environment

6th International Workshop of Chemical Bioavailability in the Terrestrial Environment
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-09
  • Total pages :96
  • ISBN : 1921431288
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Summary :

Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments

Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments
  • Author : Domy C. Adriano
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-19
  • Total pages :867
  • ISBN : 9780387215105
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Summary : A comprehensive reference handbook on the important aspects of trace elements in the land environment. Each chapter addresses a particular element and gives a general introduction to their role in the environment, where they come from, and their biogeochemical cycles. In addition to a complete updating of each of the element chapters, this new edition has new chapters devoted to aluminum and iron, soil contamination, remediation and trace elements in aquatic ecosystems. In short, an essential resource for environmental scientists and chemists, regulators and policy makers.

Advances in Agronomy

Advances in Agronomy
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-01-08
  • Total pages :476
  • ISBN : 9780124077980
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Summary : Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a leading reference and a first-rate source for the latest research in agronomy. As always, the subjects covered are varied and exemplary of the myriad of subject matter dealt with by this long-running serial Maintains the highest impact factor among serial publications in agriculture Presents timely reviews on important agronomy issues Enjoys a long-standing reputation for excellence in the field

Diversity of Ecosystems

Diversity of Ecosystems
  • Author : Mahamane Ali
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-27
  • Total pages :498
  • ISBN : 9789535105725
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Summary : The ecosystems present a great diversity worldwide and use various functionalities according to ecologic regions. In this new context of variability and climatic changes, these ecosystems undergo notable modifications amplified by domestic uses of which it was subjected to. Indeed the ecosystems render diverse services to humanity from their composition and structure but the tolerable levels are unknown. The preservation of these ecosystemic services needs a clear understanding of their complexity. The role of research is not only to characterise the ecosystems but also to clearly define the tolerable usage levels. Their characterisation proves to be important not only for the local populations that use it but also for the conservation of biodiversity. Hence, the measurement, management and protection of ecosystems need innovative and diverse methods. For all these reasons, the aim of this book is to bring out a general view on the function of ecosystems, modelling, sampling strategies, invading species, the response of organisms to modifications, the carbon dynamics, the mathematical models and theories that can be applied in diverse conditions.

Biophysico-Chemical Processes of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soil Environments

Biophysico-Chemical Processes of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soil Environments
  • Author : Antonio Violante,Pan Ming Huang,Geoffrey M. Gadd
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-27
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 0470175478
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Summary : Written by a multidisciplinary group of soil and environmental scientists, Biophysico-Chemical Processes of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soil Environments provides the scientific community with a critical qualitative and quantitative review of the fundamentals of the processes of pollutants in soil environments. The book covers pollutants' speciation, mobility, bioavailability and toxicity, and impacts on development of innovative restoration strategies. In addition, the development of innovative remediation strategies for polluted soils is covered.

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination
  • Author : Maria C. Hernandez Soriano
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-26
  • Total pages :920
  • ISBN : 9789535112358
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Summary : Soil is an irreplaceable resource that sustains life on the planet, challenged by food and energy demands of an increasing population. Therefore, soil contamination constitutes a critical issue to be addressed if we are to secure the life quality of present and future generations. Integrated efforts from researchers and policy makers are required to develop sound risk assessment procedures, remediation strategies and sustainable soil management policies. Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination provides a wide depiction of current research in soil contamination and risk assessment, encompassing reviews and case studies on soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants. The book introduces several innovative approaches for soil remediation and risk assessment, including advances in phytoremediation and implementation of metabolomics in soil sciences.

Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments

Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-05-03
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9780309086257
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Summary : Bioavailability refers to the extent to which humans and ecological receptors are exposed to contaminants in soil or sediment. The concept of bioavailability has recently piqued the interest of the hazardous waste industry as an important consideration in deciding how much waste to clean up. The rationale is that if contaminants in soil and sediment are not bioavailable, then more contaminant mass can be left in place without creating additional risk. A new NRC report notes that the potential for the consideration of bioavailability to influence decision-making is greatest where certain chemical, environmental, and regulatory factors align. The current use of bioavailability in risk assessment and hazardous waste cleanup regulations is demystified, and acceptable tools and models for bioavailability assessment are discussed and ranked according to seven criteria. Finally, the intimate link between bioavailability and bioremediation is explored. The report concludes with suggestions for moving bioavailability forward in the regulatory arena for both soil and sediment cleanup.

Radionuclides in the Environment

Radionuclides in the Environment
  • Author : Clemens Walther,Dharmendra K. Gupta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-30
  • Total pages :273
  • ISBN : 9783319221717
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Summary : This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.

A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives

A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Design and Evaluation of Safer Chemical Substitutions: A Framework to Inform Government and Industry Decisions
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-29
  • Total pages :280
  • ISBN : 9780309310161
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Summary : Historically, regulations governing chemical use have often focused on widely used chemicals and acute human health effects of exposure to them, as well as their potential to cause cancer and other adverse health effects. As scientific knowledge has expanded there has been an increased awareness of the mechanisms through which chemicals may exert harmful effects on human health, as well as their effects on other species and ecosystems. Identification of high-priority chemicals and other chemicals of concern has prompted a growing number of state and local governments, as well as major companies, to take steps beyond existing hazardous chemical federal legislation. Interest in approaches and policies that ensure that any new substances substituted for chemicals of concern are assessed as carefully and thoroughly as possible has also burgeoned. The overarching goal of these approaches is to avoid regrettable substitutions, which occur when a toxic chemical is replaced by another chemical that later proved unsuitable because of persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, or other concerns. Chemical alternative assessments are tools designed to facilitate consideration of these factors to assist stakeholders in identifying chemicals that may have the greatest likelihood of harm to human and ecological health, and to provide guidance on how the industry may develop and adopt safer alternatives. A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives develops and demonstrates a decision framework for evaluating potentially safer substitute chemicals as primarily determined by human health and ecological risks. This new framework is informed by previous efforts by regulatory agencies, academic institutions, and others to develop alternative assessment frameworks that could be operationalized. In addition to hazard assessments, the framework incorporates steps for life-cycle thinking - which considers possible impacts of a chemical at all stages including production, use, and disposal - as well as steps for performance and economic assessments. The report also highlights how modern information sources such as computational modeling can supplement traditional toxicology data in the assessment process. This new framework allows the evaluation of the full range of benefits and shortcomings of substitutes, and examination of tradeoffs between these risks and factors such as product functionality, product efficacy, process safety, and resource use. Through case studies, this report demonstrates how different users in contrasting decision contexts with diverse priorities can apply the framework. This report will be an essential resource to the chemical industry, environmentalists, ecologists, and state and local governments.

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105131887908
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Summary :

Trace Elements in Soils

Trace Elements in Soils
  • Author : Peter Hooda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-04-13
  • Total pages :616
  • ISBN : 9781444319484
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Summary : Trace elements occur naturally in soils and some are essential nutrients for plant growth as well as human and animal health. However, at elevated levels, all trace elements become potentially toxic. Anthropogenic input of trace elements into the natural environment therefore poses a range of ecological and health problems. As a result of their persistence and potential toxicity, trace elements continue to receive widespread scientific and legislative attention. Trace Elements in Soils reviews the latest research in the field, providing a comprehensive overview of the chemistry, analysis, fate and regulation of trace elements in soils, as well as remediation strategies for contaminated soil. The book is divided into four sections: • Basic principles, processes, sampling and analytical aspects: presents an overview including general soil chemistry, soil sampling, analysis, fractionation and speciation. • Long-term issues, impacts and predictive modelling: reviews major sources of metal inputs, the impact on soil ecology, trace element deficient soils and chemical speciation modelling. • Bioavailability, risk assessment and remediation: discusses bioavailability, regulatory limits and cleanup technology for contaminated soils including phytoremediation and trace element immobilization. • Characteristics and behaviour of individual elements Written as an authoritative guide for scientists working in soil science, geochemistry, environmental science and analytical chemistry, the book is also a valuable resource for professionals involved in land management, environmental planning, protection and regulation.

Trace Metals in the Environment and Living Organisms

Trace Metals in the Environment and Living Organisms
  • Author : Philip S. Rainbow
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-23
  • Total pages :770
  • ISBN : 9781108470933
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Summary : Without trace metals there would be no life, yet trace metals can eliminate life. Where, why and so what?

Freshwater Microplastics

Freshwater Microplastics
  • Author : Martin Wagner,Scott Lambert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-21
  • Total pages :303
  • ISBN : 9783319616155
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Summary : This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This volume focuses on microscopic plastic debris, also referred to as microplastics, which have been detected in aquatic environments around the globe and have accordingly raised serious concerns. The book explores whether microplastics represent emerging contaminants in freshwater systems, an area that remains underrepresented to date. Given the complexity of the issue, the book covers the current state-of-research on microplastics in rivers and lakes, including analytical aspects, environmental concentrations and sources, modelling approaches, interactions with biota, and ecological implications. To provide a broader perspective, the book also discusses lessons learned from nanomaterials and the implications of plastic debris for regulation, politics, economy, and society. In a research field that is rapidly evolving, it offers a solid overview for environmental chemists, engineers, and toxicologists, as well as water managers and policy-makers.

Trace Elements in Waterlogged Soils and Sediments

Trace Elements in Waterlogged Soils and Sediments
  • Author : Jörg Rinklebe,Anna Sophia Knox,Michael Paller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-19
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9781482240528
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Summary : Many wetlands around the world act as sinks for pollutants, in particular for trace elements. In comparison to terrestrial environments, wetlands are still far less studied. A collaborative effort among world experts, this book brings the current knowledge concerning trace elements in temporary waterlogged soils and sediments together. It discusses factors controlling the dynamics and release kinetics of trace elements and their underlying biogeochemical processes. It also discusses current technologies for remediating sites contaminated with trace metals, and the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and regulatory decision making. This book is intended for professionals around the world in disciplines related to contaminant bioavailability in aquatic organisms, contaminant fate and transport, remediation technologies, and risk assessment of aquatic and wetland ecosystems.

Trace Elements in the Terrestrial Environment

Trace Elements in the Terrestrial Environment
  • Author : Domy C. Adriano
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-14
  • Total pages :533
  • ISBN : 9781475719079
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Summary : I intend to fill, with this book, a need that has long been felt by students and professionals in many areas of agricultural, biological, natural, and environmental sciences-the need for a comprehensive reference book on many important aspects of trace elements in the "land" environment. This book is different from other books on trace elements (also commonly referred to as heavy metals) in that each chapter focuses on a particular element, which in tum is discussed in terms of its importance in our economy, its natural occurrence, its fate and behavior in the soil-plant system, its requirement by and detriment to plants, its health limits in drinking water and food, and its origin in the environment. Because of long distance transport to pristine areas of cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc in relatively large quantities, these elements have an extra section on natural ecosystems. A blend of pictorial and tabular data are provided to enhance understanding of the relevant information being conveyed. Since individual chapters are independent of one another, they are arranged alphabetically. However, readers with weak backgrounds in soil science are advised to start with the chapter on zinc, since soil terminology is discussed in more detail here. Sections on sorption, forms and speciation, complexation, and transformations become more technical as soil physical-(bio )chemical phenomena are discussed. The less important "environmental" trace elements are discussed together in the "Other Trace Elements" chapter.

Soil Ecotoxicology

Soil Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Joseph Tarradellas,Gabriel Bitton,Dominique Rossel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996-12-23
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 1566701341
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Summary : Soils are receptacles for a wide range of hazardous chemicals generated by human activities. Whether or not this contamination is deliberate, accurate toxicity assessments are important for health and economic reasons. Soil Ecotoxicology discusses the sources, fate, and transport of hazardous chemicals in soils. The fate (biodegradation and modeling) and the potential impacts of pesticides on soil ecosystems are emphasized, and methodologies for performing toxicity assessments are provided.

Australian Journal of Chemistry

Australian Journal of Chemistry
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : CHI:58293077
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Summary :

Environmental Analysis of Contaminated Sites

Environmental Analysis of Contaminated Sites
  • Author : Geoffrey I. Sunahara,Agnès Y. Renoux,Claude Thellen,Connie L. Gaudet,Adrien Pilon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-03-12
  • Total pages :490
  • ISBN : 0471986690
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Summary : Bioremediation is a process applied to restore contaminated sites using biological tools. The success or failure of this process usually depends on an understanding of the biotechnological process as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the ecotoxicological tools used for its evaluation. This useful book offers a unique treatment of the subject, linking soil ecotoxicity tests, bioremediation and environmental risk assessment. It also, describes the inter-relationships between the laboratory and field ecotoxicologist, the biotechnology consultant and different international environmental regulatory agencies and explains how they seek to achieve a successful evaluation of contaminated site restoration.

Managing Arsenic in the Environment

Managing Arsenic in the Environment
  • Author : Ravi Naidu,Euan Smith,Gary Owens,Prosun Bhattacharya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-02-07
  • Total pages :656
  • ISBN : 9780643099234
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Summary : Arsenic is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic elements in the environment. This book brings together the current knowledge on arsenic contamination worldwide, reviewing the field, highlighting common themes and pointing to key areas needing future research. Contributions discuss methods for accurate identification and quantification of individual arsenic species in a range of environmental and biological matrices and give an overview of the environmental chemistry of arsenic. Next, chapters deal with the dynamics of arsenic in groundwater and aspects of arsenic in soils and plants, including plant uptake studies, effects on crop quality and yield, and the corresponding food chain and human health issues associated with these exposure pathways. These concerns are coupled with the challenge to develop efficient, cost effective risk management and remediation strategies: recent technological advances are described and assessed, including the use of adsorbants, photo-oxidation, bioremediation and electrokinetic remediation. The book concludes with eleven detailed regional perspectives of the extent and severity of arsenic contamination from around the world. It will be invaluable for arsenic researchers as well as environmental scientists and environmental chemists, toxicologists, medical scientists, and statutory authorities seeking an in-depth view of the issues surrounding this toxin.

Bioavailability, Toxicity, and Risk Relationship in Ecosystems

Bioavailability, Toxicity, and Risk Relationship in Ecosystems
  • Author : V.V.S.R Gupta,Steve Rogers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-01-03
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : UOM:39015056663811
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Summary : Potato is the most significant non-cereal crop. Much attention has been paid to this commercially important crop. The aim of this volume is to capture the recent advances made in improving potatoes using traditional breeding methods as well as genetic engineering technology. The book provides a critical appraisal of the state-of-the-art finding on this crop.