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Chickpea: Crop Wild Relatives for Enhancing Genetic Gains

Chickpea: Crop Wild Relatives for Enhancing Genetic Gains
  • Author : Mohar Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-29
  • Total pages :274
  • ISBN : 9780128183007
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Summary : Chickpea: Crop Wild Relatives for Enhancing Genetic Gains explores aspects related to critical analysis on factors responsible for narrow genetic base of chickpea productions including domestication bottleneck, the level of diversity present in different cultivated and wild species, the uniqueness and usefulness of potential gene sources available and maintained in production systems across the globe, the level of genetic erosion both at landrace and species level over time and space etc. Despite considerable international investment in conventional breeding, production of chickpea has not yet been significantly improved beyond that achieved through its normal single domestication event and high self-pollination rate. Total annual pulse production of ~12 million tons (FAO 2016) is far below actual potential. Susceptibility to both biotic and abiotic stresses have created a production level bottleneck whose solution possibly lies in the use of crop wild relatives and other genetic traits cultivated by tailoring novel germplasm. Presenting options for widening the genetic base of chickpea cultivars by introgression of diverse genes available in distantly related wild Cicer taxa, thus expanding the genetic base and maximize genetic gains from the selection, it is necessary to accumulate other complimentary alleles from CWRs. This review will focus on present status of gene pool and species distribution, germplasm conservation, characterization and evaluation, problems associated with crop production, sources of target traits available in wild species, status of trait introgression in synthesizing new gene pool of chickpea along with progress made in chickpea genomics. An edited book with contributions from leading scientists, this information will guide and inform chickpea breeders, PGR researchers and crop biologists across the world. Presents both conventional and emerging techniques Provides insights into gene pyramiding as cytogenic manipulations Includes case studies highlighting the impact of improving chickpea production

Lentils

Lentils
  • Author : Mohar Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-10
  • Total pages :245
  • ISBN : 9780128135235
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Summary : Lentils: Potential Resources for Enhancing Genetic Gains describes the evolutionary aspects and agronomic potential of this important pulse with emphasis placed on wide hybridization, including molecular aspects and future breeding strategies. The existing variability among cultivated germplasm has been exploited to reach a desirable level of productivity. However, to attain further breakthroughs in increasing yield and improving stability in future cultivars, new sources of genes/alleles need to be identified and incorporated into cultivated varieties. This book provides specific use information, including wild lentil germplasm utilization, thus allowing for the selection of transgressive interspecific recombinants that can be adapted to specific environments. Identifies breeding resources and the agronomic value assessed for specific traits of interest Presents marker assisted breeding work and genomic resources Describes strategies for wild lentils using wide hybridization Features key breeding strategies

Accelerated Plant Breeding, Volume 3

Accelerated Plant Breeding, Volume 3
  • Author : Satbir Singh Gosal,Shabir Hussain Wani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-09
  • Total pages :430
  • ISBN : 9783030473068
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Summary : Plant improvement has shifted its focus from yield, quality and disease resistance to factors that will enhance commercial export, such as early maturity, shelf life and better processing quality. Conventional plant breeding methods aiming at the improvement of a self-pollinating crop, such as wheat, usually take 10-12 years to develop and release of the new variety. During the past 10 years, significant advances have been made and accelerated methods have been developed for precision breeding and early release of crop varieties. This work summarizes concepts dealing with germplasm enhancement and development of improved varieties based on innovative methodologies that include doubled haploidy, marker assisted selection, marker assisted background selection, genetic mapping, genomic selection, high-throughput genotyping, high-throughput phenotyping, mutation breeding, reverse breeding, transgenic breeding, shuttle breeding, speed breeding, low cost high-throughput field phenotyping, etc. It is an important reference with special focus on accelerated development of improved crop varieties.

Genomic Designing of Climate-Smart Pulse Crops

Genomic Designing of Climate-Smart Pulse Crops
  • Author : Chittaranjan Kole
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-28
  • Total pages :469
  • ISBN : 9783319969329
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Summary : This book describes the concepts, strategies and techniques for pulse-crop improvement in the era of climate change, highlighting the latest advances in plant molecular mapping and genome sequencing. Genetic mapping of genes and QTLs has broadened the scope of marker-assisted breeding and map-based cloning in almost all major pulse crops. Genetic transformation, particularly using alien genes conferring resistance to herbicide, insects and diseases has facilitated the development of a huge number of genetically modified varieties of the major pulse crops. Since the genome sequencing of rice in 2002, genomes of over 7 pulse crops have been sequenced. This has resulted in the possibility of deciphering the exact nucleotide sequence and chromosomal positions of agroeconomic genes. Most importantly, comparative genomics and genotyping-by-sequencing has opened up a new vista for exploring wild crop relatives for identification of useful donor genes.

Chickpea Breeding and Management

Chickpea Breeding and Management
  • Author : Shyam S. Yadav,W. Chen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :638
  • ISBN : 9781845932138
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Summary : The chickpea is an ancient crop that is still important in both developed and developing nations. This authoritative account by international experts covers all aspects of chickpea breeding and management, and the integrated pest management and biotechnology applications that are important to its improvement. With topics covered including origin and taxonomy, ecology, distribution and genetics, this book combines the many and varied research issues impacting on production and utilization of the chickpea crop on its journey from paddock to plate.

Legume Genetics and Biology

Legume Genetics and Biology
  • Author : Petr Smýkal,Eric J. Bishop von Wettberg,Kevin McPhee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-12-29
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9783039368129
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Summary : Legumes have played an important part as human food and animal feed in cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The legume family is arguably one of the most abundantly domesticated crop plant families. Their ability to symbiotically fix nitrogen and improve soil fertility has been rewarded since antiquity and makes them a key protein source. Pea was the original model organism used in Mendel´s discovery of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. This book based on Special Issue provides up-to-date information on legume biology, genetic advances, and the legacy of Mendel.

Crop Wild Relatives and Climate Change

Crop Wild Relatives and Climate Change
  • Author : Shyam Singh Yadav
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-17
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9781118854334
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Summary : Two major challenges to continued global food security are the ever increasing demand for food products, and the unprecedented abiotic stresses that crops face due to climate change.Wild relatives of domesticated crops serve as a reservoir of genetic material, with the potential to be used to develop new, improved varieties of crops. Crop Wild Relative and Climate Change integrates crop evolution, breeding technologies and biotechnologies, improved practices and sustainable approaches while exploring the role wild relatives could play in increasing agricultural output. Crop Wild Relative and Climate Change begins with overviews of the impacts of climate change on growing environments and the challenges that agricultural production face in coming years and decades. Chapters then explore crop evolution and the potential for crop wild relatives to contribute novel genetic resources to the breeding of more resilient and productive crops. Breeding technologies and biotechnological advances that are being used to incorporate key genetic traits of wild relatives into crop varieties are also covered. There is also a valuable discussion on the importance of conserving genetic resources to ensure continued successful crop production. A timely resource, Crop Wild Relative and Climate Change will be an invaluable resource for the crop science community for years to come.

The Chickpea Genome

The Chickpea Genome
  • Author : Rajeev K. Varshney,Mahendar Thudi,Fred Muehlbauer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-02
  • Total pages :142
  • ISBN : 9783319661179
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Summary : This book sheds new light on the chickpea genome sequencing and resequencing of chickpea germplasm lines and provides insights into classical genetics, cytogenetics, and trait mapping. It also offers an overview of the latest advances in genome sequencing and analysis. The growing human population, rapid climate changes and limited amounts of arable land are creating substantial challenges in connection with the availability and affordability of nutritious food for smallholder farmers in developing countries. In this context, climate smart crops are essential to alleviating the hunger of the millions of poor and undernourished people living in developing countries. In addition to cereals, grain legumes are an integral part of the human diet and provide sustainable income for smallholder farmers in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Among grain legumes, the chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most important in terms of production and productivity. Besides being a rich source of proteins, it can fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with rhizobia and increase the input of combined nitrogen. Several abiotic stresses like drought, heat, salinity, together with biotic stresses like Fusarium wilt, Ascochyta blight, and Botrytis grey mould have led to production losses, as the chickpeas is typically grown in the harsh climates of our planet’s semi-arid regions.

North American Crop Wild Relatives, Volume 1

North American Crop Wild Relatives, Volume 1
  • Author : Stephanie L. Greene,Karen A. Williams,Colin K. Khoury,Michael B. Kantar,Laura F. Marek
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-11
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9783319951010
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Summary : The plant species that humans rely upon have an extended family of wild counterparts that are an important source of genetic diversity used to breed productive crops. These wild and weedy cousins are valuable as a resource for adapting our food, forage, industrial and other crops to climate change. Many wild plant species are also directly used, especially for revegetation, and as medicinal and ornamental plants. North America is rich in these wild plant genetic resources. This book is a valuable reference that describes the important crop wild relatives and wild utilized species found in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The book highlights efforts taken by these countries to conserve and use wild resources and provides essential information on best practices for collecting and conserving them. Numerous maps using up-to-date information and methods illustrate the distribution of important species, and supplement detailed description on the potential value these resources have to agriculture, as well as their conservation statuses and needs. There is broad recognition of the urgent need to conserve plant diversity; however, a small fraction of wild species is distinguished by their potential to support agricultural production. Many of these species are common, even weedy, and are easily overshadowed by rare or endangered plants. Nevertheless, because of their genetic proximity to agriculturally important crops or direct use, they deserve to be recognized, celebrated, conserved, and made available to support food and agricultural security. This comprehensive two-volume reference will be valuable for students and scientists interested in economic botany, and for practitioners at all levels tasked with conserving plant biodiversity. The chapters 'Public Education and Outreach Opportunities for Crop Wild Relatives in North America' and 'Genetic Resources of Crop Wild Relatives – A Canadian Perspective' are open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.

Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants in India

Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants in India
  • Author : Anurudh Kumar Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-14
  • Total pages :309
  • ISBN : 9789811051166
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive overview of the wild relatives of crops and cultivated species found in India, covering their distribution, phylogenetic relationships with cultivated species, traits that are of economic and breeding value, and the perceived threats. It highlights the opportunities the wild relatives of cultivated species offer in terms of new genes and allelic variability, as well as several other exploitable economic and environmental benefits that can be harnessed with their conservation and cultivation. This helps facilitate their use – both directly and as part of the breeding program for related cultivated species, filling the gaps of genetic variability in the primary gene pool. It also discusses how they can be used in breeding programs using conventional technologies and the biotechnological approaches of recombinant DNA. Transfer of natural genes using recombinant DNA, known as “Cisgenesis,” can accelerate the process of incorporating these natural genes without genetic drag of undesirable features and biosafety concerns, and beyond taxonomic boundaries, in response to the demand for new cultivars to meet the challenges of climate change and ever-growing human population.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement
  • Author : Mohar Singh,Hari D. Upadhyaya,I. S. Bisht
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-18
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780123984944
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Summary : Grain legumes, including common-bean, chickpea, pigeonpea, pea, cowpea, lentil and others, form important constituents of global diets, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Despite this significant role, global production has increased only marginally in the past 50 years. The slow production growth, along with a rising human population and improved buying capacity has substantially reduced the per capita availability of food legumes. Changes in environmental climate have also had significant impact on production, creating a need to identify stable donors among genetic resources for environmentally robust genes and designing crops resilient to climate change. Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement is the first book to bring together the latest resources in plant genetics and genomics to facilitate the identification of specific germplasm, trait mapping and allele mining to more effectively develop biotic and abiotic-stress-resistant grains. This book will be an invaluable resource for researchers, crop biologists and students working with crop development. Explores origin, distribution and diversity of grain legumes Presents information on germplasm collection, evaluation and maintenance Offers insight into pre-breeding/germplasm enhancement efforts Integrates genomic and genetic resources in crop improvement Internationally contributed work

Rediscovery of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Future Food Security

Rediscovery of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Future Food Security
  • Author : Romesh Kumar Salgotra,Sajad Majeed Zargar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-28
  • Total pages :364
  • ISBN : 9789811501562
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Summary : This book describes how the latest genomic resources techniques can be efficiently used in plant breeding programmes to achieve food security in the future. It also shares insights on how to utilize the untapped and unexplored genetic diversity of wild species, wild relatives and landraces for crop improvement. Moreover, the book offers an impressive array of balanced analyses, fresh ideas and perspectives, and thoughtful and realistic proposals regarding the sustainable utilization of plant genetic resources with modern biotechnological techniques. The first book to address the importance of plant genetics and genomic resources for food security, it brings together a group of plant breeders and biotechnologists to investigate the use of genomic resources techniques in plant breeding programmes. Providing essential information on the efficient utilization of genomic resources in precision breeding, it offers a valuable asset for undergraduate and graduate students, teachers and professionals engaged in related fields.

Plant Breeding in the Omics Era

Plant Breeding in the Omics Era
  • Author : Rodomiro Ortiz Ríos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-16
  • Total pages :249
  • ISBN : 9783319205328
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Summary : ​The field of plant breeding has grown rapidly in the last decade with breakthrough research in genetics and genomics, inbred development, population improvement, hybrids, clones, self-pollinated crops, polyploidy, transgenic breeding and more. This book discusses the latest developments in all these areas but explores the next generation of needs and discoveries including omics beyond genomics, cultivar seeds and intellectual and property rights. This book is a leading-edge publication of the latest results and forecasts important areas of future needs and applications.​

The Second Report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

The Second Report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
  • Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-01-01
  • Total pages :399
  • ISBN : 9789251065341
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Summary : Plant genetic resources provide a basis for food security, livelihood support and economic development as a major component of biodiversity. The Second Report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture demonstrates the central role plant genetic diversity continues to play in shaping agriculture growth in the face of climate change and other environmental challenges. It is based on information gathered from Country Reports, regional syntheses, thematic studie s and scientific literature, documenting the major achievements made in this sector during the past decade and identifying the critical gaps and needs that should urgently be addressed. The Report provides the decision-makers with a technical basis for updating the Global Plan of Action on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. It also aims to attract the attention of the global community to set priorities for the effective management of plant genet ic resources for the future. Purchase a print copy.

Breeding Insect Resistant Crops for Sustainable Agriculture

Breeding Insect Resistant Crops for Sustainable Agriculture
  • Author : Ramesh Arora,Surinder Sandhu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-16
  • Total pages :421
  • ISBN : 9789811060564
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Summary : This book reviews and synthesizes the recent advances in exploiting host plant resistance to insects, highlighting the role of molecular techniques in breeding insect resistant crops. It also provides an overview of the fascinating field of insect-plant relationships, which is fundamental to the study of host-plant resistance to insects. Further, it discusses the conventional and molecular techniques utilized/useful in breeding for resistance to insect-pests including back-cross breeding, modified population improvement methods for insect resistance, marker-assisted backcrossing to expedite the breeding process, identification and validation of new insect-resistance genes and their potential for utilization, genomics, metabolomics, transgenesis and RNAi. Lastly, it analyzes the successes, limitations and prospects for the development of insect-resistant cultivars of rice, maize, sorghum and millet, cotton, rapeseed, legumes and fruit crops, and highlights strategies for management of insect biotypes that limit the success and durability of insect-resistant cultivators in the field. Arthropod pests act as major constraints in the agro-ecosystem. It has been estimated that arthropod pests may be destroying around one-fifth of the global agricultural production/potential production every year. Further, the losses are considerably higher in the developing tropics of Asia and Africa, which are already battling severe food shortage. Integrated pest management (IPM) has emerged as the dominant paradigm for minimizing damage by the insects and non-insect pests over the last 50 years. Pest resistant cultivars represent one of the most environmentally benign, economically viable and ecologically sustainable options for utilization in IPM programs. Hundreds of insect-resistant cultivars of rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, cotton, sugarcane and other crops have been developed worldwide and are extensively grown for increasing and/or stabilizing crop productivity. The annual economic value of arthropod resistance genes developed in global agriculture has been estimated to be greater than US$ 2 billion Despite the impressive achievements and even greater potential in minimizing pest- related losses, only a handful of books have been published on the topic of host-plant resistance to insects. This book fills this wide gap in the literature on breeding insect- resistant crops. It is aimed at plant breeders, entomologists, plant biotechnologists and IPM experts, as well as those working on sustainable agriculture and food security.

The Pigeonpea Genome

The Pigeonpea Genome
  • Author : Rajeev K. Varshney,Rachit K. Saxena,Scott A. Jackson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-15
  • Total pages :104
  • ISBN : 9783319637976
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Summary : Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is a crop of small land holding farmers in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It has a number of usages starting from protein rich food to vegetarian families; fuel wood; nitrogen supplier to soil; recycling minerals in soil to animal feed etc. Pigeonpea has been considered to be originated and domesticated in central India from where it travelled to different parts of the world such as Africa and Latin America. In ongoing scenario of climate change, biotic and especially abiotic stresses will make the conditions more challenging for entire agriculture. This volume focusing on the pigeonpea genome will collate the information on the genome sequencing and its utilization in genomics activities, with a focus on the current findings, advanced tools and strategies deployed in pigeonpea genome sequencing and analysis, and how this information is leading to direct outcomes for plant breeders and subsequently to farmers.

Return to Resistance

Return to Resistance
  • Author : Raoul A. Robinson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 0889367744
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Summary : Return to Resistance: Breeding crops to reduce pesticide dependence

The State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture

The State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture
  • Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-12
  • Total pages :577
  • ISBN : 9789251312704
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Summary : The State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture presents the first global assessment of biodiversity for food and agriculture worldwide. Biodiversity for food and agriculture is the diversity of plants, animals and micro-organisms at genetic, species and ecosystem levels, present in and around crop, livestock, forest and aquatic production systems. It is essential to the structure, functions and processes of these systems, to livelihoods and food security, and to the supply of a wide range of ecosystem services. It has been managed or influenced by farmers, livestock keepers, forest dwellers, fish farmers and fisherfolk for hundreds of generations. Prepared through a participatory, country-driven process, the report draws on information from 91 country reports to provide a description of the roles and importance of biodiversity for food and agriculture, the drivers of change affecting it and its current status and trends. It describes the state of efforts to promote the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity for food and agriculture, including through the development of supporting policies, legal frameworks, institutions and capacities. It concludes with a discussion of needs and challenges in the future management of biodiversity for food and agriculture. The report complements other global assessments prepared under the auspices of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, which have focused on the state of genetic resources within particular sectors of food and agriculture.

Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge for Food Security

Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge for Food Security
  • Author : Romesh Kumar Salgotra,Bharat Bhushan Gupta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-01-22
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9789811000607
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Summary : With exponentially increasing population across the globe and shrinking resources, the concern of food security is looming large over the world community. To catch up with the fierce pace of growth in all the sectors of development, ensuring uninhibited availability of food resources is a prime agenda. The growing global demand for food, feed, fiber and bio-based renewable materials, such as bio-fuels, is changing the conditions for genetic resources development and bio-resource production worldwide. The crucial role in ensuring food security is played by the agro-based industries and enterprises. Advances in plant genetic resources coupled with traditional knowledge of the local tribes and native practices facilitate achievement of food security.

Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding

Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding
  • Author : George Acquaah
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-28
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9781119626695
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Summary : The revised edition of the bestselling textbook, covering both classical and molecular plant breeding Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding integrates theory and practice to provide an insightful examination of the fundamental principles and advanced techniques of modern plant breeding. Combining both classical and molecular tools, this comprehensive textbook describes the multidisciplinary strategies used to produce new varieties of crops and plants, particularly in response to the increasing demands to of growing populations. Illustrated chapters cover a wide range of topics, including plant reproductive systems, germplasm for breeding, molecular breeding, the common objectives of plant breeders, marketing and societal issues, and more. Now in its third edition, this essential textbook contains extensively revised content that reflects recent advances and current practices. Substantial updates have been made to its molecular genetics and breeding sections, including discussions of new breeding techniques such as zinc finger nuclease, oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis, RNA-dependent DNA methylation, reverse breeding, genome editing, and others. A new table enables efficient comparison of an expanded list of molecular markers, including Allozyme, RFLPs, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, DAMD, AFLP, SNPs and ESTs. Also, new and updated “Industry Highlights” sections provide examples of the practical application of plant breeding methods to real-world problems. This new edition: Organizes topics to reflect the stages of an actual breeding project Incorporates the most recent technologies in the field, such as CRSPR genome edition and grafting on GM stock Includes numerous illustrations and end-of-chapter self-assessment questions, key references, suggested readings, and links to relevant websites Features a companion website containing additional artwork and instructor resources Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding offers researchers and professionals an invaluable resource and remains the ideal textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduates in plant science, particularly those studying plant breeding, biotechnology, and genetics.

The global economy of pulses

The global economy of pulses
  • Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-18
  • Total pages :188
  • ISBN : 9789251097304
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Summary : The production, trade and consumption of pulses have seen substantial growth over the last fifteen years. This report examines the trends and patterns of this growth, and the factors that explain these for different kinds of pulses. The report presents an analysis of trends of consumption of pulses in different regions of the world and discusses the role that pulses can play in human nutrition. The report presents an analysis of the dynamics of growth of major pulses in different pulse-producing countries of the world. It describes the increasingly important role of trade in the global economy of pulses and presents an analysis of changing patterns of trade. The report argues that there is a pressing need to close the large gap between potential and actual yields, particularly on smallholder farms in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, by increased adoption of improved varieties and modern agronomic practices in all developing countries. This in turn requires a major thrust in agricultural research and extension, improving credit availability, and public investment directed at pulse production. The report discusses future prospects and policy imperatives for sustaining the growth of pulse production.