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Chordate Origins and Evolution

Chordate Origins and Evolution
  • Author : Noriyuki Satoh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-14
  • Total pages :220
  • ISBN : 9780128030066
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Summary : Chordate Origins and Evolution: The Molecular Evolutionary Road to Vertebrates focuses on echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins, and others), hemichordates (acorn worms, etc.), cephalochordates (lancelets), urochordates or tunicates (ascidians, larvaceans and others), and vertebrates. In general, evolution of these groups is discussed independently, on a larger scale: ambulacrarians (echi+hemi) and chordates (cephlo+uro+vert). Until now, discussion of these topics has been somewhat fragmented, and this work provides a unified presentation of the essential information. In the more than 150 years since Charles Darwin proposed the concept of the origin of species by means of natural selection, which has profoundly affected all fields of biology and medicine, the evolution of animals (metazoans) has been studied, discussed, and debated extensively. Following many decades of classical comparative morphology and embryology, the 1980s marked a turning point in studies of animal evolution, when molecular biological approaches, including molecular phylogeny (MP), molecular evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), and comparative genomics (CG), began to be employed. There are at least five key events in metazoan evolution, which include the origins of 1) diploblastic animals, such as cnidarians; 2) triploblastic animals or bilaterians; 3) protostomes and deuterostomes; 4) chordates, among deuterostomes; and 5) vertebrates, among chordates. The last two have received special attention in relation to evolution of human beings. During the past two decades, great advances have been made in this field, especially in regard to molecular and developmental mechanisms involved in the evolution of chordates. For example, the interpretation of phylogenetic relationships among deuterostomes has drastically changed. In addition, we have now obtained a large quantity of MP, evo-devo, and CG information on the origin and evolution of chordates. Covers the most significant advances in this field to give readers an understanding of the interesting biological issues involved Provides a unified presentation of essential information regarding each phylum and an integrative understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the origin and evolution of chordates Discusses the evolutionary scenario of chordates based on two major characteristic features of animals—namely modes of feeding (energy sources) and reproduction—as the two main forces driving animal evolution and benefiting dialogue for future studies of animal evolution

Across the Bridge

Across the Bridge
  • Author : Henry Gee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-04
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780226403199
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Summary : Our understanding of vertebrate origins and the backbone of human history evolves with each new fossil find and DNA map. Many species have now had their genomes sequenced, and molecular techniques allow genetic inspection of even non-model organisms. But as longtime Nature editor Henry Gee argues in Across the Bridge, despite these giant strides and our deepening understanding of how vertebrates fit into the tree of life, the morphological chasm between vertebrates and invertebrates remains vast and enigmatic. As Gee shows, even as scientific advances have falsified a variety of theories linking these groups, the extant relatives of vertebrates are too few for effective genetic analysis. Moreover, the more we learn about the species that do remain—from sea-squirts to starfish—the clearer it becomes that they are too far evolved along their own courses to be of much use in reconstructing what the latest invertebrate ancestors of vertebrates looked like. Fossils present yet further problems of interpretation. Tracing both the fast-changing science that has helped illuminate the intricacies of vertebrate evolution as well as the limits of that science, Across the Bridge helps us to see how far the field has come in crossing the invertebrate-to-vertebrate divide—and how far we still have to go.

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience
  • Author : Marc D. Binder,Nobutaka Hirokawa,Uwe Windhorst
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-10-13
  • Total pages :4398
  • ISBN : 3540237356
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Summary : This 5000-page masterwork is literally the last word on the topic and will be an essential resource for many. Unique in its breadth and detail, this encyclopedia offers a comprehensive and highly readable guide to a complex and fast-expanding field. The five-volume reference work gathers more than 10,000 entries, including in-depth essays by internationally known experts, and short keynotes explaining essential terms and phrases. In addition, expert editors contribute detailed introductory chapters to each of 43 topic fields ranging from the fundamentals of neuroscience to fascinating developments in the new, inter-disciplinary fields of Computational Neuroscience and Neurophilosophy. Some 1,000 multi-color illustrations enhance and expand the writings.

Amphioxus Immunity

Amphioxus Immunity
  • Author : An-Long Xu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-31
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780128096475
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Summary : Amphioxus Immunity: Tracing the Origin of Human Immunity covers a remarkable range of information about Amphioxus and its evolutionary context. This compilation of what is currently known about Amphioxus, with a sharp focus on its immune system, includes 13 topics, such as: Amphioxus as a model for understanding the evolution of vertebrates basic knowledge of immunology immune organs and cells of amphioxus a genomic and transcriptomic view of the Amphioxus immunity pattern recognition system in Amphioxus transcription factors in Amphioxus the complement system of Amphioxus the oxidative burst system in Amphioxus immune effectors in Amphioxus lipid signaling of immune response in Amphioxus apoptosis in amphioxus; primitive adaptive immune system of Amphioxus and future research directions This valuable reference book is loaded with information that will be useful for anyone who wishes to learn more about the origin of vertebrates and adaptive immunity. Provides new evidence on the origin of the adaptive immune system, the evolution of innate immunity, and evolution-stage specific immune defense mechanisms Not only presents the cells and molecules involved in the adaptive immune response in Amphioxus, but also characterizes the origination and evolution of the gene families and pathways involved in innate immunity Includes much pioneering work, from the molecular, genomic, and cellular to the individual level

Muscles of Chordates

Muscles of Chordates
  • Author : Rui Diogo,Janine M. Ziermann,Julia Molnar,Natalia Siomava,Virginia Abdala
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-04-17
  • Total pages :650
  • ISBN : 9781351334938
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Summary : Chordates comprise lampreys, hagfishes, jawed fishes, and tetrapods, plus a variety of more unfamiliar and crucially important non-vertebrate animal lineages, such as lancelets and sea squirts. This will be the first book to synthesize, summarize, and provide high-quality illustrations to show what is known of the configuration, development, homology, and evolution of the muscles of all major extant chordate groups. Muscles as different as those used to open the siphons of sea squirts and for human facial communication will be compared, and their evolutionary links will be explained. Another unique feature of the book is that it covers, illustrates, and provides detailed evolutionary tables for each and every muscle of the head, neck and of all paired and median appendages of extant vertebrates.

Heads, Jaws, and Muscles

Heads, Jaws, and Muscles
  • Author : Janine M. Ziermann,Raul E. Diaz Jr,Rui Diogo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-23
  • Total pages :303
  • ISBN : 9783319935607
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Summary : The vertebrate head is the most complex part of the animal body and its diversity in nature reflects a variety of life styles, feeding modes, and ecological adaptations. This book will take you on a journey to discover the origin and diversification of the head, which evolved from a seemingly headless chordate ancestor. Despite their structural diversity, heads develop in a highly conserved fashion in embryos. Major sensory organs like the eyes, ears, nose, and brain develop in close association with surrounding tissues such as bones, cartilages, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. Ultimately, this integrated unit of tissues gives rise to the complex functionality of the musculoskeletal system as a result of sensory and neural feedback, most notably in the use of the vertebrate jaws, a major vertebrate innovation only lacking in hagfishes and lampreys. The cranium subsequently further diversified during the major transition from fishes living in an aquatic environment to tetrapods living mostly on land. In this book, experts will join forces to integrate, for the first time, state-of-the-art knowledge on the anatomy, development, function, diversity, and evolution of the head and jaws and their muscles within all major groups of extant vertebrates. Considerations about and comparisons with fossil taxa, including emblematic groups such as the dinosaurs, are also provided in this landmark book, which will be a leading reference for many years to come.

The Origin of Vertebrates

The Origin of Vertebrates
  • Author : Norman John Berrill
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1955
  • Total pages :257
  • ISBN : UCAL:B4092067
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Summary :

Origin and Evolution of Biodiversity

Origin and Evolution of Biodiversity
  • Author : Pierre Pontarotti
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-27
  • Total pages :361
  • ISBN : 9783319959542
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Summary : The book includes 19 selected contributions presented at the 21st Evolutionary Biology Meeting, which took place in Marseille in September 2017. The chapters are grouped into the following five categories: · Genome/Phenotype Evolution · Self/Nonself Evolution · Origin of Biodiversity · Origin of Life · Concepts The annual Evolutionary Biology Meetings in Marseille serve to gather leading evolutionary biologists and other scientists using evolutionary biology concepts, e.g. for medical research. The aim of these meetings is to promote the exchange of ideas to encourage interdisciplinary collaborations. Offering an up-to-date overview of recent findings in the field of evolutionary biology, this book is in invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and advanced students.

Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids
  • Author : Roger G. Pertwee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-01-14
  • Total pages :772
  • ISBN : 9783540265733
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Summary : Less than 20 years ago the ?eld of cannabis and the cannabinoids was still c- sidered a minor, somewhat quaint, area of research. A few groups were active in the ?eld, but it was already being viewed as stagnating. The chemistry of cannabis 9 9 was well known, ? -tetrahydrocannabinol (? -THC), identi?ed in 1964, being the only major psychoactive constituent and cannabidiol, which is not psychoactive, possibly contributing to some of the effects. These cannabinoids and several s- thetic analogs had been thoroughly investigated for their pharmacological effects. Their mode of action was considered to be non-speci?c. The reasons for this - sumption were both technical and conceptual. On the technical side, it had been shown that THC was active in both enantiomeric forms (though with a different level of potency) and this observation was incompatible with action on biological substrates—a receptor, an enzyme, an ion channel—which react with a single stereoisomer only. The conceptual problem related to THC activity. This had been pointed out by several highly regarded research groups that had shown that many of the effects seen with cannabinoids were related to those of biologically active lipophiles, and that many of the effects of THC, particularly chronic ones, were comparable to those seen with anaesthetics and solvents.

The Biology of Ascidians

The Biology of Ascidians
  • Author : H. Sawada,H. Yokosawa,C.C. Lambert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-29
  • Total pages :470
  • ISBN : 9784431669821
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Summary : Ascidians are the invertebrate group that gave rise to vertebrates, thus the biology of ascidians provides an essential key to understanding both invertebrates and vertebrates. This book is the first to cover all areas of ascidian biology, including development, evolution, biologically active substances, heavy metal accumulation, asexual reproduction, host-defense mechanisms, allorecognition mechanisms, comparative immunology, neuroscience, taxonomy, ecology, genome science, and food science. The 69 articles that make up the collection were contributed by leading ascidiologists from all over the world who participated in the First International Symposium on the Biology of Ascidians, held in June 2000 in Sapporo, Japan. For scientists and students alike, the book is an invaluable source of information from the latest, most comprehensive studies of ascidian biology.

Evolving Neural Crest Cells

Evolving Neural Crest Cells
  • Author : Brian Frank Eames,Daniel Meulemans Medeiros,Igor Adameyko
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-28
  • Total pages :294
  • ISBN : 9781351805919
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Summary : Vertebrates possess lineage-specific characteristics. These include paired anterior sense organs and a robust, modular head skeleton built of cellular cartilage and bone. All of these structures are derived, at least partly, from an embryonic tissue unique vertebrates - the neural crest. The evolutionary history of the neural crest, and neural crest cells, has been difficult to reconstruct. This volume will use a comparative approach to survey the development of the neural crest in vertebrates, and neural crest-like cells, across the metazoa. This information will be used to reveal neural crest evolution and identify the genomic, genetic, and gene-regulatory changes that drove them. Key selling features: Summarizes the data regarding neural crest cells and nerural crest derivatives Uses a broad-based comparative approach Suggests hypothesis that the origin of neural crest cells involved the novel co-activation of ancient metazoan gene programs in neural border cells Illustrates how the emergences of neural crest made possible the diversification of vertebrate heads

The Origin of Chordates

The Origin of Chordates
  • Author : Q. Bone
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1979
  • Total pages :16
  • ISBN : 0892782188
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Summary : "Further reading": p. 16.

Evolutionary Developmental Biology

Evolutionary Developmental Biology
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-02-16
  • Total pages :452
  • ISBN : 9780128149690
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Summary : Evolutionary Developmental Biology, Volume 141 focuses on recent research in evolutionary developmental biology, the science studying how changes in development cause the variations that natural selection operate on. Several new hypotheses and models are presented in this volume, and these concern how homology may be properly delineated, how neural crest and placode cells emerged and how they formed the skull and jaw, and how plasticity and developmental symbiosis enable normal development to be regulated by environmental factors. •New models for homology •New hypotheses for the generation of chordates •New models for the roles of plasticity and symbionts in normal development

Evolution and Development of Fishes

Evolution and Development of Fishes
  • Author : Zerina Johanson,Charlie Underwood,Martha Richter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-10
  • Total pages :280
  • ISBN : 9781107179448
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Summary : World-class palaeontologists and biologists summarise the state-of-the-art on fish evolution and development.

Vertebrate Photoreceptors

Vertebrate Photoreceptors
  • Author : Takahisa Furukawa,James B. Hurley,Satoru Kawamura
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-15
  • Total pages :349
  • ISBN : 9784431548805
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Summary : This book provides a series of comprehensive views on various important aspects of vertebrate photoreceptors. The vertebrate retina is a tissue that provides unique experimental advantages to neuroscientists. Photoreceptor neurons are abundant in this tissue and they are readily identifiable and easily isolated. These features make them an outstanding model for studying neuronal mechanisms of signal transduction, adaptation, synaptic transmission, development, differentiation, diseases and regeneration. Thanks to recent advances in genetic analysis, it also is possible to link biochemical and physiological investigations to understand the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate photoreceptors within a functioning retina in a living animal. Photoreceptors are the most deeply studied sensory receptor cells, but readers will find that many important questions remain. We still do not know how photoreceptors, visual pigments and their signaling pathways evolved, how they were generated and how they are maintained. This book will make clear what is known and what is not known. The chapters are selected from fields of studies that have contributed to a broad understanding of the birth, development, structure, function and death of photoreceptor neurons. The underlying common word in all of the chapters that is used to describe these mechanisms is “molecule”. Only with this word can we understand how these highly specific neurons function and survive. It is challenging for even the foremost researchers to cover all aspects of the subject. Understanding photoreceptors from several different points of view that share a molecular perspective will provide readers with a useful interdisciplinary perspective.

An Introduction to the Invertebrates

An Introduction to the Invertebrates
  • Author : Janet Moore
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-09-21
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781139458474
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Summary : So much has to be crammed into today's biology courses that basic information on animal groups and their evolutionary origins is often left out. This is particularly true for the invertebrates. The second edition of Janet Moore's An Introduction to the Invertebrates fills this gap by providing a short updated guide to the invertebrate phyla, looking at their diverse forms, functions and evolutionary relationships. This book first introduces evolution and modern methods of tracing it, then considers the distinctive body plan of each invertebrate phylum showing what has evolved, how the animals live, and how they develop. Boxes introduce physiological mechanisms and development. The final chapter explains uses of molecular evidence and presents an up-to-date view of evolutionary history, giving a more certain definition of the relationships between invertebrates. This user-friendly and well-illustrated introduction will be invaluable for all those studying invertebrates.

Modern Text Book of Zoology: Invertebrates

Modern Text Book of Zoology: Invertebrates
  • Author : Prof. R.L.Kotpal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :883
  • ISBN : 8171339034
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Summary :

Before the Backbone

Before the Backbone
  • Author : H. Gee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-07-27
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780585252728
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Summary : We cannot catechise our stony ichthyolites, as did the necromantic lady of the Arabian Nights did the coloured fishes of the lake which had once been a city, when she touched their dead bodies with her wand, and they straightaway raised their heads and rephed to her queries. We would have many a question to ask them if we could - questions never to be solved. Hugh Miller, The Old Red Sandstone When I started this book in 1991, the subject of vertebrate origins was fusty and unfashionable. Early drafts for this preface read like an extend ed complaint at the lot of traditional morphologists, cast aside by the march of modern molecular biology. But no longer - this book should reach you at a time of renewed inter est in the origin of the vertebrates, our own particular corner of creation. For although the topic has excited interest for well over a century, molec ular biology has only lately achieved the maturity necessary to test its predictions. As a legitimate field of study, it is fashionable again.

Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 6

Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 6
  • Author : Andreas Wanninger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-11
  • Total pages :214
  • ISBN : 9783709118566
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Summary : This multi-author, six-volume work summarizes our current knowledge on the developmental biology of all major invertebrate animal phyla. The main aspects of cleavage, embryogenesis, organogenesis and gene expression are discussed in an evolutionary framework. Each chapter presents an in-depth yet concise overview of both classical and recent literature, supplemented by numerous color illustrations and micrographs of a given animal group. The largely taxon-based chapters are supplemented by essays on topical aspects relevant to modern-day EvoDevo research such as regeneration, embryos in the fossil record, homology in the age of genomics and the role of EvoDevo in the context of reconstructing evolutionary and phylogenetic scenarios. A list of open questions at the end of each chapter may serve as a source of inspiration for the next generation of EvoDevo scientists. Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates is a must-have for any scientist, teacher or student interested in developmental and evolutionary biology as well as in general invertebrate zoology. This chapter is dedicated to the Deuterostomia, comprising the Echinodermata and Hemichordata (usually grouped together as the Ambulacraria) as well as the Cephalochordata and the Tunicata.

The Origin and Evolution of Mammals

The Origin and Evolution of Mammals
  • Author : T. S. Kemp
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :331
  • ISBN : 9780198507611
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Summary : Mammals are the dominant large animals of today, occurring in virtually every environment. This book is an account of the remarkable 320 million year long fossil record that documents their origin, their long spell as no more than small, nocturnal creatures, and their explosive radiation since the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Tom Kemp also unveils the exciting molecular evidence, which, coupled with important new fossils, is presently challenging current thinking on the interrelationships and historical biogeography of mammals. The Origin and Evolution of Mammals will be of interest to advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in vertebrate palaeontology, biogeography, mammalian systematics and molecular taxonomy. It will also be welcomed by vertebrate fossil enthusiasts and evolutionary biologists of all levels with an interest in macroevolutionary problems.

The Ancestor's Tale

The Ancestor's Tale
  • Author : Richard Dawkins,Yan Wong
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :673
  • ISBN : 061861916X
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Summary : A renowned biologist provides a sweeping chronicle of more than four billion years of life on Earth, shedding new light on evolutionary theory and history, sexual selection, speciation, extinction, and genetics.