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Chromatin

Chromatin
  • Author : Kensal E. van Holde
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :497
  • ISBN : 9781461234906
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Summary : Contemporary views on the structure and function of chromatin are presented and the history of the development of these ideas as well as the nature of the nucleic acid and protein components of chromatin are reviewed. The structure of chromatin is studied at several levels, and its modes of transcription and replication are analyzed. Chromatin provides researchers with a critical evaluation of current knowledge. It combines much information that has never before been assembled, and evaluates and interrelates it in a critical way. This has not been done before so that readers are not only provided with an overview, but with extensive references to the literature (there are about 2000 references in all).

Chromatin

Chromatin
  • Author : Alan P. Wolffe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-07-29
  • Total pages :447
  • ISBN : 9780080529134
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Summary : The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active involvement in the processes of DNA transcription, replication and repair. This book consistently interrelates the structure of eukaryotic DNA with the nuclear processes it undergoes, and will be essential reading for students and molecular biologists who want to really understand how DNA works. Key Features * Written in a clear and concise fashion * Includes 60 new illustrations * Extensively rewritten * Brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years

Fundamentals of Chromatin

Fundamentals of Chromatin
  • Author : Jerry L. Workman,Susan M. Abmayr
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-04
  • Total pages :587
  • ISBN : 9781461486244
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Summary : ​​​​​​​​​​​​​While there has been an increasing number of books on various aspects of epigenetics, there has been a gap over the years in books that provide a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of chromatin. ​Chromatin is the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the genetic material of chromosomes. Its primary function is to package DNA to fit into the cell, to strengthen the DNA to prevent damage, to allow mitosis and meiosis, and to control the expression of genes and DNA replication. The audience for this book is mainly newly established scientists ​and graduate students. Rather than going into the more specific areas of recent research on chromatin the chapters in this book give a strong, updated groundwork about the topic. Some the fundamentals that this book will cover include the structure of chromatin and biochemistry and the enzyme complexes that manage it.

Chromatin and Gene Regulation

Chromatin and Gene Regulation
  • Author : Bryan M. Turner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-04-15
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780470751671
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Summary : Written in an informal and accessible style, Chromatin and Gene Regulation enables the reader to understand the science of this rapidly moving field. Chromatin is a fundamental component in the network of controls that regulates gene expression. Many human diseases have been linked to disruption of these control processes by genetic or environmental factors, and unravelling the mechanisms by which they operate is one of the most exciting and rapidly developing areas of modern biology. Chromatin is central both to the rapid changes in gene transcription by which cells respond to changes in their environment and also to the maintenance of gene expression patterns from one cell generation to the next. This book will be an invaluable guide to undergraduate and postgraduate students in the biological sciences and all those with an interest in the medical implications of aberrant gene expression.

Bacterial Chromatin

Bacterial Chromatin
  • Author : Claudio O. Gualerzi,Cynthia L. Pon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :227
  • ISBN : 9783642712661
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Summary : This book brings together various contributions aimed at the elucida tion of the structural and functional organization of the bacterial nucleoid. Most of these papers, spanning the fields of physical chemistry through biochemistry to genetics, were presented at the session on bac terial chromatin during the Symposium "Selected topics on chromatin structure and function" held at the University of Camerino, Italy, at the end of May 1985. Times when the bacterial DNA was regarded as "naked" or, at most, complexed with polyamines, and when the absence of histones and organized chromatin was considered to be a distinct feature of the pro karyotic cell, now appear remote. Our concepts of how DNA is packaged in bacteria are changing rapidly. Studies on the structure of the bacterial nucleoid are not new. Recently, however, investigations in this field have flourished again, leading to some important contributions such as the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of what appears to be the major protein constituent of the bacterial nucleoid or the development of methods to titrate the extent of DNA supercoiling within the bacterial cell.

Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics

Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics
  • Author : Anita Göndör
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-25
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9780128034026
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Summary : Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics integrates knowledge on the dynamic regulation of primary chromatin fiber with the 3D nuclear architecture, then connects related processes to circadian regulation of cellular metabolic states, representing a paradigm of adaptation to environmental changes. The final chapters discuss the many ways chromatin dynamics can synergize to fundamentally contribute to the development of complex diseases. Chromatin dynamics, which is strategically positioned at the gene-environment interface, is at the core of disease development. As such, Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics, part of the Translational Epigenetics series, facilitates the flow of information between research areas such as chromatin regulation, developmental biology, and epidemiology by focusing on recent findings of the fast-moving field of chromatin regulation. Presents and discusses novel principles of chromatin regulation and dynamics with a cross-disciplinary perspective Promotes crosstalk between basic sciences and their applications in medicine Provides a framework for future studies on complex diseases by integrating various aspects of chromatin biology with cellular metabolic states, with an emphasis on the dynamic nature of chromatin and stochastic principles Integrates knowledge on the dynamic regulation of primary chromatin fiber with 3D nuclear architecture, then connects related processes to circadian regulation of cellular metabolic states, representing a paradigm of adaptation to environmental changes

Chromatin Protocols

Chromatin Protocols
  • Author : Srikumar P. Chellappan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-23
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 1493956264
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Summary : Significant advancements have been made in the study of chromatin structure and function over the past fifty years but none as spectacular as those made in the last decade due to the development of novel techniques and the ability to sequence large stretches of DNA. In Chromatin Protocols, Second Edition, expert researchers delineate these cutting-edge techniques via step-by-step laboratory methods and protocols, which encompass a wide array of topics from the isolation of nucleosomes, assembly of nucleosomes and study of the basic chromatin structure to detailed analysis of histone modifications and chromatin function. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series style, chapters include brief introductions to the subjects, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, readily reproducible protocols, and Notes sections which highlight tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and up-to-date, Chromatin Protocols, Second Edition is a valuable tool for scientists studying various aspects of chromatin function and an ideal guide to aid in the development of new techniques as well as new ideas in the field of chromatin biology.

Protein Complexes that Modify Chromatin

Protein Complexes that Modify Chromatin
  • Author : Jerry L. Workman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :298
  • ISBN : 9783642557477
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Summary : An early view of eukaryotic chromosomes was that of static structures, which stored DNA not in use within a given cell type. It was thought that packaging of DNA into higher levels of chromatin structure would suffice to repress gene expression and that the challenge to the cell would be to rescue specific sequences from these structures. The exten sive packaging of inactive DNA was considered the primary difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and except for that point both would be similarly regulated by cis-acting sequences and trans acting factors. Our view of eukaryotic chromosomes has evolved dra matically over the last decade. The picture of chromosomes that is emerging is that of dynamic breathing organelles actively regulating the flow of genetic information from the genome. Indeed chromatin is so fluid that even maintaining gene quiescence is an active process and is tightly regulated. Chromatin dynamics is a consequence of protein complexes that modify histones, remove histone modifications, mobi lize nucleosomes or stabilize nucleosomes. Awide variety of such com plexes have now been described. Some are abundant and may play glo bal roles in chromosome fluidity and function. Others are more rare and specialized for specific functions at discreet loci. Moreover, several complexes share biochemical activities and genetic studies suggest overlapping functions in vivo. Many components of these complexes were first revealed in genetic screens, while others were discovered by novel cell biological or biochemical approaches.

Epigenetics and Chromatin

Epigenetics and Chromatin
  • Author : Philippe Jeanteur
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-09-10
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 3540852360
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Summary : Epigenetics refers to heritable patterns of gene expression which do not depend on alterations of genomic DNA sequence. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of a few selected hot spots by scientists at the edge in this extremely active field. It puts special emphasis on two main streams of research. One is the role of post-translational modifications of proteins, mostly histones, on chromatin structure and accessibility. The other one deals with parental genomic imprinting, a process which allows to express a few selected genes from only one of the parental allele while extinguishing the other.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell
  • Author : Bruce Alberts
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 0815332181
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Summary :

RNA-Chromatin Interactions

RNA-Chromatin Interactions
  • Author : Ulf Andersson Vang Ørom
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-06
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 1071606794
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Summary : This volume focuses on RNAs interacting with chromatin and their function. Chapters guide readers through transcription, splicing, non-coding RNA function and manipulation of gene expression. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, RNA-Chromatin Interactions: Methods and Protocols aims to be a starting-point to expand researchers experimental approaches towards the numerous outstanding questions in this new and expanding field.

Nucleosomes, Histones and Chromatin

Nucleosomes, Histones and Chromatin
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-31
  • Total pages :390
  • ISBN : 9780123919410
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Summary : This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. The first of 2 volumes covering nucleosomes, histones and chromatin, it has chapters on methods applied to the study of protein arginine methylation, high-resolution identification of intra- and interchromosomal DNA interactions by 4C technology, and peptide arrays to interrogate the binding specificity of chromatin-binding proteins. Continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field The first of 2 volumes covering nucleosomes, histones and chromatin Chapters on methods applied to the study of protein arginine methylation, high-resolution identification of intra- and interchromosomal DNA interactions by 4C technology, and peptide arrays to interrogate the binding specificity of chromatin-binding proteins

A Clinician's Guide to Sperm DNA and Chromatin Damage

A Clinician's Guide to Sperm DNA and Chromatin Damage
  • Author : Armand Zini,Ashok Agarwal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-05
  • Total pages :605
  • ISBN : 9783319718156
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Summary : This comprehensive, up-to-date text, which brings together the key practical elements of the rapidly evolving field of sperm DNA and chromatin abnormalities, is divided thematically into five main sections. Part I discusses human sperm chromatin structure and nuclear architecture, while part II presents laboratory evaluation of sperm DNA damage, including SCSA, SCD, TUNEL and Comet assays, and cytochemical tests. Biological and clinical factors in the etiology of sperm DNA damage are discussed in part III, including oxidative stress, abortive apoptosis, cancer, and environmental and lifestyle factors. Part IV presents clinical studies on the utility of sperm DNA damage tests, both with natural and ART-assisted pregnancies, and debates the clinical utility of such tests. Finally, part V discusses current treatment options, such as antioxidant therapy, varicocelectomy, advanced sperm processing techniques and the use of testicular sperm. We are now beginning to better understand the unique organization of the sperm chromatin, as well as the nature and etiology of sperm DNA damage. Written and edited by worldwide experts in andrology, A Clinician's Guide to Sperm DNA and Chromatin Damage is an excellent resource for reproductive medicine and REI specialists, urologists, reproductive biologists and any professional working with the infertile male.

Bacterial Chromatin

Bacterial Chromatin
  • Author : Remus T. Dame,Charles J. Dorman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-12-24
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9048134730
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Summary : The birth and the development of molecular biology and, subsequently, of genetic engineering and biotechnology cannot be separated from the advancements in our knowledge of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of bacteria and bacter- phages. Also most of the tools employed nowadays by biotechnologists are of bacterial (or bacteriophage) origin and the playground for most of the DNA manipulations still remains within bacteria. The relative simplicity of the bacterial cell, the short gene- tion times, the well defined and inexpensive culturing conditions which characterize bacteria and the auto-catalytic process whereby a wealth of in-depth information has been accumulated throughout the years have significantly contributed to generate a large number of knowledge-based, reliable and exploitable biological systems. The subtle relationships between phages and their hosts have produced a large amount of information and allowed the identification and characterization of a number of components which play essential roles in fundamental biological p- cesses such as DNA duplication, recombination, transcription and translation. For instance, to remain within the topic of this book, two important players in the or- nization of the nucleoid, FIS and IHF, have been discovered in this way. Indeed, it is difficult to find a single fundamental biological process whose structural and functional aspects are better known than in bacteria.

Chromatin Signaling and Neurological Disorders

Chromatin Signaling and Neurological Disorders
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-24
  • Total pages :378
  • ISBN : 9780128137970
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Summary : Chromatin Signaling and Neurological Disorders, Volume Seven, explores our current understanding of how chromatin signaling regulates access to genetic information, and how their aberrant regulation can contribute to neurological disorders. Researchers, students and clinicians will not only gain a strong grounding on the relationship between chromatin signaling and neurological disorders, but they'll also discover approaches to better interpret and employ new diagnostic studies and epigenetic-based therapies. A diverse range of chapters from international experts speaks to the basis of chromatin and epigenetic signaling pathways and specific chromatin signaling factors that regulate a range of diseases. In addition to the basic science of chromatin signaling factors, each disease-specific chapter speaks to the translational or clinical significance of recent findings, along with important implications for the development of epigenetics-based therapeutics. Common themes of translational significance are also identified across disease types, as well as the future potential of chromatin signaling research. Examines specific chromatin signaling factors that regulate spinal muscular atrophy, ulbospinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Angelman syndrome, Rader-Willi syndrome, and more Contains chapter contributions from international experts who speak to the clinical significance of recent findings and the implications for the development of epigenetics-based therapeutics Provides researchers, students and clinicians with approaches to better interpret and employ new diagnostic studies for treating neurological disorders

Systems Analysis of Chromatin-Related Protein Complexes in Cancer

Systems Analysis of Chromatin-Related Protein Complexes in Cancer
  • Author : Andrew Emili,Jack Greenblatt,Shoshana Wodak
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-13
  • Total pages :316
  • ISBN : 9781461479314
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Summary : ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Epigenetic modifications underlie all aspects of human physiology, including stem cell renewal, formation of cell types and tissues. They also underlie environmental impacts on human health, including aging and diseases like cancer. Consequently, cracking the epigenetic "code" is considered a key challenge in biomedical research. Chromatin structure and function are modified by protein complexes, causing genes to be turned “on” or “off” and controlling other aspects of DNA function. Yet while there has been explosive growth in the epigenetics field, human chromatin-modifying machines have only recently started to be characterized. To meet this challenge, our book explores complementary experimental tracks, pursued by expert international research groups, aimed at the physical and functional characterization of the diverse repertoire of chromatin protein machines - namely, the "readers, writers and erasers" of epigenomic marks. These studies include the identification of RNA molecules and drugs that interact selectively with components of the chromatin machinery. What makes this book distinctive is its emphasis on the systematic exploration of chromatin protein complexes in the context of human development and disease networks.

Plant Chromatin Dynamics

Plant Chromatin Dynamics
  • Author : Marian Bemer,Célia Baroux
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-23
  • Total pages :659
  • ISBN : 1493984519
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Summary : This volume provides a comprehensive collection of protocols that can be used to study plant chromatin structure and composition. Chapters divided into three sections detail the profiling of chromatin features in relation to epigenetic regulation, investigate the interaction between chromatin modifications and gene regulation, and explore the 3D spatial organization of the chromatin inside the nucleus. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Plant Chromatin Dynamics: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field.

Chromatin Structure and Gene Expression

Chromatin Structure and Gene Expression
  • Author : Sarah C. Elgin,Sarah C. R. Elgin,Jerry L. Workman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :328
  • ISBN : 019963890X
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Summary : Chromosome structure plays a central role in regulation of gene expression. Chromatin Structure and Gene Expression Second Edition examines chromatin from the crystal structure of the nucleosome to the spacial organization of chromosomes, integrating biochemical and genetic evidence to examine the macromolecular complexes that modify chromatin structure to achieve gene regulation.

Chromatin

Chromatin
  • Author : Hannah Gould
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :231
  • ISBN : UOM:39015047072353
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Summary : Chromatin comprises the complex of nucleic acids and proteins that make up the chromosomes, and regulation of its structure is increasingly recognized as an important factor in gene expression. Researchers from related fields needing an introduction to the methodology of chromatin will findthis book invaluable, as will experienced workers.Contents: Isolation and fractionation of chromatin and linker histones; Extraction and separation of core histones and non-histone chromosomal proteins; Mapping chromatin structure in Drosophila; In vivo footprint and chromatin analysis by LMPCR; Analysis of nuclear scaffold attachment regions;Electron microscopy of chromatin; Counting nucleosome cores on circular DNA using topoisomerase I; In vitro reconstitution of chromatin and analysis of nucleosome positioning; Transcriptional and structural analysis of chromatin assembled in vivo; An assembly of chromatin and nuclear structures inXenopus egg extracts; Appendix: List of Suppliers; Index

Chromatin Architecture

Chromatin Architecture
  • Author : Kirti Prakash
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-20
  • Total pages :152
  • ISBN : 9783319521831
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Summary : This book sheds new light on the current state of knowledge concerning chromatin organization. Particular emphasis is given to the new imaging potential offered by super-resolution microscopy, which allows DNA imaging with a very high labeling density. From the early work on chromosomes by Walther Flemming in the nineteenth century to recent advances in genomics, the history of chromatin research now spans more than a century. The various milestones, such as the discovery of the double helix structure, the sequencing of the human genome, and the recent description of the genome in 3D space, show that understanding chromatin and chromosome function requires a clear understanding of its structure. Presenting cutting-edge data from super-resolution single molecule microscopy, the book demonstrates that chromatin manifests several levels of folding, from nucleosomes to chromosomes. Chromatin domains emerge as a new fundamental building block of chromatin architecture, with functions possibly related to gene regulation. A detailed description of chromatin folding in the pachytene stage of meiosis serves as a model for exploring this functionality, showing the apparent interplay between structure, function, and epigenetic regulation. Lastly, the book discusses possible new avenues of innovation to describe chromatin’s organization and functions. Gathering essential insights on chromatin architecture, the book offers students an introduction to microscopy and its application to chromatin organization, while also providing advanced readers with new ideas for future research.

Chromatin Signaling and Diseases

Chromatin Signaling and Diseases
  • Author : Olivier Binda,Martin Ernesto Fernandez-Zapico
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-06
  • Total pages :466
  • ISBN : 9780128026090
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Summary : Chromatin Signaling and Diseases covers the molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which govern everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging, such as cancer. This book helps researchers learn about or keep up with the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling. After reading this book, clinicians will be more capable of explaining the mechanisms of gene expression regulation to their patients to reassure them about new drug developments that target chromatin signaling mechanisms. For example, several epigenetic drugs that act on chromatin signaling factors are in clinical trials or even approved for usage in cancer treatments, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. Other epigenetic drugs are in development to regulate various class of chromatin signaling factors. To keep up with this changing landscape, clinicians and doctors will need to stay familiar with genetic advances that translate to clinical practice, such as chromatin signaling. Although sequencing of the human genome was completed over a decade ago and its structure investigated for nearly half a century, molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression remain largely misunderstood. An emerging concept called chromatin signaling proposes that small protein domains recognize chemical modifications on the genome scaffolding histone proteins, facilitating the nucleation of enzymatic complexes at specific loci that then open up or shut down the access to genetic information, thereby regulating gene expression. The addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, as well as the proteins that specifically recognize these, is reviewed in Chromatin Signaling and Diseases. Finally, the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling is also explored. Explains molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which governs everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging Educates clinicians and researchers about chromatin signaling, a molecular mechanism that is changing our understanding of human pathology Explores the addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, the proteins that specifically recognize these, and the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling Helps researchers learn about the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling