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Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Rainer Matyssek,P. Cudlin,T. N. Mikkelsen,N. Clarke,J-P. Tuovinen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-01
  • Total pages :622
  • ISBN : 0080983499
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Summary : There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research" for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services. Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780080983424
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Summary : There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services. Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Rainer Matyssek,Nicholas Clarke,Pavel Cudlin,Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Gerhard Wieser,Elena Paoletti
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055533
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Summary : This chapter outlines the aims and scope of the book. An introduction is given to the current status of knowledge which is presented on the topic of the book. Arguments are presented for writing the book, in view of continued, long-term and process-based research needed for mitigating ecological and socio-economic risks to forests under global change. The book will conclude on suggestions for decision making and reasons for continued funding of related research.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Andrzej Bytnerowicz,Mark Fenn,Steven McNulty,Fengming Yuan,Afshin Pourmokhtarian,Charles Driscoll,Tom Meixner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055687
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Summary : A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have significant ecological importance only at much smaller geographic scales. Complex interactive effects of air pollution and CC for selected future CC scenarios are reviewed. In addition, simulations of past, present, and future hydrologic, nutrient, and growth changes caused by interactive effects of air pollution and CC are described for two U.S. forest ecosystems. Impacts of O3, N deposition, and CC on growth and hydrology of mixed conifer forests in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California were projected with the DayCent model. Effects of N deposition, CO2 fertilization, N deposition, and CC on northern hardwood forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire were simulated with the PnET-BGC model. Projected changes in these forests can influence the provision of ecosystem services such as C sequestration and water supply. The extent of these effects will vary depending on the future intensity and extent of CC, air pollutant emission levels, the distribution of air pollution, and other factors such as drought, pest outbreaks, fire, etc. Our chapter ends with research and management recommendations intended to increase our ability to cope with uncertainties related to the future interactive effects of multiple air pollutants, atmospheric deposition, CC, and other biotic and abiotic stressors.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Alessandra R. Kozovits,Mercedes M.C. Bustamante
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055717
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Summary : Over recent decades, climate changes, especially revealed through alteration in rainfall patterns, with apparent intensification of the dry season, have been documented throughout Latin America. At the same time, this region of the globe has displayed strong economic growth along with profound changes in land use and emission of air pollutants. Long-term studies have shown that functional groups of plants from tropical and sub-tropical rainforests and savannas, the largest and most diverse biomes in the region, present different sensitivities to climate change, increasing CO2 and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, for example, resulting in evident changes in community structure and dynamics. In general, these factors have led to a reduction in plant diversity. Ozone, though less studied in the region, has been monitored in the major urban centres, and its relation to land use change, as through biomass burning, has become evident. The main results of plant responses to pollutants and climate change are presented.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Pavel Cudlín,Josef Seják,Jan Pokorný,Jana Albrechtová,Olaf Bastian,Michal Marek
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055762
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Summary : Forests provide many supporting, regulating and cultural services. Extensive environmental changes have resulted in a substantial loss or degradation of forest ecosystem services (ES). Unclear interactions of climate-change phenomena make it difficult to estimate forest ES. Research on interactive effects of climate change and air pollution has become a central issue in forest science during the past decade. Climate change in interaction with air pollution brings novel combinations of severity and timing of multiple stresses, which may significantly affect many forest ES. The aims of the present chapter are to identify basic concepts of evaluating ES with a focus on forest ES, to provide physiological and ecological bases for their evaluation, and to discuss the interactive effects of climate change and air pollution on forest ES based on selected tree physiological functions. Climate regulation mediated by deforestation-induced changes in the hydrological cycle is discussed. Adaptive governance and communication to the public promotes sustainable forest–multi-stakeholder collaboration. A case study is presented evaluating selected ES in a forest–agricultural landscape in the Czech Republic on the basis of monitored energy, water and material flows estimation. From this study, it is apparent that future research must include multi-factorial anthropogenic and natural interactions of climatic changes and air pollution in conjunction with sustainable forest ES provisions. Sustainable forest management is an essential tool for reducing the vulnerability of forests to environmental change.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Dieter Ernst
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055663
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Summary : This chapter focuses on the ozone-affected transcriptional responses of juvenile and mature trees under controlled greenhouse and free-air exposure systems. Transcriptional changes are compared to proteomic and metabolite analyses, and short-term changes (acute exposure) to long-term effects (chronic exposure). Free-air exposure systems designed to scale up molecular studies of ozone responses in mature trees at the ecosystem level are reviewed. New technologies, for example, high-throughput methods that integrate genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, contribute to a deeper insight into the physiological processes of forest trees that affect climate change. Therefore, integrated ‘omic’ analyses are important to understand tree responses to abiotic stress and/or global change at the biological system level.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Vivek Pandey,Elina Oksanen,Nandita Singh,Chhemendra Sharma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055700
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Summary : The air pollution and greenhouse gas emission problem has been exacerbated in India due to large population increase and rapid economic growth. The Indo-Gangetic Plains of Northern India, one of the most fertile regions of the world, has become one of the most polluted regions. The region has emerged as a ‘hot spot’ for air pollution, especially ozone (O3), threatening food-grain production. The air quality data show large parts of India suffering from high pollution load. Unfortunately, O3 monitoring is still in its infancy. There are reports of O3-caused yield and biomass losses in crops ranging between 10% and 51%, offsetting a significant portion of the Gross Domestic Productivity growth rate. There are no O3 experiments conducted with Indian tree species, but the crop losses suggest that O3 may have a deleterious impact also in long-lived trees in the Indian area. There is a critical need to study how O3will impact trees and forest ecosystems.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Rainer Matyssek,Thomas Knoke,Nicholas Clarke,Pavel Cudlin,Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Gerhard Wieser,Elena Paoletti
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055793
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Summary : Conclusions from the individual chapters are integrated into a synopsis, covering achievements and perspectives, and linking challenges for natural and social sciences, provisioning ecosystem services (ESs) under environmental change. The required research and policy making are facilitated by novel understanding of ecosystem functioning and internal factorial interactions with the atmosphere. A basis is provided through methodological progress for establishing forest research ‘supersites’ within global research networks, possessing capacities for creating generic mechanistic knowledge of ecological relevance. On such grounds, provisioning versus regulating ESs must accommodate diversification in the joint production of agricultural and forestry goods, backed by integrative bioeconomic land-use modelling. Advancement requires forest ecosystem-level unification of air pollution and climate change research while strengthening communication between experimentalists, monitoring experts, modellers, policy makers and stakeholders towards tool development for reliable risk assessment. A critical and appreciative view of forest functions and services is demanded in relation to the (post-)Kyoto debate.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Maria Nijnik,David Miller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055779
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Summary : Contemporary societies expect a range of services (including of carbon sequestration) to be supplied from forest ecosystems. Their growing societal importance is clearly reflected in policies. The conceptual framework for the states that people are integral parts of ecosystems and that a dynamic interaction exists between them and other parts of ecosystems. This approach encompasses social, economic and environmental interactions, and the dynamics and cross scale issues that have multiple outcomes. However, forest multifunctionality is a challenge since the combination of multiple ecosystem services may be very different and dependent on a high number of factors. Stakeholder priorities with respect to individual ecosystem services may be variable, as may be a range of stakeholders. Reflexive, participatory and multilevel governance, in a continuous process of its adjustment, needs therefore to be developed to enable forestry decision-makers to consider existing opinions and behavioural patterns of the diverse stakeholders who drive the forestry change and respond to it. In such a retrospective, numerous questions have arisen, among which the integration of carbon sequestration into multifunctional forestry is among priorities. Carbon forestry enables society to buy time for development of low carbon and decarbonisation technologies; while its integration into multifunctional land use offers innovation, employment and new markets, with locally and regionally oriented value chains. This particularly concerns remote areas where forestry could foster socio-economic development and combine it with the enhancement of nature and rural landscape. However, the question: how to multiply synergies and balance trade-offs merits attention. Fostering resilience of forestry systems to climate change necessitates the establishment of an appropriate framework, because, although multipurpose afforestation may result in lower rates of carbon sequestration, it is expected to be more attractive to people as it will provide additional benefits and will promote sustainable development.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Elena Paoletti,Wim de Vries,Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen,Andreas Ibrom,K.S. Larsen,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Yussuf Serengil,I. Yurtseven,Gerhard Wieser,Rainer Matyssek
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055755
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Summary : Untangling the complex effects that different air pollution and climate change factors cause to forest ecosystems is challenging. Supersites, that is, comprehensive measurement sites where research and monitoring of the whole soil–plant–atmosphere system can be carried out, are suggested as a refinement of the current monitoring and research efforts in Europe. This chapter identifies and discusses key measurements to be carried out at such supersites, with a focus on four topical subjects: the carbon, nitrogen, ozone and water budgets. This kind of holistic approach is vital to a realistic translation of the ongoing changes in climate and air quality into research on the impacts on forest ecosystems. Such an integrated effort requires a considerable use of resources at highly instrumented measurement sites and can only be achieved by building on existing infrastructures.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Rainer Matyssek,Gerhard Wieser,Frank Fleischmann,Ludger Grünhage
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055588
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Summary : Empirical evidence underlines enhanced ground-level O3 regimes as components of global change, although interaction responses of forest trees and ecosystems have only recently been addressed by research. One case study is the tree-level Kranzberg Forest Experiment, having been resumed for envisioning “next-generation” ecosystem-level O3 research. Quantifying enhanced O3 impact is highlighted as part of a multi-factorial, abiotic–biotic interaction network of experiments and monitoring sites, which challenge the required quantitative predictability of the plasticity, and hence, extent and risk in system response, given the significance of forests as global determinants of carbon storage and sequestration. Here, we outline such integrated research concepts, cross-linking experimentation, monitoring and modelling to scale up O3 responses from internal tree processes towards zonobiomic spatio-temporal scales. The availability of conceptual and methodological means as pre-requisites is emphasized. The relevance of respective research for providing spin-offs within socio-economic contexts related to biogenic energy production and CO2 emission trading is examined.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : John King,Lingli Liu,Michael Aspinwall
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055618
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Summary : Goods and services provided by forests will be needed in greater amounts in the coming decades, yet are threatened by climate change and air pollution. In this chapter, we survey the peer-reviewed literature on elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and tropospheric O3 (eO3) interaction experiments, and discuss implications of results for policy development and social welfare. We located 58 studies reporting data on physiology, biomass production, litter quality and decomposition. Studies were abundant for young and intermediate ages, but non-existent for mature forests. Most plant parameters increased with exposure to eCO2, decreased under eO3 and were often intermediate for the eCO2×eO3 interaction, though this latter treatment was not always statistically significant. Current environmental policy could make better use of existing science, but more work, especially on mature forest ecosystems, is needed in step with process-model development to better predict forest responses and guide policy for future changes in air quality and climate.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Takayoshi Koike,Makoto Watanabe,Yasutomo Hoshika,Mitsutoshi Kitao,Hideyuki Matsumura,R. Funada,Takeshi Izuta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055694
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Summary : Air pollution, especially ozone, in East and Southeast Asia is considered to be more serious than in Europe and North America. An increase in ozone concentration may lead to adverse effects on forest trees in East and Southeast Asia where we have high species richness. Although some information on the effects of ozone on plantation tree species in East Asia is available, the situation of most countries in Southeast Asia is not clarified. In Japan, advanced methodologies such as the stomatal flux-based approach, use of a free-air ozone fumigation system and stand level studies have started recently. To maintain ecosystem services of forests such as carbon sink and conservation of biodiversity, there is a need to develop our understanding of the effect of ozone on vegetation in East and Southeast Asia. To this end, international cooperative research is important.

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Improving Air Quality

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Improving Air Quality
  • Author : Larry E. Erickson,Gary Brase
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-18
  • Total pages :164
  • ISBN : 9781351116565
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Summary : The world’s atmosphere is a common resource. Air quality, along with energy, transportation, and climate change have significant impacts on our lives and this book helps readers understand the changes happening at the nexus of these areas, as they relate to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality. Discussing the transitions to electric vehicles, solar and wind energy for electricity generation, battery developments, smart grids and electric power management, and progress in the electrification of agricultural technology, it also provides the latest information in the context of the United Nations sustainable development goals and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. Features: Includes content on how to improve urban air quality in large cities and urban environments. Effectively addresses the nexus of energy, transportation, air quality, climate change and health. Discusses innovative concepts at the nexus of renewable energy, smart grid, electric vehicles, and electric power management. Describes recent progress in meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Written for a wide audience by world experts in sustainability. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission and Improving Air Quality: Two Interrelated Global Challenges, is an invaluable book for professionals and academics at the center of changes relating to solar and wind energy, electric vehicles, and charging infrastructure, including government officials, community leaders, researchers, students, and interested citizens. It is also an excellent text for classes that address sustainability, particularly for those focused on transportation and energy.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Jörg Kruse,Judy Simon,Heinz Rennenberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055595
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Summary : Climate change will likely affect the carbon balance of terrestrial soils via shifts in photosynthetic carbon input relative to soil respiratory CO2 loss. This review is focused on the effects of enhanced temperature and altered precipitation on soil respiration—that is, the sum of autotrophic root and heterotrophic microbial respiration. We highlight key processes that determine the substrate supply for the microbial decomposer community. These processes include (i) root exudation of low-molecular carbon compounds, (ii) enzymatic degradation of labile and recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) and (iii) physicochemical protection of SOM. The sensitivities of these processes to soil temperature and moisture differ, aggravating mechanistic interpretation of bulk soil respiration in response to global change. Variation in soil respiration can also result from acclimation of autotrophic root respiration, or shifts in microbial carbon use efficiency. On the basis of such key processes, we evaluate the apparent flexibility of instantaneous temperature responses of soil respiration.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Hannele Hakola,Per Erik Karlsson,David Simpson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055571
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Summary : The air pollution load to northern European forests is changing as a result of emission reductions. Climate change modifies this load, either directly via atmospheric processes or indirectly by affecting emission patterns. We estimate the risk of harmful effects due to tropospheric ozone and nitrogen deposition in present and future conditions. Our modelling results show that critical levels are exceeded in northern Europe for both ozone and nitrogen. Emission reductions will reduce the vegetation stress, but climate change is likely to have an opposite effect. While tropospheric ozone is reduced, its phytotoxic dose increases due to atmospheric warming. The amplified warming in the Arctic may significantly enhance shipping emissions. The effect of these increases extends to the boreal region. In addition, we review recent literature on the interactions between climate change and air quality, and discuss the assessment of pollution risks and carbon stocks and related synergies in emission control.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Elina Oksanen,Sarita Keski-Saari,Sari Kontunen-Soppela,Markku Keinänen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055670
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Summary : In this chapter, we present information about metabolomic, transcriptomic and ecophysiological responses of birch (Betula pendula, Betula papyrifera) and aspen (Populus tremula, Populus tremula×Populus tremuloides, Populus nigra) species to increasing ozone, CO2 and/or climate warming collected from several long-term field experiments and complementary laboratory studies. Metabolomic and genetic analyses have indicated several changes in metabolites (phenolic and volatile organic compounds in particular), defence reactions and target pathways for ozone and CO2 action, and a strong impact of climate warming on metabolism of these tree species. We have been searching for metabolic and genetic indicators for ozone tolerance/sensitivity of birch and aspen and connections between gene expression, metabolite and physiological response. In the end, we discuss the limitations, challenges and current needs for methodological developments particularly in metabolomic techniques leading to more efficient tools in climate change research.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Pierre Dizengremel,Yves Jolivet,Andrée Tuzet,Annamaria Ranieri,Didier Le Thiec
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055656
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Summary : Ozone is a phytotoxic air pollutant, impairing photosynthesis and reducing plant growth. The predicted increase in tropospheric ozone concentration could lead to an increased vulnerability of forests, mitigating carbon sink strength of vegetation under the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. To improve European risk indices, currently based on atmospheric O3 concentration (i.e. O3 exposure), it is necessary to assess the phytotoxic ozone dose, reflecting the balance between stomatal ozone uptake and detoxification capacity of foliar cells. Advancing knowledge on plant response mechanisms would allow for integrating a sub-model into global ozone impact prediction models towards consolidating process-based indices for risk assessment. Crucial parameters are (i) stomatal characteristics, (ii) constitutive detoxification potential, (iii) capacity for antioxidant regeneration and (iv) cellular redox power. The combination of ozone with other impacting factors (drought, high temperature and CO2) will be discussed in view of the challenge of scaling tree-level ozone responses to the forest ecosystem level under conditions of climate change.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Hojka Kraigher,Marko Bajc,Tine Grebenc
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055601
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Summary : Mycorrhizal fungi have evolved with their plant partners and enabled them with better growth in stressed and disturbed environments by better nutrient acquisition and protection against pathogens. Any stress or disturbance belowground is reflected first in changes in mycorrhizal community structure. The complex mycorrhizal networks and interactions among mycorrhizosphere organisms regulate the carbon dynamics and stability of forest ecosystems by ‘beneficial interactions’ or ‘collaboration’ rather than by competition—especially under stress and disturbance. This chapter provides an overview of mycorrhizal forms, structure and functions, their vulnerability and their central role in complex mycorrhizosphere interactions. Their disruption may lead to the loss of essential functions of forest ecosystems. The conservation of belowground interactions should be among priority areas of future research and monitoring programmes and strategies.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
  • Author : Stan Cieslik,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Manuela Baumgarten,Rainer Matyssek,Patricia Brito,Gerhard Wieser
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-19
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780128055540
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Summary : Climate change is expected to affect the exchange of gases between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this review, we focus on a few related topics, including the emission of greenhouse gases from the forest floor, and vegetation fires and their impact on air quality and soil CO2 efflux. In particular, we summarise the current state of knowledge on O3 deposition in forest ecosystems, both for stomatal uptake and non-stomatal sinks. Based on such summaries, we discuss interactions between forests, atmospheric composition and climate, and finally outline directions for multi- and interdisciplinary research required for mechanistically understanding such interrelationships.