Download Co Firing Of Biomass Book PDF

Download full Co Firing Of Biomass books PDF, EPUB, Tuebl, Textbook, Mobi or read online Co Firing Of Biomass anytime and anywhere on any device. Get free access to the library by create an account, fast download and ads free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library.

The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing

The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing
  • Author : Sjaak Van Loo,Jaap Koppejan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-05-16
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9781849773041
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This unique handbook presents both the theory and application of biomass combustion and co-firing, from basic principles to industrial combustion and environmental impact, in a clear and comprehensive manner. It offers a solid grounding on biomass combustion, and advice on improving combustion systems.Written by leading international academics and industrial experts, and prepared under the auspices of the IEA Bioenergy Implementing Agreement, the handbook is an essential resource for anyone interested in biomass combustion and co-firing technologies varying from domestic woodstoves to utility-scale power generation. The book covers subjects including biomass fuel pre-treatment and logistics, modelling the combustion process and ash-related issues, as well as featuring an overview of the current R&D needs regarding biomass combustion.

Solid Biofuels for Energy

Solid Biofuels for Energy
  • Author : Panagiotis Grammelis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-10-22
  • Total pages :242
  • ISBN : 1849963932
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Fossil fuels are widely used for electricity generation and heating, creating greenhouse gas emissions and other toxic pollutants, which should be minimised according to the most recent environmental legislation. The utilisation of solid fuels with biogenic origin could contribute to the minimisation of these emissions. Solid Biofuels for Energy presents the current status of the engineering disciplines in this specific area, providing an improved background on the energy exploitation options of solid biomass. Within this framework, all thematic priorities related to the solid bioenergy potential and standardisation, commercialised and emerging energy technologies, and quality of solid residues are presented. Special attention has been given to biomass co-firing with coal, since it has the highest potential for commercial application, while combustion and gasification are more promising for units of medium to small scale. This strong practical focus is evident throughout the book, particularly in discussions of: • international standards for solid biofuel specifications; • supply, cost and sustainability of solid biofuels; • technical issues and non-technical barriers in biomass/coal co-firing; and • biomass combustion and gasification characteristics. Solid Biofuels for Energy is an informative reference, written for researchers and postgraduate students working in the field of biomass. It can also be a useful guide for chemical and mechanical engineers, involved in the environment and energy production sectors.

Biomass combustion science, technology and engineering

Biomass combustion science, technology and engineering
  • Author : C. Yin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-04
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9780128087572
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40%, and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co-firing. This chapter also briefly introduces indirect co-firing and parallel co-firing and their application status.

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction
  • Author : Stephen Gent,Michael Twedt,Christina Gerometta,Evan Almberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-16
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 9780128095171
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction: For Biofuels and Value-Added Products presents a firm foundation of torrefaction technologies and their economic and sustainability aspects. It offers a theoretical background in the underlying principles of torrefaction reactions, including thermodynamics, chemical reactions, process modeling, end-products, and value-added products such as biochar and torr-gas. It also provides an overview of best practices in torrefaction systems, reactor design and scale-up, and compares torrefaction with other thermochemical processing technologies. The authors discuss feedstock availability for a variety of biomass types, such as agricultural residues, woody residues, energy crops and municipal solid waste. They also examine logistics and markets for torrefied products, which includes their use in co-firing and combined heat and power generation, as well as emissions and other environmental aspects. This balanced and thorough approach to the subject matter makes this an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion, especially with background in energy engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, biological engineering, and agriculture. Offers a comprehensive overview of torrefaction, balancing theoretical and applied perspectives of torrefaction technologies from a holistic perspective Examines economic and sustainability aspects, including logistics, markets, feedstock, and emissions Presents a variety of relevant, real-world examples that underscore the production and utilization of torrefied material Offers a balanced and thorough approach to the subject, making it an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion

Solid Fuel Blending

Solid Fuel Blending
  • Author : David A. Tillman,Dao N.B. Duong,N. Stanley Harding
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :335
  • ISBN : 9780123809322
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Create affordable solid fuel blends that will burn efficiently while reducing the carbon footprint. Solid Fuel Blending Handbook: Principles, Practices, and Problems describes a new generation of solid fuel blending processes. The book includes discussions on such topics as flame structure and combustion performance, boiler efficiency, capacity as influenced by flue gas volume and temperature, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and emissions. Attention is given to the major types of combustion systems including stokers, pulverized coal, cyclone, and fluidized bed boilers. Specific topics considered include chlorine in one or more coals, alkali metals (e.g., K, Na) and alkali earth elements, and related topics. Coals of consideration include Appalachian, Interior Province, and Western bituminous coals; Powder River Basin (PRB) and other subbituminous coals; Fort Union and Gulf Coast lignites, and many of the off-shore coals (e.g., Adaro coal, an Indonesian subbituminous coal with very low sulfur; other off-shore coals from Germany, Poland, Australia, South Africa, Columbia, and more). Interactions between fuels and the potential for blends to be different from the parent coals will be a critical focus of this of the book. One stop source to solid fuel types and blending processes Evaluate combustion systems and calculate their efficiency Recognize the interactions between fuels and their potential energy output Be aware of the Environmental Aspects of Fuel Blending

Recent Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage

Recent Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Author : Yongseung Yun
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-08
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9789535130055
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been considered as a practical way in sequestering the huge anthropogenic CO2 amount with a reasonable cost until a more pragmatic solution appears. The CCS can work as a bridge before fulfilling the no-CO2 era of the future by applying to large-scale CO2 emitting facilities. But CCS appears to lose some passion by the lack of progress in technical developments and in commercial success stories other than EOR. This is the time to go back to basics, starting from finding a solution in small steps. The CCS technology desperately needs far newer ideas and breakthroughs that can overcome earlier attempts through improving, modifying, and switching the known principles. This book tries to give some insight into developing an urgently needed technical breakthrough through the recent advances in CCS research, in addition to the available small steps like soil carbon sequestration. This book provides the fundamental and practical information for researchers and graduate students who want to review the current technical status and to bring in new ideas to the conventional CCS technologies.

Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis

Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis
  • Author : Prabir Basu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-19
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 0080961622
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book offers comprehensive coverage of the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, the key technology enabling the production of biofuels from all viable sources--some examples being sugar cane and switchgrass. This versatile resource not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of biomass gasifiers. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. After fossil fuels, biomass is the most widely used fuel in the world. Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long term if residues are properly handled and dedicated energy crops are grown. Includes step-by-step design procedures and case studies for Biomass Gasification Provides worked process flow diagrams for gasifier design. Covers integration with other technologies (e.g. gas turbine, engine, fuel cells)

New Trends in Coal Conversion

New Trends in Coal Conversion
  • Author : Isabel Suarez-Ruiz,Fernando Rubiera,Maria Antonia Diez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-30
  • Total pages :542
  • ISBN : 9780081022023
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : New Trends in Coal Conversion: Combustion, Gasification, Emissions, and Coking covers the latest advancements in coal utilization, including coal conversion processes and mitigation of environmental impacts, providing an up-to-date source of information for a cleaner and more environmentally friendly use of coal, with a particular emphasis on the two biggest users of coal—utilities and the steel industry. Coverage includes recent advances in combustion co-firing, gasification, and on the minimization of trace element and CO2 emissions that is ideal for plant engineers, researchers, and quality control engineers in electric utilities and steelmaking. Other sections cover new advances in clean coal technologies for the steel industry, technological advances in conventional by-products, the heat-recovery/non-recovering cokemaking process, and the increasing use of low-quality coals in coking blends. Readers will learn how to make more effective use of coal resources, deliver higher productivity, save energy and reduce the environmental impact of their coal utilization. Provides the current state-of-the-art and ongoing activities within coal conversion processes, with an emphasis on emerging technologies for the reduction of CO2 and trace elements Discusses innovations in cokemaking for improved efficiency, energy savings and reduced environmental impact Include case studies and examples throughout the book

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • Author : Adela Ionescu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-02-14
  • Total pages :410
  • ISBN : 9789535137900
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book is the result of a careful selection of contributors in the field of CFD. It is divided into three sections according to the purpose and approaches used in the development of the contributions. The first section describes the "high-performance computing" (HPC) tools and their impact on CFD modeling. The second section is dedicated to "CFD models for local and large-scale industrial phenomena." Two types of approaches are basically contained here: one concerns the adaptation from global to local scale, - e.g., the applications of CFD to study the climate changes and the adaptations to local scale. The second approach, very challenging, is the multiscale analysis. The third section is devoted to "CFD in numerical modeling approach for experimental cases." Its chapters emphasize on the numerical approach of the mathematical models associated to few experimental (industrial) cases. Here, the impact and the importance of the mathematical modeling in CFD are focused on. It is expected that the collection of these chapters will enrich the state of the art in the CFD domain and its applications in a lot of fields. This collection proves that CFD is a highly interdisciplinary research area, which lies at the interface of physics, engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science.

Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion

Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion
  • Author : Guangxi Yue,Hai Zhang,Changsui Zhao,Zhongyang Luo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-28
  • Total pages :1182
  • ISBN : 3642026826
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) collect 9 plenary lectures and 175 peer-reviewed technical papers presented in the conference held in Xi'an China in May 18-21,2009. The conference was the 20th conference in a series, covering the latest fundamental research results, as well as the application experience from pilot plants, demonstrations and industrial units regarding to the FBC science and technology. It was co-hosted by Tsinghua University, Southeast University, Zhejiang University, China Electricity Council and Chinese Machinery Industry Federation. A particular feature of the proceedings is the balance between the papers submitted by experts from industry and the papers submitted by academic researchers, aiming to bring academic knowledge to application as well as to define new areas for research. The authors of the proceedings are the most active researchers, technology developers, experienced and representative facility operators and manufacturers. They presented the latest research results, state-of-the-art development and projects, and the useful experience. The proceedings are divided into following sections: • CFB Boiler Technology, Operation and Design • Fundamental Research on Fluidization and Fluidized Combustion • C02 Capture and Chemical Looping • Gasification • Modeling and Simulation on FBC Technology • Environments and Pollutant Control • Sustainable Fuels The proceedings can be served as idea references for researchers, engineers, academia and graduate students, plant operators, boiler manufacturers, component suppliers, and technical managers who work on FBC fundamental research, technology development and industrial application.

Biomass Co-firing with Coal and Natural Gas

Biomass Co-firing with Coal and Natural Gas
  • Author : Ezinwa Uchechukwu Agbor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :119
  • ISBN : OCLC:959604243
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Biomass fuels have long been accepted as useful renewable energy sources, especially in mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Fossil fuel-based power plants make up over 30% of the GHG emissions in Alberta, Canada. Displacement of fossil fuel-based power through biomass co-firing has been proposed as a near-term option to reduce these emissions. In this research, co-firing of three biomass feedstocks (i.e., whole forest, agricultural residues and forest residues) at varying proportions with coal as well as with natural gas in existing plants was studied to investigate different co-firing technologies. Whole forest biomass refers to live or dead trees (spruce and mixed hardwood) not considered merchantable for pulp and timber production; agricultural residues are straws obtained as the by-product of threshing crops such as wheat, barley, and flax; and forest residues refer to the limbs and tops of the trees left on the roadside to rot after logging operations by pulp and timber companies. Data-intensive models were developed to carry out detailed techno-economic and environmental assessments to comparatively evaluate sixty co-firing scenarios involving different levels of the biomass feedstock co-fired with coal in existing 500 MW subcritical pulverized coal (PC) plants and with natural gas in existing 500 MW natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants. Minimum electricity production costs were determined for the co-fired plants for the same three biomass feedstocks and base fuels. Environmental assessments, from the point of harvesting to delivering electricity to the customers, was evaluated and compared to the various co-fired configurations to determine the most economically viable and environmental friendly options of biomass co-firing configuration for western Canada. The results obtained from these analyses shows that the fully paid-off coal-fired power plant co-fired with forest residues is the most attractive option and has levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) ranging from $53.12 to $54.50/MWh; and CO2 abatement costs ranging from $27.41 to $31.15/tCO2. Similarly, the LCOE and CO2 abatement costs for whole forest chips range from $54.68 to $56.41/MWh and $35.60 to $41.78/tCO2 respectively. When straw is co-fired with coal in a fully paid-off plant, the LCOE and CO2 abatement costs range from $54.62 to $57.35/MWh and $35.07 to $38.48/tCO2 respectively. This is of high interest considering the likely increase of the carbon levy to about $30/tCO2 in the Province of Alberta by 2017.

Clean Coal Engineering Technology

Clean Coal Engineering Technology
  • Author : Bruce G. Miller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-11-15
  • Total pages :696
  • ISBN : 0080961169
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Concern over the effects of airborne pollution, green house gases, and the impact of global warming has become a worldwide issue that transcends international boundaries, politics, and social responsibility. The 2nd Edition of Coal Energy Systems: Clean Coal Technology describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants. Coal is the dirtiest of all fossil fuels. When burned, it produces emissions that contribute to global warming, create acid rain, and pollute water. With all of the interest and research surrounding nuclear energy, hydropower, and biofuels, many think that coal is finally on its way out. However, coal generates half of the electricity in the United States and throughout the world today. It will likely continue to do so as long as it's cheap and plentiful [Source: Energy Information Administration]. Coal provides stability in price and availability, will continue to be a major source of electricity generation, will be the major source of hydrogen for the coming hydrogen economy, and has the potential to become an important source of liquid fuels. Conservation and renewable/sustainable energy are important in the overall energy picture, but will play a lesser role in helping us satisfy our energy demands today. Dramatically updated to meet the needs of an ever changing energy market, Coal Energy Systems, 2nd Edition is a single source covering policy and the engineering involved in implementing that policy. The book addresses many coal-related subjects of interest ranging from the chemistry of coal and the future engineering anatomy of a coal fired plant to the cutting edge clean coal technologies being researched and utilized today. A 50% update over the first edition, this new book contains new chapters on processes such as CO2 capture and sequestration, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems, Pulverized-Coal Power Plants and Carbon Emission Trading. Existing materials on worldwide coal distribution and quantities, technical and policy issues regarding the use of coal, technologies used and under development for utilizing coal to produce heat, electricity, and chemicals with low environmental impact, vision for utilizing coal well into the 21st century, and the security coal presents. Clean Liquids and Gaseous Fuels from Coal for Electric Power Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems Pulverized-Coal Power Plants Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants Fluidized-Bed Combustion Technology CO2 capture and sequestration

The Power of Renewables

The Power of Renewables
  • Author : Chinese Academy of Engineering,Chinese Academy of Sciences,National Research Council,National Academy of Engineering,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on U.S.-China Cooperation on Electricity from Renewable Resources
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-12-29
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 0309186641
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The United States and China are the world's top two energy consumers and, as of 2010, the two largest economies. Consequently, they have a decisive role to play in the world's clean energy future. Both countries are also motivated by related goals, namely diversified energy portfolios, job creation, energy security, and pollution reduction, making renewable energy development an important strategy with wide-ranging implications. Given the size of their energy markets, any substantial progress the two countries make in advancing use of renewable energy will provide global benefits, in terms of enhanced technological understanding, reduced costs through expanded deployment, and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to conventional generation from fossil fuels. Within this context, the U.S. National Academies, in collaboration with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE), reviewed renewable energy development and deployment in the two countries, to highlight prospects for collaboration across the research to deployment chain and to suggest strategies which would promote more rapid and economical attainment of renewable energy goals. Main findings and concerning renewable resource assessments, technology development, environmental impacts, market infrastructure, among others, are presented. Specific recommendations have been limited to those judged to be most likely to accelerate the pace of deployment, increase cost-competitiveness, or shape the future market for renewable energy. The recommendations presented here are also pragmatic and achievable.

Fossil Fuel Emissions Control Technologies

Fossil Fuel Emissions Control Technologies
  • Author : Bruce G. Miller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-15
  • Total pages :514
  • ISBN : 9780128017494
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : An expert guide to emission control technologies and applications, Fossil Fuels Emissions Control Technologies provides engineers with a guide to link emission control strategies to available technologies, allowing them to choose the technology that best suits their individual need. This includes reduction technologies for Nitrogen Oxides, Sulfur Oxides, Mercury and Acid Gases. In this reference, the author explains the most critical control technologies and their application to real-world regulatory compliance issues. Numerous diagrams and examples emphasizing pollution formation mechanisms, key points in pollutant control, and design techniques are also included. Provides numerous diagrams and examples to emphasize pollution formation mechanisms Coverage of critical control technologies and their application to real-world solutions Explains Sulfur Oxides, Acid Gases, Nitrogen Oxides Formation and Organic HAPs, Control and Reduction Technologies Covers Particulate Matter and Mercury Emissions Formation and Reduction Technologies

The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-Fuels and Co-firing

The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-Fuels and Co-firing
  • Author : N. Altawell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-28
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781118852460
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : A functional discussion of the crop selection process for biomass energy The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing provides a detailed examination and analysis for a number of energy crops and their use as a source for generating electricity and for the production of bio-fuels. Renowned renewable energy expert and consultant Dr. Najib Altawell begins with the fundamentals of bio-fuels and co-firing and moves on to the main feature, which is the methodology that assists energy scientists and engineers to arrive at the most suitable biomass materials tailored to each company’s business and economic environments and objectives. This methodology provides a framework whereby power-generating companies can insert their own values for each factor, whether business factor (BF) or scientific & technical factors (S&T) or both simultaneously. The methodology provides a list of factors related to the biomass energy business. The average values have been obtained from the survey method and laboratory tests. These values are the standard values power companies can use if they need or wish to use them. The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing has been designed and compiled for the widest possible range of readers, researchers, businesspeople, and economists who are connected to the renewable energy field in general, and biomass energy in particular. Because of its focus on practical data and applications, the book is also accessible for general readers who may or may not have a technical or scientific background.

Biomass Combustion Science, Technology and Engineering

Biomass Combustion Science, Technology and Engineering
  • Author : Lasse Rosendahl
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-04
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9780857097439
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The utilisation of biomass is increasingly important for low- or zero-carbon power generation. Developments in conventional power plant fuel flexibility allow for both direct biomass combustion and co-firing with fossil fuels, while the integration of advanced technologies facilitates conversion of a wide range of biomass feedstocks into more readily combustible fuel. Biomass combustion science, technology and engineering reviews the science and technology of biomass combustion, conversion and utilisation. Part one provides an introduction to biomass supply chains and feedstocks, and outlines the principles of biomass combustion for power generation. Chapters also describe the categorisation and preparation of biomass feedstocks for combustion and gasification. Part two goes on to explore biomass combustion and co-firing, including direct combustion of biomass, biomass co-firing and gasification, fast pyrolysis of biomass for the production of liquids and intermediate pyrolysis technologies. Largescale biomass combustion and biorefineries are then the focus of part three. Following an overview of large-scale biomass combustion plants, key engineering issues and plant operation are discussed, before the book concludes with a chapter looking at the role of biorefineries in increasing the value of the end-products of biomass conversion. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Biomass combustion science, technology and engineering provides a clear overview of this important area for all power plant operators, industrial engineers, biomass researchers, process chemists and academics working in this field. Reviews the science and technology of biomass combustion, conversion and utilisation Provides an introduction to biomass supply chains and feedstocks and outlines the principles of biomass combustion for power generation Describes the categorisation and preparation of biomass feedstocks for combustion and gasification

Assessment of Situation and Potential for Co-Firing Coal and Biomass in Energy Facilities

Assessment of Situation and Potential for Co-Firing Coal and Biomass in Energy Facilities
  • Author : DIANE Publishing Company
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994-03-01
  • Total pages :96
  • ISBN : 0788106155
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Reviews the status & potential for co-firing of biomass with coal in the Great Lakes region. The assessment is based on literature review, extensive interviewing, & detailed case studies of facilities that are now or a capable of co-firing. Addresses the economic & technological impacts of co-firing, the effects of co-firing on air emissions, & includes 9 case studies, as well as information on equipment, fuel sources & system performance. Tables & charts.

Energy Ans Exergy Analysis of Biomass Co-firing in Pulverized Coal Power Generation

Energy Ans Exergy Analysis of Biomass Co-firing in Pulverized Coal Power Generation
  • Author : Shoaib Mehmood,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:755917365
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Biomass co-firing with coal exhibits great potential for large scale utilization of biomass energy in the near future. In the present work, energy and exergy analyses are carried out for a co-firing based power generation system to investigate the impacts of biomass cofiring on system performance and gaseous emissions of CO2, NOx, and SOx. The power generation system considered is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle system, while four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel) and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite) are chosen for the analysis. System performance is evaluated in terms of important performance parameters for different combinations of fuel at different co-firing conditions and for the two cases considered. The results indicate that plant energy and exergy efficiencies decrease with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture. The extent of decrease in energy and exergy efficiencies depends on specific properties of the chosen biomass types. The results also show that the increased fraction of biomass significantly reduces the net CO2 emissions for all types of selected biomass. However, gross CO2 emissions increase for all blends except bituminous coal/refuse derived fuel blend, lignite/chicken litter blend and lignite/refuse derived fuel blend. The reduction in NOx emissions depends on the nitrogen content of the biomass fuel. Likewise, the decrease in SOx emissions depends on the sulphur content of the biomass fuel. The most appropriate biomass in terms of NOx and SOx reduction is sawdust because of its negligible nitrogen and sulphur contents.

Closed-loop Biomass Co-firing in a Laboratory Reactor and in a Full-scale Boiler

Closed-loop Biomass Co-firing in a Laboratory Reactor and in a Full-scale Boiler
  • Author : Robert B. Williams,Bryan M. Jenkins,Lee A. Jakeway,Scott Q. Turn,Linda Gail Blevins
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :58
  • ISBN : OCLC:316462424
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Co-firing tests were conducted in a pilot-scale reactor at Sandia National Laboratories and in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Combustion tests were performed in the Sandia Multi-Fuel Combustor using Australian coal, whole fiber cane including tops and leaves processed at three different levels (milled only, milled and leached, and milled followed by leaching and subsequent milling), and fiber cane stripped of its tops and leaves and heavily processed through subsequent milling, leaching, and milling cycles. Testing was performed for pure fuels and for biomass co-firing with the coal at levels of 30% and 70% by mass. The laboratory tests revealed the following information: (1) The biomass fuels convert their native nitrogen into NO more efficiently than coal because of higher volatile content and more reactive nitrogen complexes. (2) Adding coal to whole fiber cane to reduce its tendency to form deposits should not adversely affect NO emissions. (3) Stripped cane does not offer a NO advantage over whole cane when co-fired with coal. During the field test, Sandia measured 0 2, C02, CO, SO2, and NO concentrations in the stack and gas velocities near the superheater. Gas concentrations and velocities fluctuated more during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The mean 0 2 concentration was lower and the mean C02 concentration was higher during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. When normalized to a constant exhaust 0 2 concentration, mean CO concentration was higher and mean NO concentration was lower for biomass co-firing than for coal. The SO2 concentration tracked the use of Bunker C fuel oil. When normalized by the amount of boiler energy input, the amounts of NO and SO2 formed were lower during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The difference between NOx trends in the lab and in the field are most likely a result of less effective heat and mass transfer in the boiler. Particles were sampled near the superheater tube using an impaction probe and were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Particle loading appeared higher for biomass co-firing than for coal combustion, especially for the smaller particle diameters. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to detect silicon, aluminum, titanium, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium concentrations near the superheater. LIBS provided an abundant amount of real-time information. The major constituents of the fuel ash (silicon and aluminum) were also the major measured inorganic constituents of the combustion products. The combustion products were enriched in sodium relative to the fuel ash during all tests, and they were enriched in potassium for the biomass co-firing tests. Alkali metals are enriched because compounds containing these elements are more readily releasable into the combustion products than refractory components that remain in large particles such as silicon, aluminum, and titanium. Relative to the measured deposit chemistry, the combustion flows were enriched in iron, sodium, and potassium, constituents that are known to form fumes laden with fine particles and/or vapors. The LIBS results yield insight into the deposition mechanism: Impaction of larger particles dominates over fume deposition. The present application of LIBS reveals its potential to provide real-time field information on the deposition propensity of different fuels and the effects of different fuels and boiler operating conditions.

Developments in Combustion Technology

Developments in Combustion Technology
  • Author : Konstantinos Kyprianidis,Jan Skvaril
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-05
  • Total pages :430
  • ISBN : 9789535126683
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Over the past few decades, exciting developments have taken place in the field of combustion technology. The present edited volume intends to cover recent developments and provide a broad perspective of the key challenges that characterize the field. The target audience for this book includes engineers involved in combustion system design, operational planning and maintenance. Manufacturers and combustion technology researchers will also benefit from the timely and accurate information provided in this work. The volume is organized into five main sections comprising 15 chapters overall: - Coal and Biofuel Combustion - Waste Combustion - Combustion and Biofuels in Reciprocating Engines - Chemical Looping and Catalysis - Fundamental and Emerging Topics in Combustion Technology

New and Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainable Development

New and Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainable Development
  • Author : Naim Afgan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-12-18
  • Total pages :492
  • ISBN : 9781000151329
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The International Conference on New and Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainable Development held in Ponta Delgada, Azores (2002), Portugal, has provided technology specialists and hardware developers with the opportunity to discuss, review and demonstrate the research directions, the design methodologies, and the production techniques leading to cost- effective energy technologies for sustainable development. This dialog provides the context for more detailed technical presentations and panel discussions on energy systems, renewable resource exploitation, and the engineering design and optimisation for minimum resource consumption. The papers included in this volume are selected from those presented at the conference reflecting to present the state-of-the-art developments in the field. The selection of papers presented in this volume has enlightened various fields of scientific and economic development which should merge efforts in the understanding of the sustainable development concept and technological implications. The book will be of particular interest to engineering practitioners, product developers, researchers, and also economists, political scientists and government administrators exploring the multifaceted relationship between renewable energy technologies and sustainable development. Keynote lectures frame the technical and policy issues confronting the sustainable development movement and enrich the dialog between various segments of the community.