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Continuous Issues in Numerical Cognition

Continuous Issues in Numerical Cognition
  • Author : Avishai Henik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-18
  • Total pages :456
  • ISBN : 9780128017937
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Summary : Continuous Issues in Numerical Cognition: How Many or How Much re-examines the widely accepted view that there exists a core numerical system within human beings and an innate ability to perceive and count discrete quantities. This core knowledge involves the brain’s intraparietal sulcus, and a deficiency in this region has traditionally been thought to be the basis for arithmetic disability. However, new research findings suggest this wide agreement needs to be examined carefully and that perception of sizes and other non-countable amounts may be the true precursors of numerical ability. This cutting-edge book examines the possibility that perception and evaluation of non-countable dimensions may be involved in the development of numerical cognition. Discussions of the above and related issues are important for the achievement of a comprehensive understanding of numerical cognition, its brain basis, development, breakdown in brain-injured individuals, and failures to master mathematical skills. Serves as an innovative reference on the emerging field of numerical cognition and the branches that converge on this diverse topic Features chapters from leading researchers in the field Includes an overview of the multiple disciplines that comprise numerical cognition and discusses the measures that can be used in analysis Introduces novel ideas that connect non-countable continuous variables to numerical cognition

Exam Prep for: Continuous Issues in Numerical Cognition

Exam Prep for: Continuous Issues in Numerical Cognition
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1230987654XX
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Summary :

Heterogeneity of Function in Numerical Cognition

Heterogeneity of Function in Numerical Cognition
  • Author : Avishai Henik,Wim Fias
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-17
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128115305
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Summary : Heterogeneity of Function in Numerical Cognition presents the latest updates on ongoing research and discussions regarding numerical cognition. With great individual differences in the development or function of numerical cognition at neuroanatomical, neuropsychological, behavioral, and interactional levels, these issues are important for the achievement of a comprehensive understanding of numerical cognition, hence its brain basis, development, breakdown in brain-injured individuals, and failures to master mathematical skills. These functions are essential for the proper development of numerical cognition. Provides an innovative reference on the emerging field of numerical cognition and the branches that converge on this diverse cognitive domain Includes an overview of the multiple disciplines that comprise numerical cognition Focuses on factors that influence numerical cognition, such as language, executive attention, memory and spatial processing Features an innovative organization with each section providing a general overview, developmental research, and evidence from neurocognitive studies

Numerical Cognition

Numerical Cognition
  • Author : Andre Knops
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-12-19
  • Total pages :180
  • ISBN : 9781000766455
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Summary : Numerical Cognition: The Basics provides an understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms that enable us to perceive, process, and memorize numerical information. Starting from basic numerical competencies that humans share with other species, the book explores the mental coding of numbers and their neural representation. It explains the strategies of mental calculation, their pitfalls and their development, as well as the developmental steps children make while learning about numbers. The book gradually builds our understanding of the underlying mental processes of numeracy and concludes with an insightful examination of the diagnosis, etiology and treatment of dyscalculia. Written in an accessible manner, the book summarizes and critically evaluates the major psychological explanations for various empirical phenomena in numerical cognition. Containing a wealth of student-friendly features including end of chapter summaries, informative figures, further reading lists, and links to relevant websites, Numerical Cognition: The Basics is an essential starting point for anybody new to the field.

On the Development of Space-Number Relations: Linguistic and Cognitive Determinants, Influences, and Associations

On the Development of Space-Number Relations: Linguistic and Cognitive Determinants, Influences, and Associations
  • Author : Hans-Christoph Nuerk,Krzysztof Cipora,Frank Domahs,Maciej Haman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-03-30
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889635887
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Summary :

Approximate Number System and Mathematics

Approximate Number System and Mathematics
  • Author : Jingguang Li,Xinlin Zhou,Marcus Lindskog
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-25
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889632084
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Summary : Humans process quantity information without the aid of language or symbols to guide a variety of everyday life decisions. The cognitive system that supports this intuitive skill is often referred to as the approximate number system (ANS). It has been argued that the ANS serves as the foundation of the formal symbolic number system—mathematics. Abundant empirical evidence is supportive of this view: acuity of the ANS is positively correlated with symbolic math performance, training of the ANS may cause improvements in symbolic math performance, and the ANS and symbolic number processing may share a common neural underpinning. However, recently several theories and empirical data cast doubt on the role of the ANS in symbolic math processing. This e-book aims to advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the overlap between the ANS and mathematics.

Working Memory

Working Memory
  • Author : Pierre Barrouillet,Valérie Camos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-09-19
  • Total pages :226
  • ISBN : 9781317628422
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Summary : Working memory is the cognitive system in charge of the temporary maintenance of information in view of its on-going processing. Lying at the centre of cognition, it has become a key concept in psychological science. The book presents a critical review and synthesis of the working memory literature, and also presents an innovative new theory - the Time-Based Resource-Sharing (TBRS) model. Tracing back the evolution of the concept of working memory, from its introduction by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 and the development of their modal model, Barrouillet and Camos explain how an alternative conception could have been developed from the very beginning, and why it is needed today. This alternative model takes into account the temporal dynamics of mental functioning. The book describes a new architecture for working memory, and provides a description of its functioning, its development, the sources of individual differences, and hints about neural substrates. The authors address central and debated questions about working memory, and also more general issues about cognitive architecture and functioning. Working Memory: Loss and Reconstruction will be essential reading for advanced students and researchers of the psychology of memory.

The Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition

The Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition
  • Author : Roi Kadosh,Ann Dowker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-30
  • Total pages :1144
  • ISBN : 9780191036002
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Summary : How do we understand numbers? Do animals and babies have numerical abilities? Why do some people fail to grasp numbers, and how we can improve numerical understanding? Numbers are vital to so many areas of life: in science, economics, sports, education, and many aspects of everyday life from infancy onwards. Numerical cognition is a vibrant area that brings together scientists from different and diverse research areas (e.g., neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, comparative psychology, anthropology, education, and neuroscience) using different methodological approaches (e.g., behavioral studies of healthy children and adults and of patients; electrophysiology and brain imaging studies in humans; single-cell neurophysiology in non-human primates, habituation studies in human infants and animals, and computer modeling). While the study of numerical cognition had been relatively neglected for a long time, during the last decade there has been an explosion of studies and new findings. This has resulted in an enormous advance in our understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of numerical cognition. In addition, there has recently been increasing interest and concern about pupils' mathematical achievement in many countries, resulting in attempts to use research to guide mathematics instruction in schools, and to develop interventions for children with mathematical difficulties. This handbook brings together the different research areas that make up the field of numerical cognition in one comprehensive and authoritative volume. The chapters provide a broad and extensive review that is written in an accessible form for scholars and students, as well as educationalists, clinicians, and policy makers. The book covers the most important aspects of research on numerical cognition from the areas of development psychology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and rehabilitation, learning disabilities, human and animal cognition and neuroscience, computational modeling, education and individual differences, and philosophy. Containing more than 60 chapters by leading specialists in their fields, the Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition is a state-of-the-art review of the current literature.

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8
  • Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on the Science of Children Birth to Age 8: Deepening and Broadening the Foundation for Success
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-23
  • Total pages :706
  • ISBN : 9780309324885
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Summary : Children are already learning at birth, and they develop and learn at a rapid pace in their early years. This provides a critical foundation for lifelong progress, and the adults who provide for the care and the education of young children bear a great responsibility for their health, development, and learning. Despite the fact that they share the same objective - to nurture young children and secure their future success - the various practitioners who contribute to the care and the education of children from birth through age 8 are not acknowledged as a workforce unified by the common knowledge and competencies needed to do their jobs well. Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8 explores the science of child development, particularly looking at implications for the professionals who work with children. This report examines the current capacities and practices of the workforce, the settings in which they work, the policies and infrastructure that set qualifications and provide professional learning, and the government agencies and other funders who support and oversee these systems. This book then makes recommendations to improve the quality of professional practice and the practice environment for care and education professionals. These detailed recommendations create a blueprint for action that builds on a unifying foundation of child development and early learning, shared knowledge and competencies for care and education professionals, and principles for effective professional learning. Young children thrive and learn best when they have secure, positive relationships with adults who are knowledgeable about how to support their development and learning and are responsive to their individual progress. Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8 offers guidance on system changes to improve the quality of professional practice, specific actions to improve professional learning systems and workforce development, and research to continue to build the knowledge base in ways that will directly advance and inform future actions. The recommendations of this book provide an opportunity to improve the quality of the care and the education that children receive, and ultimately improve outcomes for children.

Numerical Development - From cognitive functions to neural underpinnings

Numerical Development - From cognitive functions to neural underpinnings
  • Author : Korbinian Moeller,Elise Klein,Klaus F Willmes - von Hinckeldey,Karin Kucian
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-02-24
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889194247
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Summary : Living at the beginning of the 21st century requires being numerate, because numerical abilities are not only essential for life prospects of individuals but also for economic interests of post-industrial knowledge societies. Thus, numerical development is at the core of both individual as well as societal interests. There is the notion that we are already born with a very basic ability to deal with small numerosities. Yet, this often called “number sense” seems to be very restricted, approximate, and driven by perceptual constraints. During our numerical development in formal (e.g., school) but also informal contexts (e.g., family, street) we acquire culturally developed abstract symbol systems to represent exact numerosities – in particular number words and Arabic digits – refining our numerical capabilities. In recent years, numerical development has gained increasing research interest documented in a growing number of behavioural, neuro-scientific, educational, cross-cultural, and neuropsychological studies addressing this issue. Additionally, our understanding of how numerical competencies develop has also benefitted considerably from the advent of different neuro-imaging techniques allowing for an evaluation of developmental changes in the human brain. In sum, we are now starting to put together a more and more coherent picture of how numerical competencies develop and how this development is associated with neural changes as well. In the end, this knowledge might also lead to a better understanding of the reasons for atypical numerical development which often has grieve consequences for those who suffer from developmental dyscalculia or mathematics learning disabilities. Therefore, this Research Topic deals with all aspects of numerical development: findings from behavioural performance to underlying neural substrates, from cross-sectional to longitudinal evaluations, from healthy to clinical populations. To this end, we included empirical contributions using different experimental methodologies, but also theoretical contributions, review articles, or opinion papers.

How Students (mis-) Understand Science and Mathematics

How Students (mis-) Understand Science and Mathematics
  • Author : Ruth Stavy,Dina Tirosh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-01-01
  • Total pages :127
  • ISBN : 0807770418
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Summary : In this long-awaited book, Timothy J. Lensmire examines the problems and promise of progressive literacy education. He does this by developing a series of striking metaphors in which, for example, he imagines the writing workshop as a carnival or popular festival and the teacher as a novelist who writes her student-characters into more and less desirable classroom stories. Grounded in Lensmire's own and others' work in schools, Powerful Writing, Responsible Teaching makes powerful use of Bakhtin's theories of language and writing and Dewey's vision of schooling and democracy. Lensmire's book is, at once, a defense, a criticism, and a reconstruction of progressive and critical literacy approaches.

How People Learn

How People Learn
  • Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-08-11
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780309131971
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Summary : First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

Communities in Action

Communities in Action
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-04-27
  • Total pages :582
  • ISBN : 9780309452960
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Summary : In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual's health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults, Third Edition

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults, Third Edition
  • Author : American Psychiatric Association
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-29
  • Total pages :170
  • ISBN : 9780890424650
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Summary : Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust in 2011, there has been an increasing emphasis on assuring that clinical practice guidelines are trustworthy, developed in a transparent fashion, and based on a systematic review of the available research evidence. To align with the IOM recommendations and to meet the new requirements for inclusion of a guideline in the National Guidelines Clearinghouse of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), American Psychiatric Association (APA) has adopted a new process for practice guideline development. Under this new process APA's practice guidelines also seek to provide better clinical utility and usability. Rather than a broad overview of treatment for a disorder, new practice guidelines focus on a set of discrete clinical questions of relevance to an overarching subject area. A systematic review of evidence is conducted to address these clinical questions and involves a detailed assessment of individual studies. The quality of the overall body of evidence is also rated and is summarized in the practice guideline. With the new process, recommendations are determined by weighing potential benefits and harms of an intervention in a specific clinical context. Clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements help clinicians to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care. The new practice guideline format is also designed to be more user friendly by dividing information into modules on specific clinical questions. Each module has a consistent organization, which will assist users in finding clinically useful and relevant information quickly and easily. This new edition of the practice guidelines on psychiatric evaluation for adults is the first set of the APA's guidelines developed under the new guideline development process. These guidelines address the following nine topics, in the context of an initial psychiatric evaluation: review of psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and treatment history; substance use assessment; assessment of suicide risk; assessment for risk of aggressive behaviors; assessment of cultural factors; assessment of medical health; quantitative assessment; involvement of the patient in treatment decision making; and documentation of the psychiatric evaluation. Each guideline recommends or suggests topics to include during an initial psychiatric evaluation. Findings from an expert opinion survey have also been taken into consideration in making recommendations or suggestions. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on psychiatry evaluation, each guideline also provides guidance to clinicians on implementing these recommendations to enhance patient care.

Development of Mathematical Cognition

Development of Mathematical Cognition
  • Author : Daniel B. Berch,David C. Geary,Kathleen Mann Koepke
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-03
  • Total pages :414
  • ISBN : 9780128019092
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Summary : Development of Mathematical Cognition: Neural Substrates and Genetic Influences reviews advances in extant imaging modalities and the application of brain stimulation techniques for improving mathematical learning. It goes on to explore the role genetics and environmental influences have in the development of math abilities and disabilities. Focusing on the neural substrates and genetic factors associated with both the typical and atypical development of mathematical thinking and learning, this second volume in the Mathematical Cognition and Learning series integrates the latest in innovative measures and methodological advances from the top researchers in the field. Provides details about new progress made in the study of neural correlates of numerical and arithmetic cognition Addresses recent work in quantitative and molecular genetics Works to improve instruction in numerical, arithmetical, and algebraic thinking and learning Informs policy to help increase the level of mathematical proficiency among the general public

Neurological Disorders

Neurological Disorders
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :218
  • ISBN : 9789241563369
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Summary : Although there are several gaps in understanding the many issues related to neurological disorders, we know enough to be able to shape effective policy responses to some of the most common. This book describes and discusses the increasing public health impact of common neurological disorders such as dementia, epilepsy, headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, neuroinfections, neurological disorders associated with malnutrition, pain associated with neurological disorders, Parkinson's disease, stroke and traumatic brain injuries. It provides information and advice on public health interventions that may reduce their occurrence and consequences, and offers health professionals and planners the opportunity to assess the burden caused by these disorders. The clear message that emerges is that unless immediate action is taken globally, the neurological burden is likely to become an increasingly serious and unmanageable.

Developmental Dyscalculia

Developmental Dyscalculia
  • Author : Jörg-Tobias Kuhn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-20
  • Total pages :82
  • ISBN : 0889374759
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Summary : This volume aims to further our understanding of developmental dyscalculia and measures that might help to redress it. In addition to recent research findings highlighting the importance of working memory facets in developmental dyscalculia and investigating the IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion in defining the disorder, a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of interventions for children with mathematical difficulties provides new directions for how affected children can best be helped.

The Quest for Artificial Intelligence

The Quest for Artificial Intelligence
  • Author : Nils J. Nilsson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-10-30
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781139642828
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Summary : Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field within computer science that is attempting to build enhanced intelligence into computer systems. This book traces the history of the subject, from the early dreams of eighteenth-century (and earlier) pioneers to the more successful work of today's AI engineers. AI is becoming more and more a part of everyone's life. The technology is already embedded in face-recognizing cameras, speech-recognition software, Internet search engines, and health-care robots, among other applications. The book's many diagrams and easy-to-understand descriptions of AI programs will help the casual reader gain an understanding of how these and other AI systems actually work. Its thorough (but unobtrusive) end-of-chapter notes containing citations to important source materials will be of great use to AI scholars and researchers. This book promises to be the definitive history of a field that has captivated the imaginations of scientists, philosophers, and writers for centuries.

Transformative Assessment

Transformative Assessment
  • Author : W. James Popham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :150
  • ISBN : 9781416606673
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Summary : Testing expert W. James Popham cuts through the jargon and the hype to provide the definitive nuts-and-bolts introduction to formative assessment, a process with the power to completely transform teaching and learning. In his inimitable style, Popham explains the research supporting formative assessment's effectiveness and why familiarity with this research is the key to preserving both teacher sanity and district funds. You'll find step-by-step guidance on how to build frameworks for formative assessment and how to carry out each of the process's four levels: teachers' instructional adjustments, students' learning tactic adjustments, a classroom climate shift, and schoolwide implementation. This book is the place to start for educators considering formative assessment, curious about why their school system is embracing formative assessment, or wondering why the "formative assessments" they're using now aren't producing the desired results. Here, you'll learn what formative assessment is and isn't, what it can do and what it can't, and the practical way to reap its very real rewards: better teaching and better learning.

Citrus

Citrus
  • Author : Pierre Laszlo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-10
  • Total pages :252
  • ISBN : 9780226470283
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Summary : Laszlo traces the spectacular rise and spread of citrus across the globe, from southeast Asia in 4000 BC to modern Spain and Portugal, whose explorers inroduced the fruit to the Americas. This book explores the numerous roles that citrus has played in agriculture, horticulture, cooking, nutrition, religion, and art.

Evolutionary and Revolutionary Technologies for Mining

Evolutionary and Revolutionary Technologies for Mining
  • Author : National Research Council,Committee on Earth Resources,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,National Materials Advisory Board,Committee on Technologies for the Mining Industries
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-03-14
  • Total pages :102
  • ISBN : 0309169836
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Summary : The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the U. S. Department of Energy commissioned the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake a study on required technologies for the Mining Industries of the Future Program to complement information provided to the program by the National Mining Association. Subsequently, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health also became a sponsor of this study, and the Statement of Task was expanded to include health and safety. The overall objectives of this study are: (a) to review available information on the U.S. mining industry; (b) to identify critical research and development needs related to the exploration, mining, and processing of coal, minerals, and metals; and (c) to examine the federal contribution to research and development in mining processes.