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Cytokines and the Brain

Cytokines and the Brain
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-18
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 0080559352
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Summary : This book opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology providing substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. The volume is a collection of complex, new data drawn from multiple areas of investigation in the field. The contents summarize current understanding on the presence and function of CNS cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease. The chapters are a collection of complex, new data demonstrating the presence and synthesis of cytokines in brain cells, as well as their receptors on cell membranes in health and disease. The strength of the volume are the descriptions of the authors own investigations, together with those of others in the field pertaining to a large number of cytokines in brain function, as well as mechanisms involved in the development of CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Also included are novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data. The contributors to this volume are internationally known scientists and clinical researchers in their respective fields of investigation and treatment. *Opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology and provides substantive evidence for the promise of this field in the treatment of disease *Summarizes current understanding on the presence and function of central nervous system (CNS) cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease *Includes novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data *Offers new insight into triggers for the development of autoimmune diseases in the brain and the possibilities for treatment

Cytokines and the Brain

Cytokines and the Brain
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-18
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 0080559352
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology providing substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. The volume is a collection of complex, new data drawn from multiple areas of investigation in the field. The contents summarize current understanding on the presence and function of CNS cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease. The chapters are a collection of complex, new data demonstrating the presence and synthesis of cytokines in brain cells, as well as their receptors on cell membranes in health and disease. The strength of the volume are the descriptions of the authors own investigations, together with those of others in the field pertaining to a large number of cytokines in brain function, as well as mechanisms involved in the development of CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Also included are novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data. The contributors to this volume are internationally known scientists and clinical researchers in their respective fields of investigation and treatment. *Opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology and provides substantive evidence for the promise of this field in the treatment of disease *Summarizes current understanding on the presence and function of central nervous system (CNS) cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease *Includes novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data *Offers new insight into triggers for the development of autoimmune diseases in the brain and the possibilities for treatment

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain
  • Author : Silvia Alboni,Laura Maggi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-18
  • Total pages :158
  • ISBN : 9782889197682
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Summary : It is now accepted that immune molecules are not only present within the brain during pathology but they exert physiological functions in the “healthy” brain as well. Increasing evidence points to a neuro-modulatory role of cytokines and chemokines (CHEMOtactic cytoKINES) in basal transmission and plasticity processes where signaling between peri-synaptic astrocytes, microglia and neurons plays an important role. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms as to how cytokines, and in particular chemokines, participate in the molecular and cellular processes thought to subserve memory formation, plasticity processes and responsiveness to environmental stimuli remain to be clarified. Interestingly, in in vitro preparations, molecules like TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2 and CCL3 are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, in modulation of glutamatergic transmission, in plasticity and neurogenesis, in particular in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an extremely plastic structure, one of the main neurogenic niches in the adult brain, that exhibits a marked sensibility to environmental stimuli. Indeed exposure of mice to environmental enrichment (EE) modifies learning and memory abilities increasing neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity whether exposure to severe stressful experiences diminishes neurotrophic support, impairs neurogenesis, plasticity and cognition. In the hippocampus cytokines play a key role in mediating both positive as well as negative effects of the environment affecting neuronal plasticity also in stress related pathologies, such as depression. It has been reported that mice lacking type 1 receptor for IL-1 display impaired hippocampal memory and LTP that are restored by EE; moreover negative effects on neuronal plasticity (and thus behavior) induced by stress exposure can be prevented by blocking IL-1 activity. In addition, mice lacking IL-6 have improved cognitive functions whereas the absence of microglia-driven CX3CR1 signaling increases hippocampal plasticity and spatial memory occluding the potentiating effects of EE. However, the factors mediating the effect of environmental stimuli on behavior and plasticity has been only partially identified. Interestingly, it has been suggested that chemokines can play a key role in the flexibility of hippocampal structure and may modulate neuronal signaling during behavior. The question is how cytokines may translate environmental stimuli in plasticity and behavioral changes. This research topic is proposed to explore the role of cytokines, and more in particular chemokines, in the modulation of neuronal activity as a fundamental step for the correct brain wiring, function and susceptibility to environment. We encourage the submission of original research reports, review articles, commentaries, perspectives or short communications, in the following (but not limited to) topics: - Role of cytokines and chemokines in neuronal plasticity - Immune molecules and responsiveness to environment - Role of chemokine in the flexibility of hippocampal structure

Cytokines, Stress, and Depression

Cytokines, Stress, and Depression
  • Author : Robert Dantzer,Emmanuelle E. Wollmann,Raz Yirmiya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-23
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : 9780585379708
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Summary : Cytokines had been characterized in the early eighties as communication mole cules between immune cells, and between immunocytes and other peripheral cells, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. They play a key role in the regulation of the immune response and the coordination of the host response to infection. Based on these biological properties, nobody would have predicted that one decade later cytokines would burst upon neurosciences and permeate into several avenues of current research. In neurology, the connection between cytokines and inflammation, and the demonstration of a pivotal role of some of these molecules in cell death by apoptosis, prompted the investigation of their involvement in several neurological diseases involving an inflammatory component, including multiple sclerosis, brain trauma, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. This movement started in the late eighties, and the corresponding field of research, known as neuroimmunology, is presently booming. In psychiatry, however, the relationship between cytokines and mental disorders was much less evident and took longer to materialize. The first indication that cytokines might be involved in psychopathology came from cancerology and internal medicine.

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation
  • Author : Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda Abreu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-23
  • Total pages :318
  • ISBN : 9789535134510
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Summary : "Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation" book explains how the neuronal cells become swollen at the moment of the blood-brain barrier disruption and how they lose their immunological isolation. A cascade of cytokines and immune cells from the bloodstream enters the nervous system, inflaming neurons and activating the glia. This produces a neuroinflammatory process that can generate different neurodegenerative diseases. Better understanding of mechanisms that are activated at the time when the damage to the brain occurs could lead to the development of suitable therapies that revert the neuronal inflammation and thus prevent further damage to the nervous system.

The Neuroimmunological Basis of Behavior and Mental Disorders

The Neuroimmunological Basis of Behavior and Mental Disorders
  • Author : Allan Siegel,Steven S. Zalcman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-11-09
  • Total pages :438
  • ISBN : 9780387848518
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Summary : For many years, the immune and central nervous systems were thought to function independently with little or no interaction between the two. This view has und- gone dramatic changes over the past three decades. Indeed, we now know that there exists various feedback loops between the brain and immune systems that impact signi cantly upon different behavioral processes, including normal behavior and mental disorders. Pioneering efforts in generating this change were initiated by a number of early investigators. Included were those whose efforts were directed at establishing neuroimmune connections as well as others whose research focused upon the relationship between immunity, cytokines, and behavior. This book brings together outstanding scientists and clinicians who have made major contributions to the rapidly developing eld investigating the relationship between immunity and behavior. The book is divided into three parts. The rst part describes pathways by which the brain and immune systems communicate and int- act with each other. In the chapter “Cytokines and the Blood–Brain Barrier” p- vides insight into interactions between the blood–brain barrier and cytokines. Such interactions underlie basic communication between the immune system and brain that are present in normal as well as in disease conditions. In the chapter “Neu- chemical and Endocrine Responses to Immune Activation: The Role of Cytokines,” the neurochemical and endocrine consequences of immune challenge and cytokine administration on central neurotransmitter activity are discussed.

Cytokines and Mental Health

Cytokines and Mental Health
  • Author : Ziad Kronfol
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :426
  • ISBN : 9781461503231
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Summary : Cytokines and Mental Health explores the relationship between cytokines, neural circuitry and mental health. It is interdisciplinary and "translational", bringing together information that spans the spectrum from the molecular and cellular levels to the patient and the clinic. Content includes chapters that discuss cytokine pathways in the brain, the neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of cytokines, and the behavioral effects of cytokines including sickness behavior. These chapters in basic research are followed by a more clinical section that discusses the role of cytokines in neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The book offers different things to different people. It should be of great interest to neuroscientists and immunologists working in the field of psychoneuroimmunology. It would also greatly benefit mental health professionals including psychiatrists, psychologists and clinicians of diverse background who are interested in mind-body medicine.

Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis

Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis
  • Author : M. Filippi,M. Rovaris,G. Comi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-02-01
  • Total pages :236
  • ISBN : 8847003911
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Summary : Written by world-renowned scientists, the volume provides a state-of-the-art on the most recent MRI techniques related to MS, and it is an indispensable tool for all those working in this field. The context in which this book exists is that there is an increasing perception that modern MR methodologies should be more extensively employed in clinical trials to derive innovative information.

The Inflamed Mind

The Inflamed Mind
  • Author : Edward Bullmore
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-31
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9781250318152
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Summary : As seen on "CBS This Morning" Worldwide, depression will be the single biggest cause of disability in the next twenty years. But treatment for it has not changed much in the last three decades. In the world of psychiatry, time has apparently stood still...until now with Edward Bullmore's The Inflamed Mind: A Radical New Approach to Depression. A Sunday Times (London) Top Ten Bestseller In this game-changing book, University of Cambridge profressor of psychiatry Edward Bullmore reveals the breakthrough new science on the link between depression and inflammation of the body and brain. He explains how and why we now know that mental disorders can have their root cause in the immune system, and outlines a future revolution in which treatments could be specifically targeted to break the vicious cycles of stress, inflammation, and depression. The Inflamed Mind goes far beyond the clinic and the lab, representing a whole new way of looking at how mind, brain, and body all work together in a sometimes misguided effort to help us survive in a hostile world. It offers insights into how we could start getting to grips with depression and other mental disorders much more effectively in the future.

Central Nervous System Diseases and Inflammation

Central Nervous System Diseases and Inflammation
  • Author : Thomas E. Lane,Monica Carson,Conni Bergmann,Tony Wyss-Coray
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-12-24
  • Total pages :318
  • ISBN : 0387738940
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Summary : Edited and authored by top names in the field, this book provides a succinct reference on inflammatory central nervous system disease. It focuses on current areas of investigation in the fields of neuroimmunology, virology, pharmacology, and disease. Sections focus on specific categories of diseases, examining the pharmacological, virological, and immunological effects of and on the disease. This book’s unique organization provides a concise overview of inflammatory CNS disease.

Cytokines and Pain

Cytokines and Pain
  • Author : L.R. Watkins,S.F. Maier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :225
  • ISBN : 3764358491
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Summary : The purpose of this book is to examine immune-to-brain communication from the viewpoint of its effect on pain processing, and to clarify the major role that substances released by immune cells play in pain modulation. In these chapters, contributed by major laboratories whose focus is understanding how cytokines modulate pain, the perspectives examined range from evolutionary approaches across diverse species, to the basics of the immune response, to the effect of cytokines on peripheral and central nervous system sites, to therapeutic potential in humans. -- book cover.

Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration

Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration
  • Author : Phillip K. Peterson,Michal Toborek
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-08
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9781493910717
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Summary : State of the art reviews by experts in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, microbiology/infectious diseases and pharmacology addressing the convergence of the immune system (neuroinflammation) and the loss of neurons (neurodegeneration). Many of the diseases that are discussed in the book are of epidemic proportion, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, viral encephalitides and substance abuse. In addition to discussions of the involvement of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in these disorders, scientific reviews are presented on the cells and mediators that participate in defense of and damage to the nervous system. With rare exception, no or inadequate treatment exists for the diseases discussed in this book. An underlying premise of the book is that understanding of their shared pathogenic mechanisms will lead to improved therapies. Given the rapid evolution of the field of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, readers will find this book to be the most timely and authoritative reference on the subject of each of its chapters.

New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology

New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology
  • Author : Istvan Berczi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-05-27
  • Total pages :284
  • ISBN : 0123846927
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Summary : New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology investigates the mechanisms that and functions of the Neuroimmune Regulatory Supersystem. Covering molecular regulation of cytokines in brain astrocytes, immunoregulation by the sympathetic nervous system, circadian regulation of immune reactions, antigen recognition by the CNS, the modulation of the immune response by head injury, neurogenic inflammation, the role of tachykinins in asthma and allergic disease, defence and defeat reactions, cytokines, behavior and affective disorders, increased activity of type 1 helper T cell functions after reward stimulation. This book has relevance to the entire scientific community in Biology, Medicine and Veterinary medicine as it discusses molecular, cellular, organic and systemic aspects as well as the physological, pathophysiological and behavioral mechnisms which are involved in Neuroimmiune Biology.

Glial Cells: Managers of Neuro-immunity

Glial Cells: Managers of Neuro-immunity
  • Author : Carlos Barcia,Gilles J. Guillemin,James F. Curtin,Jeffrey M. Zirger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-30
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889198351
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Summary : Immune responses within the brain are still scarcely explored. Nerve tissue damage is accompanied by the activation of glial cells, primarily microglia and astroglia, and such activation is responsible for the release of cytokines and chemokines that maintain the local inflammatory response and actively recruit lymphocytes and monocytes to the damaged areas. Theoretically, these responses are designed to repair the brain damage. However, alterations, or a chronic perpetuation of these responses may underlie a number of neuro-pathologies. It is thought that each inflammatory scenario within the brain have a specific biochemical footprint characterized by the release of determined cytokines, chemokines and growing factors able to define particular immunological responses. Alongside, glial cells transform their cell body, become larger and develop higher number of branches adopting an active morphological phenotype. These changes are related with the search of interactions with other cells, such as bystander resident cells of the brain parenchyma, but also cells homing from the blood stream. In this process, microglia and astrocytes communicates with other cells by the formation of specific intercellular connections that are still poorly understood. These interactions are complex and entail the arrangement of cytoskeletal compounds, secretory and phagocytic domains. In this particular crosstalk there is a two-way communication in which glial cells and target cells come together establishing interfaces with specific information exchange. This way, glial cells orchestrate the particular response recruiting cellular subsets within the central nervous system and organizing the resolution of the brain damage. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we compile a selection of articles unfolding diverse aspects of glial-derived inflammation, focused on neurodegenerative diseases and other nervous system disorders, with special emphasis on microglia/macrophages as leading actors managing neuro-immunity.

Advances in Dementia Research

Advances in Dementia Research
  • Author : Kurt A. Jellinger,Reinhold Schmidt,Manfred Windisch
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-07
  • Total pages :339
  • ISBN : 9783709167816
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Summary : Dementia is a major health problem that becomes increasingly common with advancing age. Despite recent progress in neurobiology and molecular genetics, the aetiology and pathogenesis of most dementia disorders are still poorly understood, and early exact diagnosis as a prerequisite of effective treatment needs to be improved. The present volume includes the contributions of renowned experts in the field of neurodegeneration presented at the International Symposium "Ageing and Dementia 1999”, September 24–26, 1999 at Graz. It focusses on genetics, epidemiology, new neuroimaging techniques, and the role of vascular, immunological and other mechanisms including oxidative stress and estrogens in the development of neurodegeneration and dementia. Recent developments in diagnosis and therapy of Alzheimer disease and related disorders are reviewed and future therapeutic approaches are discussed. Thus, this volume provides a timely overview of most recent developments in dementia research and treatment strategies of dementia disorders.

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues
  • Author : Maria Foti,Massimo Locati
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-17
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780128042199
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Summary : Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues discusses the cytokines networks in the context of the specific-tissue environment. It is an up-to-date collection of articles that addresses the specific issue of how the cytokines are able to condition tissue specific homeostasis. The book helps the reader understand how cytokines network inside the tissues and highlights whether tissue-protection or exacerbation will be finally controlled. It describes the cytokines detected and regulated in different tissues, such as the brain, lungs, spleen, liver, pancreas and intestine, also addressing the issue of timing in specific cell types. Categorizes the cytokines based primarily on tissue and target cells Emphasizes different roles and outcomes observed during innate and adaptive response Represents a rapid guide to cytokines in health and disease in tissue and organ context Presents a different view on how known mediators may work if analyzed in a different perspective, determining the final outcome on tissue-specific target cells

Cytokines in the Nervous System

Cytokines in the Nervous System
  • Author : Nancy J. Rothwell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-09
  • Total pages :207
  • ISBN : 9781461596950
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Summary :

Cytokine Storm Syndrome

Cytokine Storm Syndrome
  • Author : Randy Q. Cron,Edward M. Behrens
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-09
  • Total pages :617
  • ISBN : 9783030220945
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Summary : Cytokine Storm Syndromes, including HLH and MAS, are frequently fatal disorders, particularly if not recognized early and treated during presentation. The genetics of Cytokine Storm Syndromes are being defined with many of the risk alleles giving rise to mutations in the perforin-mediated cytolytic pathway used by CD8 cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. These are being studied using murine models. Up to 10% of the general population may carry risk alleles for developing Cytokine Storm Syndromes, and Cytokine Storm Syndromes are being increasingly recognized around the world in pediatric and adult hospitals. A variety of infectious, rheumatic, and oncologic triggers are commonly associated with Cytokine Storm Syndromes, but understanding this disorder is critical for all researchers and physicians to ensure timely and appropriate therapy. This textbook, the first of its kind, addresses all aspects of the disorder – from genetics, pathophysiology, and ongoing research, to clinical presentations, risk factors, and treatment.

Neuro-Immune Interactions in Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders

Neuro-Immune Interactions in Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders
  • Author : P. Patterson,C. Kordon,Y. Christen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :204
  • ISBN : 9783642596438
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Summary : The idea that the brain is an "immune-privileged site" has perhaps served to slow our realization that the intact brain can generate its own inflammatory reactions. These responses can be to peripheral infection, or they can arise from local, internal causes, for instance as a response to stress or to the se vere changes in neuronal activity in seizure or the loss of oxygen in stroke. We are also becoming increasingly aware of the contribution of local inflam matory reactions to certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's In fact, evidence is accumulating that inflammatory processes disease (AD). contribute to the progression of AD, suggesting the possibility of using cur rently available or novel anti-inflammatory agents to interfere with this terri ble disease. Correlations are also being made between inflammatory signs and mental illness, which is a new frontier of research. This book presents the current state of knowledge in a variety of areas relevant to neuro-immune interactions, with particular attention to AD.

Recent Advances in Epilepsy Research

Recent Advances in Epilepsy Research
  • Author : Devin K. Binder,Helen E. Scharfman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-14
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9781475763768
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Summary : Epilepsy research has entered an exciting phase as advances in molecular analysis have supplemented in vitro and in vivo electrophysiologic and phenotypic characterization. Recent Advances in Epilepsy Research sets forth a series of chapter reviews by researchers involved in these advances. This volume is a composite profile of some exciting recent investigations in select areas of enquiry. Key features: neurogenetics of seizure disorders, new developments in cellular and molecular neurobiology of seizure disorders, the role of growth factors in seizures, new advances in the roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors and GABA receptors and transporters, gap junctions, neuroimmunology of epilepsy, malformations of cortical development, neurogenesis, new animal models of epilepsy and the use of brain stimulation to treat epilepsy. This book should be of interest to a wide variety of audiences, including graduate students in neurobiology and related disciplines, neuroscientists, medical students, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and industry including pharmaceutical companies and medical device companies. There are many ideas in this book that will lead ingenious innovators in academia and industry to develop new and better therapies.

Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

Peripheral Nerve Regeneration
  • Author : Giovanna Gambarotta,Kirsten Haastert-Talini,Esther Udina,Stefania Raimondo,James Phillips
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-12-24
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889632688
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Summary :