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Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering

Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering
  • Author : Nasim Uddin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780857098955
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Summary : The use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials has had a dramatic impact on civil engineering techniques over the past three decades. FRPs are an ideal material for structural applications where high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios are required. Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering outlines the latest developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites and their applications in civil engineering. Part one outlines the general developments of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) use, reviewing recent advancements in the design and processing techniques of composite materials. Part two outlines particular types of fiber-reinforced polymers and covers their use in a wide range of civil engineering and structural applications, including their use in disaster-resistant buildings, strengthening steel structures and bridge superstructures. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering is an essential text for researchers and engineers in the field of civil engineering and industries such as bridge and building construction. Outlines the latest developments in fiber-reinforced polymer composites and their applications in civil engineering Reviews recent advancements in the design and processing techniques of composite materials Covers the use of particular types of fiber-reinforced polymers in a wide range of civil engineering and structural applications

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : O. Gunes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087688
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Summary : Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials have been increasingly used in civil engineering applications in the past two decades. Their wide ranging use, however, is still not realized due to a few fundamental issues including high material costs, relatively short history of applications and the gaps in the development of established standards. Design safety requires that all possible modes and mechanisms of failure are identified, characterized, and accounted for in the design procedures. This chapter provides a review of the failure types encountered in structural engineering applications of FRP and the preventive methods and strategies that have been developed to eliminate or delay such failures. As part of preventive measures, various non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) methods used for monitoring FRP applications are discussed with illustrative examples.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : S. Moy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087701
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Summary : This chapter deals with the uses of advanced composite materials in the construction industry. After considering the advantages of using composites and methods of fabrication, it outlines the surprisingly wide range of applications of composites. Examples are given from around the world of components and complete buildings and bridges, railway and other infrastructure, geotechnical applications and pipes for the water sector. Finally a number of more unusual or future possibilities are presented.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : R. Liang,G. Hota
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087794
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Summary : This chapter presents dozens of select environmental engineering applications of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials with emphasis on their environmental benefits, followed by discussions on durability of composites. Significance of design codes and specifications in promoting and advancing the applications of FRP composites is addressed. With ever increasing attention toward a sustainable built environment, FRP composites have potential to be selected as a material of choice because of the performance and design advantages of FRPs.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : P. Qiao,J.F. Davalos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087800
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Summary : This chapter presents a systematic approach for material characterization, analysis, and design of all-fiber-reinforced polymer or plastic (FRP) composite structures. The suggested ‘bottom-up’ analysis concept is applied throughout the procedure, from materials/microstructures, to macro components, to structural members, and finally to structural systems, thus providing a systematic analysis methodology for all-FRP composite structures. The systematic approach described in this chapter can be used efficiently to analyze and design FRP shapes and bridge systems and also develop new design concepts for all composite structures.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : Y. Gowayed
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087640
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Summary : In fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), as a special type of polymer matrix composite, fibers provide the stiffness and strength while the surrounding plastic matrix transfers the stress between fibers and protects them. In this chapter, the role of fibers in FRP is delineated, their types and properties are discussed and the fabric forms in which they can be formed and used to reinforce FRP are presented. A special focus is given to the effect of the chemical structure of fibers on the stability and the level of anisotropy of their mechanical response. Furthermore, the effect of assembling these fibers into yarns and fabrics on the response of the FRP is presented as basis for further readings.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : D. Lau
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087718
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Summary : Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been a practical alternative construction material for replacing steel in the construction industry for several decades. However, some mechanical weaknesses of FRP are still unresolved, which limit the extensive use of this material in civil infrastructure. In order to mitigate the disadvantage of using FRP, the concept of hybridization is delivered here. The advantages of hybrid structural systems include the cost effectiveness and the ability to optimize the cross section based on material properties of each constituent material. In this chapter, two major applications of hybrid FRP composites are discussed: (1) the internal reinforcement in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, and (2) the cables in long-span cable-stayed bridges. In order to improve the flexural ductility of FRP-reinforced concrete (FRPRC) beam, the additional steel longitudinal reinforcement is proposed such that the hybrid FRPRC beams contain both FRP and steel reinforcement. In order to improve the vibrational problem in pure FRP cables used in bridge construction, an innovative hybrid FRP cable which can inherently incorporate a smart damper is proposed. The objective of this chapter is to deliver an up-to-date review of hybrid FRP composite structures, including both the industrial practice and the research in academia. The advantages of using hybrid FRP composites for construction will also be described with experimental support. It is hoped that the reader will appreciate the concept of hybridization, which leads to the efficient utilization of all constituent materials in a bonded system.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : M. Dawood
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087787
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Summary : This chapter summarizes the recent advances in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials for repair, rehabilitation, and strengthening of steel structures. Conventional methods of strengthening and repairing steel structures are presented. The advantages and limitations of using FRP materials are summarized. Topics presented include strengthening of flexural members, strengthening with prestressed FRP materials, stress-based and fracture mechanics-based approaches to evaluating bond behavior, repair of cracked steel members, and strengthening of slender members subjected to compression forces. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of future trends in this field and a summary of other resources for further information.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : O. Faruk,M.S. Ain
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087657
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Summary : Biofibers are emerging as a low cost, lightweight and environmentally superior alternative in composites. Generally, different fibers exhibit different properties that are fundamentally important to the resultant composites. This chapter gives an overview of the most common biofibers in biocomposites, covering their sources, types, structure, composition, and properties. Drawbacks of biofibers, such as dimensional instability, moisture absorption, biological, ultraviolet and fire resistance, will be discussed. The chapter will focus on their modifications (physical and chemical methods), matrices based on their petrochemical resources and bio-based, processing of biofiber reinforced plastic composites covering the factors influencing processing (humidity, additives, machinery, processing parameter, fiber content and length), and processing techniques (compounding, compression molding, extrusion, injection molding, pultrusion and others) will be discussed. The properties of the biocomposites based on their mechanical, physical, and biological behavior will also be covered. Lastly, this chapter concludes with recent developments and trends of biocomposites in the near future in civil engineering.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : J. Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087695
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Summary : Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) members using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites through external bonding has emerged as a viable technique to retrofit/repair deteriorated infrastructure. The interface between the FRP and concrete plays a critical role in this technique. This chapter discusses the analytical and experimental methods used to examine the integrity and long-term durability of this interface. Interface stress models, including the commonly adopted two-parameter elastic foundation model and a novel three-parameter elastic foundation model (3PEF) are first presented, which can be used as general tools to analyze and evaluate the design of the FRP strengthening system. Then two interface fracture models – linear elastic fracture mechanics and cohesive zone model – are established to analyze the potential and full debonding process of the FRP–concrete interface. Under the synergistic effects of the service loads and environments species, the FRP–concrete interface experiences deterioration, which may reduce its long-term durability. A novel experimental method, environment-assisted subcritical debonding testing, is then introduced to evaluate this deteriorating process. The existing small cracks along the FRP–concrete interface can grow slowly even if the mechanical load is lower than the critical value. This slow-crack growth process is known as environment-assisted subcritical cracking. A series of subcritical cracking tests are conducted using a wedge-driven test setup t o gain the ability to accurately predict the long-term durability of the FRP–concrete interface.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : Y. Kitane,A.J. Aref
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087770
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Summary : This chapter first reviews current structural applications of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in bridge structures, and describes advantages of FRP in bridge applications. This chapter then introduces the design of a hybrid FRP-concrete bridge superstructure, which has been developed at The University at Buffalo for the past ten years, and discusses structural performance of the superstructure based on extensive experimental and analytical studies.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : R. El-Hajjar,H. Tan,K.M. Pillai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087664
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Summary : Modern structural applications of composite materials are dictated by the processing methods available. In this chapter, we introduce recent developments related to the manufacturing of composites in civil engineering applications using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, pultrusion, and automated fiber placement.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : N. Uddin,A.M. Abro,J.D. Purdue,U. Vaidya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087763
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Summary : Abstract: The primary objective of this chapter is first to introduce and demonstrate the application of thermoplastic (woven glass reinforced polypropylene) in the design of modular fiber-reinforced bridge decks, and next the development of jackets for confining concrete columns against compression and impact loading. The design concept and manufacturing processes of the thermoplastic bridge deck composite structural system are presented by recognizing the structural demands required to support highway traffic. Then the results of the small-scale static cylinder tests and the impact tests of concrete columns are presented, demonstrating that thermoplastic reinforcement jackets act to restrain the lateral expansion of the concrete that accompanies the onset of crushing, maintaining the integrity of the core concrete, and enabling much higher compression strains (compared to CFRP composite wraps) to be sustained by the compression zone before failure occurs.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : N. Uddin,M.A. Mousa,U. Vaidya,F.H. Fouad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087725
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Summary : This chapter discusses design for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)/autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) sandwich panels for structural applications. The chapter first presents the finite element analysis (FE) of FRP/AAC panels. The FE results are compared with the experimental results showing acceptable agreement. Next, analytical models are presented to predict the deflection and strength of the panels. Finally, design graphs have been developed to help in designing the floor and wall panels made from FRP/AAC panels. Also, those panels have been compared to the commercially used reinforced AAC panels demonstrating that FRP/AAC panels offer a relatively cost-effective solution for longer life cycle.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : N. Uddin,A. Vaidya,U. Vaidya,S. Pillay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087756
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Summary : Modular panelized construction is a modern form of construction technique in which precast multifunctional structural panels are used. In this technique, precast panels are fabricated in the manufacturing facility and are transported to the construction site. Traditional structural insulated panels (SIPs) consist of oriented strand boards (OSB) as facesheets and expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam as the core. These panels are highly energy efficient but have issues in terms of poor impact resistance and higher life cycle costs. Proposed panels consist of E-glass/polypropylene (PP) laminates as facesheets and EPS foam as core and are called composite structural insulated panels (CSIPs). Proposed CSIPs overcome the issues of traditional SIPs and retain all the energy-saving benefits of the traditional SIPs. This chapter describes manufacturing techniques developed for CSIPs and connection details for bonding CSIPs on the construction site. Based on the experimental investigation, ultrasonic welding was found to be the most suitable technique for joining the proposed CSIPs.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : N. Uddin,S. Cauthen,L. Ramos,U.K. Vaidya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087671
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Summary : High-quality and expedient repair methods are necessary to address concrete deterioration that can occur in bridge structures. Most infrastructure-related applications of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) use hand layup methods. Hand layup is tedious, labor-intensive and results are sensitive to personnel skill level. An alternative method of FRP application is vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). VARTM uses single-sided molding technology to infuse resin over fabrics wrapping large structures, such as bridge girders and columns. There is no research currently available on the interface developed, when VARTM processing is adopted to wrap fibers such as carbon and/ or glass over concrete structures. This chapter investigates the shear and flexural strength gains of a beam by carbon fiber cast on concrete using the VARTM method. The carbon fiber composite was made using Sikadur HEX 103C and low viscosity epoxy resin Sikadur 300. Tests were conducted to determine and document the gains of FRP rehabilitated beams applied by the VARTM method compared to the hand layup method of application. This newly introduced technique to repair and retrofit a simple span I-565 prestressed concrete bridge girder in Huntsville, Alabama, was implemented in the field within two days without any traffic interruption, and the field demonstration of this newly introduced technique to civil infrastructure is presented to the end.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : N.U. Uddin,M.A. Mousa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087749
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Summary : The chapter begins by discussing a new type of sandwich panel called composite structural insulated panels (CSIPs) intended to replace the traditional SIPs that are made of wood-based materials. A detailed analytical modeling procedure is presented in order to determine the global buckling, interfacial tensile stress at facesheet/core debonding, critical wrinkling stress at facesheet/core debonding, equivalent stiffness, and deflection for CSIPs. The proposed models were validated using experimental results that have been conducted on full-scale CSIP walls and floor panels. In order to be used as a hazard-resistant material, a detailed section was presented to show the resistance of CSIP elements to the different types of hazard effects, including impact loading, floodwater effect, fire effect, and windstorm loading.

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering

Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering
  • Author : N. Uddin,M.A. Mousa,F.H. Fouad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128087732
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Summary : The low velocity impact response of plain autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and FRP/AAC sandwich panels has been investigated. The structural sandwich panels composed of a FRP/AAC combination have shown excellent characteristics in terms of high strength and high stiffness-to-weight ratios. In addition to having adequate flexural and shear properties, the behavior of FRP/AAC sandwich panels needs to be investigated when subjected to impact loading. During service, the structural members in the building structures are subjected to impact loading that varies from object-caused impact, blast due to explosions, to high velocity impact of debris during tornados, hurricanes, or storms. Low velocity impact (LVI) testing serves as a means to quantify the allowable impact energy that the structure is able to withstand and to assess the typical failure modes encountered during this type of loading. The objectives of this chapter are: to study the response of plain AAC and CFRP/AAC sandwich structures to low velocity impact and to assess the damage performance of the panels; to study the effect of FRP laminates on the impact response of CFRP/AAC panels; to study the effect of the processing method (hand layup versus VARTM) and panel stiffness on the impact response of the hybrid panels. Impact testing was conducted using an Instron drop-tower testing machine. Experimental results showed a significant influence of CFRPs laminates on the energy absorbed and peak load of the CFRP/AAC panels. Further, a theoretical analysis was conducted to predict the energy absorbed by the CFRP/AAC sandwich panel using the energy balance model, and the results found were in good accordance with the experimental ones.

The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering

The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering
  • Author : Manoochehr Zoghi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-26
  • Total pages :706
  • ISBN : 9780849320132
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Summary : Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have become an integral part of the construction industry because of their versatility, enhanced durability and resistance to fatigue and corrosion, high strength-to-weight ratio, accelerated construction, and lower maintenance and life-cycle costs. Advanced FRP composite materials are also emerging for a wide range of civil infrastructure applications. These include everything from bridge decks, bridge strengthening and repairs, and seismic retrofit to marine waterfront structures and sustainable, energy-efficient housing. The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering brings together a wealth of information on advances in materials, techniques, practices, nondestructive testing, and structural health monitoring of FRP composites, specifically for civil infrastructure. With a focus on professional applications, the handbook supplies design guidelines and standards of practice from around the world. It also includes helpful design formulas, tables, and charts to provide immediate answers to common questions. Organized into seven parts, the handbook covers: FRP fundamentals, including history, codes and standards, manufacturing, materials, mechanics, and life-cycle costs Bridge deck applications and the critical topic of connection design for FRP structural members External reinforcement for rehabilitation, including the strengthening of reinforced concrete, masonry, wood, and metallic structures FRP composites for the reinforcement of concrete structures, including material characteristics, design procedures, and quality assurance–quality control (QA/QC) issues Hybrid FRP composite systems, with an emphasis on design, construction, QA/QC, and repair Quality control, quality assurance, and evaluation using nondestructive testing, and in-service monitoring using structural health monitoring of FRP composites, including smart composites that can actively sense and respond to the environment and internal states FRP-related books, journals, conference proceedings, organizations, and research sources Comprehensive yet concise, this is an invaluable reference for practicing engineers and construction professionals, as well as researchers and students. It offers ready-to-use information on how FRP composites can be more effectively utilized in new construction, repair and reconstruction, and architectural engineering.

Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures

Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures
  • Author : David A Hensher
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-01-22
  • Total pages :459
  • ISBN : 9781483291437
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Summary : The use of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composites for prestressed and non-prestressed concrete reinforcement has developed into a technology with serious and substantial claims for the advancement of construction materials and methods. Research and development is now occurring worldwide. The 20 papers in this volume make a further contribution in advancing knowledge and acceptance of FRP composites for concrete reinforcement. The articles are divided into three parts. Part I introduces FRP reinforcement for concrete structures and describes general material properties and manufacturing methods. Part II covers a three-continent perspective of current R&D, design and code implementations, and technical organizations' activities. Part III presents an in-depth description of commercially-available products, construction methods, and applications. The work is intended for engineers, researchers, and developers with the objective of presenting them with a world-wide cross-section of initiatives, representative products and significant applications.

Advances in FRP Composites in Civil Engineering

Advances in FRP Composites in Civil Engineering
  • Author : Lieping Ye,Peng Feng,Qingrui Yue
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-01
  • Total pages :1100
  • ISBN : 3642174868
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Summary : "Advances in FRP Composites in Civil Engineering" contains the papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in Civil Engineering in 2010, which is an official conference of the International Institute for FRP in Construction (IIFC). The book includes 7 keynote papers which are presented by top professors and engineers in the world and 203 papers covering a wide spectrum of topics. These important papers not only demonstrate the recent advances in the application of FRP composites in civil engineering, but also point to future research endeavors in this exciting area. Researchers and professionals in the field of civil engineering will find this book is exceedingly valuable. Prof. Lieping Ye and Dr. Peng Feng both work at the Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, China. Qingrui Yue is a Professor at China Metallurgical Group Corporation.