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Dielectric Elastomers as Electromechanical Transducers

Dielectric Elastomers as Electromechanical Transducers
  • Author : Federico Carpi,Danilo De Rossi,Roy Kornbluh,Ronald Edward Pelrine,Peter Sommer-Larsen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-09-06
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 0080557724
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Summary : Dielectric Elastomers as Electromechanical Transducers provides a comprehensive and updated insight into dielectric elastomers; one of the most promising classes of polymer-based smart materials and technologies. This technology can be used in a very broad range of applications, from robotics and automation to the biomedical field. The need for improved transducer performance has resulted in considerable efforts towards the development of devices relying on materials with intrinsic transduction properties. These materials, often termed as “smart or “intelligent , include improved piezoelectrics and magnetostrictive or shape-memory materials. Emerging electromechanical transduction technologies, based on so-called ElectroActive Polymers (EAP), have gained considerable attention. EAP offer the potential for performance exceeding other smart materials, while retaining the cost and versatility inherent to polymer materials. Within the EAP family, “dielectric elastomers , are of particular interest as they show good overall performance, simplicity of structure and robustness. Dielectric elastomer transducers are rapidly emerging as high-performance “pseudo-muscular actuators, useful for different kinds of tasks. Further, in addition to actuation, dielectric elastomers have also been shown to offer unique possibilities for improved generator and sensing devices. Dielectric elastomer transduction is enabling an enormous range of new applications that were precluded to any other EAP or smart-material technology until recently. This book provides a comprehensive and updated insight into dielectric elastomer transduction, covering all its fundamental aspects. The book deals with transduction principles, basic materials properties, design of efficient device architectures, material and device modelling, along with applications. Concise and comprehensive treatment for practitioners and academics Guides the reader through the latest developments in electroactive-polymer-based technology Designed for ease of use with sections on fundamentals, materials, devices, models and applications

Electromechanical Coupling Behavior of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers

Electromechanical Coupling Behavior of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers
  • Author : Jianyou Zhou
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :278
  • ISBN : OCLC:1071143807
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Summary : Dielectric elastomer transducers with large deformation, high energy output, light weight and low cost have been drawing great interest from both the research and industry communities, and shown potential for versatile applications in biomimetics, dynamics, robotics and energy harvesting. However, in addition to multiple failure modes such as electrical breakdown, electromechanical instability, loss-of- tension and fatigue, the performance of dielectric elastomer transducers are also strongly influenced by the hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of the material. Also, the interplay among these material properties and the failure modes is rather difficult to predict. Therefore, in order to provide guidelines for the optimal design of dielectric elastomer transducers, it is essential to first develop accurate and reliable models, and efficient numerical methods to investigate their performance. First, this thesis purposes a boundary- constraint method to eliminate the electromechanical instability of dielectric elastomer actuators under voltage-control loading condition and improve their actuation deformation. Second, based on the finite-deformation viscoelasticity model, the natural frequency tuning process of viscoelastic dielectric elastomer resonators is examined in this work. It is found that the tuned natural frequency is highly affected by the material viscoelasticity. Also, it is concluded that the electrical loading rate only influences the tunable frequency range and the safe operation voltage of the resonator, but not the tuned natural frequency when the applied voltage is within the safe range. Third, with the finite-deformation viscoelasticity model, the energy conversion efficiency of dielectric elastomer generators under equi-biaxial loading is also investigated in this work. Simulation results show that increasing the maximum stretch ratio and the rate of defor mation, and choosing a proper bias voltage can lead to an improvement of the energy conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the fatigue life of dielectric elastomer devices under cyclic loading is explored in this work for the first time . Simulation results have demonstrated that the energy conversion efficiency of dielectric elastomer generators is compromised by their fatigue life. To tackle the critical challenges for the development and design of dielectric elastomers transducers, this research develops theoretical models and numerical methods that are able to capture the nonlinear electromechanical coupling, the material properties, the typical failure modes and different operating conditions of dielectric elastomer transducers. With more accurate and reliable modeling methods, this work is expected to provide a comprehensive understanding on the fundamentals and technologies of dielectric elastomer transducers and trigger more innovative and optimal design of such devices.

Electroactivity in Polymeric Materials

Electroactivity in Polymeric Materials
  • Author : Lenore Rasmussen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-03-02
  • Total pages :162
  • ISBN : 9781461408789
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Summary : Electroactivity in Polymeric Materials provides an in-depth view of the theory of electroactivity and explores exactly how and why various electroactive phenomena occur. The book explains the theory behind electroactive bending (including ion-polymer-metal-composites –IPMCs), dielectric elastomers, electroactive contraction, and electroactive contraction-expansion cycles. The book also balances theory with applications – how electroactivity can be used – drawing inspiration from the manmade mechanical world and the natural world around us.

Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications
  • Author : David McCoul
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :379
  • ISBN : OCLC:1078226655
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Summary : Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 m diameter PDMS microbeads and other smaller particulate debris into the system. After a channel blockage was confirmed, three actuation attempts successfully cleared the blockage. Further tests indicated that the device were biocompatible with HeLa cells at 3 kV. To our knowledge this is the first pairing of dielectric elastomers with microfluidics in a non-electroosmotic context. Applications may include adaptive microfilters, micro-peristaltic pumps, and reduced-complexity lab-on-a-chip devices. Dielectric elastomers can also be adapted to manipulate fluidic systems on a larger scale. The second part of the dissertation research reports a novel low-profile, biomimetic dielectric elastomer tubular actuator capable of actively controlling hydraulic flow. The tubular actuator has been established as a reliable tunable valve, pinching a secondary silicone tube completely shut in the absence of a fluidic pressure bias or voltage, offering a high degree of resistance against fluidic flow, and able to open and completely remove this resistance to flow with an applied low power actuation voltage. The system demonstrates a rise in pressure of ~3.0 kPa when the dielectric elastomer valve is in the passive, unactuated state, and there is a quadratic fall in this pressure with increasing actuation voltage, until ~0 kPa is reached at 2.4 kV. The device is reliable for at least 2,000 actuation cycles for voltages at or below 2.2 kV. Furthermore, modeling of the actuator and fluidic system yields results consistent with the observed experimental dependence of intrasystem pressure on input flow rate, actuator prestretch, and actuation voltage. To our knowledge, this is the first actuator of its type that can control fluid flow by directly actuating the walls of a tube. Potential applications may include an implantable artificial sphincter, part of a peristaltic pump, or a computerized valve for fluidic or pneumatic control. The final part of the dissertation presents a novel dielectric elastomer band with integrated rigid elements for the treatment of chronic acid reflux disorders. This dielectric elastomer ring actuator consists of a two-layer stack of prestretched VHB(TM) 4905 with SWCNT electrodes. Its transverse prestretch was maintained by selective rigidification of the VHB(TM) using a UV-curable, solution-processable polymer network. The actuator exhibited a maximum vertical (circumferential) actuation strain of 25% at 3.4 kV in an 24.5 g weighted isotonic setup. It also exhibited the required passive force of 0.25 N and showed a maximum force drop of 0.11 N at 3.32 kV during isometric tests at 4.5 cm. Modeling was performed to determine the prestretches necessary to achieve maximum strain while simultaneously exerting the force of 0.25 N, which corresponds to a required pinching pressure of 3.35 kPa. Modeling also determined the spacing between and number of rigid elements required. The theoretical model curves were adjusted to account for the passive rigid elements, as well as for the addition of margins; the resulting plots agrees well with experiment. The performance of the DE band is comparable to that of living muscle, and this is the first application of dielectric elastomer actuators in the design of a medical implant for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Related applications that could result from this technology are very low-profile linear peristaltic pumps, artificial intestines, an artificial urethra, and artificial blood vessels.

Electromechanically Active Polymers

Electromechanically Active Polymers
  • Author : Federico Carpi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 3319317679
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Summary :

Materials Science & Engineering

Materials Science & Engineering
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105122663623
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Electroactive Polymers for Robotic Applications

Electroactive Polymers for Robotic Applications
  • Author : Kwang J. Kim,Satoshi Tadokoro
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-01-17
  • Total pages :281
  • ISBN : 9781846283727
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Summary : This book covers the fundamental properties, modeling, and demonstration of Electroactive polymers in robotic applications. It particularly details artificial muscles and sensors. In addition, the book discusses the properties and uses in robotics applications of ionic polymer–metal composite actuators and dielectric elastomers.

Elastomers

Elastomers
  • Author : Nevin Çankaya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-30
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9789535134879
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Summary : Summary-Book Contents: Your purpose of reading this book is to concentrate on recent developments on elastomers. The articles collected in this book are contributions by invited researchers with a long-standing experience in different research areas. I hope that the material presented here is understandable to a broad audience, not only scientists but also people with many different disciplines. The book contains eleven chapters in two sections: (1) "Mechanical Properties of Elastomers" and (2) "Elastomers for Natural and Medical Applications." The book provides detailed and current reviews in these different areas written by experts in their respective fields. This book will be useful for polymer workers and other scientists alike and will contribute to the training of current and future researchers, academics, PhD students, and other scientists.

Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles

Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles
  • Author : Yoseph Bar-Cohen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :671
  • ISBN : UOM:39015050483919
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Summary : This book gives a state-of-the-art look at electroactive polymers -- so-called artificial muscles. Evolving EAP materials and capabilities that mimic biological muscles show potential in a variety of fields, such as medicine, aerospace, and entertainment.

Soft Actuators

Soft Actuators
  • Author : Kinji Asaka,Hidenori Okuzaki
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-28
  • Total pages :740
  • ISBN : 9789811368509
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Summary : This book is the second edition of Soft Actuators, originally published in 2014, with 12 chapters added to the first edition. The subject of this new edition is current comprehensive research and development of soft actuators, covering interdisciplinary study of materials science, mechanics, electronics, robotics, and bioscience. The book includes contemporary research of actuators based on biomaterials for their potential in future artificial muscle technology. Readers will find detailed and useful information about materials, methods of synthesis, fabrication, and measurements to study soft actuators. Additionally, the topics of materials, modeling, and applications not only promote the further research and development of soft actuators, but bring benefits for utilization and industrialization. This volume makes generous use of color figures, diagrams, and photographs that provide easy-to-understand descriptions of the mechanisms, apparatus, and motions of soft actuators. Also, in this second edition the chapters on modeling, materials design, and device design have been given a wider scope and made easier to comprehend, which will be helpful in practical applications of soft actuators. Readers of this work can acquire the newest technology and information about basic science and practical applications of flexible, lightweight, and noiseless soft actuators, which differ from conventional mechanical engines and electric motors. This new edition of Soft Actuators will inspire readers with fresh ideas and encourage their research and development, thus opening up a new field of applications for the utilization and industrialization of soft actuators.

Artificial Muscles

Artificial Muscles
  • Author : Mohsen Shahinpoor,Kwang J. Kim,Mehran Mojarrad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-02-21
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 1584887141
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Summary : Smart materials are the way of the future in a variety of fields, from biomedical engineering and chemistry to nanoscience, nanotechnology, and robotics. Featuring an interdisciplinary approach to smart materials and structures, Artificial Muscles: Applications of Advanced Polymeric Nanocomposites thoroughly reviews the existing knowledge of ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs), including ionic polymeric metal nanocomposites (IPMNCs) as biomimetic distributed nanosensors, nanoactuators, nanotransducers, nanorobots, artificial muscles, and electrically controllable intelligent polymeric network structures. Authored by one of the founding fathers of the field, the book introduces fabrication and manufacturing methods of several electrically and chemically active ionic polymeric sensors, actuators, and artificial muscles, as well as a new class of electrically active polymeric nanocomposites and artificial muscles. It also describes a few apparatuses for modeling and testing various artificial muscles to show the viability of chemoactive and electroactive muscles. The authors present the theories, modeling, and numerical simulations of ionic polymeric artificial muscles’ electrodynamics and chemodynamics. In addition, they feature current industrial and medical applications of IPMNCs. By covering the fabrication techniques of and novel developments in advanced polymeric nanocomposites, this book provides a solid foundation in the subject while stimulating further research.

Port-Hamiltonian Systems Theory

Port-Hamiltonian Systems Theory
  • Author : Schaft Van Der,Arjan van der Schaft,Dimitri Jeltsema
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-13
  • Total pages :230
  • ISBN : 1601987862
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Summary : Port-Hamiltonian Systems Theory: An Introductory Overview provides a concise and easily accessible description of the foundations underpinning the subject and emphasizes novel developments in the field, which will be of interest to a broad range of researchers.

Polymers in Organic Electronics

Polymers in Organic Electronics
  • Author : Sulaiman Khalifeh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-01
  • Total pages :616
  • ISBN : 9781927885680
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Summary : Polymers in Organic Electronics: Polymer Selection for Electronic, Mechatronic, and Optoelectronic Systems provides readers with vital data, guidelines, and techniques for optimally designing organic electronic systems using novel polymers. The book classifies polymer families, types, complexes, composites, nanocomposites, compounds, and small molecules while also providing an introduction to the fundamental principles of polymers and electronics. Features information on concepts and optimized types of electronics and a classification system of electronic polymers, including piezoelectric and pyroelectric, optoelectronic, mechatronic, organic electronic complexes, and more. The book is designed to help readers select the optimized material for structuring their organic electronic system. Chapters discuss the most common properties of electronic polymers, methods of optimization, and polymeric-structured printed circuit boards. The polymeric structures of optoelectronics and photonics are covered and the book concludes with a chapter emphasizing the importance of polymeric structures for packaging of electronic devices. Provides key identifying details on a range of polymers, micro-polymers, nano-polymers, resins, hydrocarbons, and oligomers Covers the most common electrical, electronic, and optical properties of electronic polymers Describes the underlying theories on the mechanics of polymer conductivity Discusses polymeric structured printed circuit boards, including their rapid prototyping and optimizing their polymeric structures Shows optimization methods for both polymeric structures of organic active electronic components and organic passive electronic components

Smart Structures and Materials

Smart Structures and Materials
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015047293439
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Electrical Properties of Polymers

Electrical Properties of Polymers
  • Author : A. R. Blythe,Tony Blythe,David Bloor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-06-10
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 0521552192
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Summary : A comprehensive update on the fundamentals and recent advancements of electrical properties of polymers.

Robotic Systems and Autonomous Platforms

Robotic Systems and Autonomous Platforms
  • Author : Shawn M. Walsh,Michael S. Strano
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-11
  • Total pages :603
  • ISBN : 9780081020487
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Summary : Robotic Systems and Autonomous Platforms: Advances in Materials and Manufacturing showcases new materials and manufacturing methodologies for the enhancement of robotic and autonomous systems. Initial chapters explore how autonomous systems can enable new uses for materials, including innovations on different length scales, from nano, to macro and large systems. The means by which autonomous systems can enable new uses for manufacturing are also addressed, highlighting innovations in 3D additive manufacturing, printing of materials, novel synthesis of multifunctional materials, and robotic cooperation. Concluding themes deliver highly novel applications from the international academic, industrial and government sectors. This book will provide readers with a complete review of the cutting-edge advances in materials and manufacturing methodologies that could enhance the capabilities of robotic and autonomous systems. Presents comprehensive coverage of materials and manufacturing technologies, as well as sections on related technology, such as sensing, communications, autonomy/control and actuation Explores potential applications demonstrated by a selection of case-studies Contains contributions from leading experts in the field

Advances in Applied Mechanical Engineering

Advances in Applied Mechanical Engineering
  • Author : Hari Kumar Voruganti,K. Kiran Kumar,P. Vamsi Krishna,Xiaoliang Jin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-01
  • Total pages :1205
  • ISBN : 9789811512018
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Summary : This book presents select peer reviewed proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Mechanical Engineering Research (ICAMER 2019). The books examines various areas of mechanical engineering namely design, thermal, materials, manufacturing and industrial engineering covering topics like FEA, optimization, vibrations, condition monitoring, tribology, CFD, IC engines, turbo-machines, automobiles, manufacturing processes, machining, CAM, additive manufacturing, modelling and simulation of manufacturing processing, optimization of manufacturing processing, supply chain management, and operations management. In addition, recent studies on composite materials, materials characterization, fracture and fatigue, advanced materials, energy storage, green building, phase change materials and structural change monitoring are also covered. Given the contents, this book will be useful for students, researchers and professionals working in mechanical engineering and allied fields.

Polyurethane Elastomers

Polyurethane Elastomers
  • Author : Cristina Prisacariu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-07-03
  • Total pages :255
  • ISBN : 3709105145
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Summary : A comprehensive account of the physical / mechanical behaviour of polyurethanes (PU ́s) elastomers, films and blends of variable crystallinity. Aspects covered include the elasticity and inelasticity of amorphous to crystalline PUs, in relation to their sensitivity to chemical and physical structure. A study is made of how aspects of the constitutive responses of PUs vary with composition: the polyaddition procedure, the hard segment, soft segment and chain extender (diols and diamines) are varied systematically in a large number of systems of model and novel crosslinked andthermoplastic PUs. Results will be related to: microstructural changes, on the basis of evidence from x-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), and also dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and IR dichroism. Inelastic effects will be investigated also by including quantitative correlations between the magnitude of the Mullins effect and the fractional energy dissipation by hysteresis under cyclic straining, giving common relations approached by all the materials studied. A major structural feature explored is the relationship between the nature of the hard segment (crystallising or not) and that of the soft segments. Crystallinity has been sometimes observed in the commercial PUs hard phase but this is usually limited to only a few percent for most hard segment structures when solidified from the melt. One particular diisocyanate, 4,4’-dibenzyl diisocyanate (DBDI) that, in the presence of suitable chain extenders ( diols or diamines), gives rise to significant degrees of crystallinity [i-iii] and this is included in the present work. Understanding the reaction pathways involved, in resolving the subtle morphological evolution at the nanometre level, and capturing mathematically the complex, large-deformation nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical behaviour are assumed to bring new important insights in the world basic research in polyurethanes and towards applied industrial research in this area.

Annual Report

Annual Report
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-10
  • Total pages :750
  • ISBN : UOM:39015058330799
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Piezoelectric and Acoustic Materials for Transducer Applications

Piezoelectric and Acoustic Materials for Transducer Applications
  • Author : Ahmad Safari,E. Koray Akdogan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-09-11
  • Total pages :482
  • ISBN : 9780387765402
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Summary : The book discusses the underlying physical principles of piezoelectric materials, important properties of ferroelectric/piezoelectric materials used in today’s transducer technology, and the principles used in transducer design. It provides examples of a wide range of applications of such materials along with the appertaining rationales. With contributions from distinguished researchers, this is a comprehensive reference on all the pertinent aspects of piezoelectric materials.

Biaxial Stretching of Film

Biaxial Stretching of Film
  • Author : Mark T. DeMeuse
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-07-18
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780857092953
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Summary : Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films. Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for biaxially oriented films and orienting lines. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications is a valuable reference tool for a broad spectrum of readers, ranging from polymer and fibre engineers to electrical engineers. It will also be suitable for professionals in the food packaging and paper industries. A valuable reference tool for polymer and fibre engineers, electrical engineers and professionals in the food packaging and paper industries Provides a comprehensive overview of the manufacturing processes of biaxially stretched films and includes a discussion of their future applications Places emphasis on the technology as well as the different types of polymers used