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Diet, Immunity and Inflammation

Diet, Immunity and Inflammation
  • Author : Philip C. Calder,Parveen Yaqoob
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-14
  • Total pages :766
  • ISBN : 0081013809
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Summary : This book provides an overview of key research on diets and the human immune responses. After an introductory section on the fundamentals of immunity and inflammation, following chapters review the effects of different food constituents.

Diet, Immunity and Inflammation

Diet, Immunity and Inflammation
  • Author : Philip C Calder,Parveen Yaqoob
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780857095749
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Summary : Although inflammation is one of the body’s first responses to infection, overactive immune responses can cause chronic inflammatory diseases. Long-term low-grade inflammation has also been identified as a risk factor for other diseases. Diet, immunity and inflammation provides a comprehensive introduction to immunity and inflammation and the role that diet and nutrition play with regard to this key bodily response. Part one, an introductory section, discusses innate and adaptive immunity, mucosal immunity in a healthy gut and chronic inflammatory diseases and low grade inflammation. Chapters in part two highlight the role of micronutrients, including zinc, selenium, iron, vitamin A and vitamin D, in inflammation and immunity. Part three explores other dietary constituents and includes chapters on intestinal bacteria and probiotics, the impacts of prebiotics on the immune system and inflammation, and antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of food bioactive proteins and peptides. Further chapters explore the role of olive oil, short and long chain fatty acids and arginine and glutamine in immune functions. Nutrition, immunity and inflammation are discussed from an integrative and life course perspective in part four. Chapters focus on adverse immune reactions to foods, early nutritional programming, the impact of nutrition on the immune system during ageing, the impact of exercise on immunity and the interaction with nutrition, and the effect that malnutrition has on immunity and susceptibility to infection. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Diet, immunity and inflammation is a comprehensive resource for those researching immunology or inflammation, nutrition scientists, and professionals in the food and nutrition industries who require an understanding of the effect that diet can have on the immune system and inflammation. Provides an overview of key research in the important and connected areas of inflammation, infection, overactive immune responses, diseases and diet Outlines the fundamentals of immunity and inflammation and reviews the effects of different food constituents Discusses important related issues, such as ageing and exercise

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : F. Guarner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087039
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Summary : The human gut is the natural habitat for a diverse and dynamic microbial ecosystem having an important impact on health and disease. Unabsorbed portions of food are a major nutritional source for these microbial communities. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that are selectively fermented in the gut resulting in specific changes in the composition or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefits upon host health. Inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides are the most extensively studied prebiotics. They are fermented in the colon to short-chain fatty acids, and selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. These changes have an impact on the mucosal and systemic immune system and are correlated with a series of health benefits reviewed in this chapter.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : A.C. Ross,K.H. Restori
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087008
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Summary : Vitamin A is required in the diet of all vertebrates, and is metabolized intracellularly to retinoic acid (RA), which is well known as a regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. RA activates nuclear retinoid receptors and regulates a wide variety of genes. This chapter first discusses vitamin A nutrition and metabolism, and then how inflammation affects the metabolism of vitamin A compounds. Clinically, RA and several analogs are used in the treatment of skin disorders. Vitamin A deficiency is a risk factor for infectious disease. This chapter discusses the role of vitamin A in the immune system, especially in the regulation of T cell differentiation and in innate immunity.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : N.W. Solomons
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087190
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Summary : It has been over 50years since Scrimshaw, Taylor and Gordon set out the bases for interpretation of synergistic and antagonistic interactions between malnutrition and infection. Any contemporary update must recognize emerging diseases such as HIV and re-emerging diseases such as tuberculosis. Genetic and epigenetic concepts and techniques have merged with the advance of technology in basic and applied immunity. Not only nutrient deficiencies, but also their excesses – including obesity and overweight – alter host defenses and risk of infections. Issues of vitamin D, host disease and infection, and interaction of the microbiome of fecal flora with the gut immune system represent two of the exciting contemporary departures.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : F. Ioannone,C. Miglio,A Raguzzini,M. Serafini
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087077
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Summary : It has been suggested that flavonoids, secondary metabolites widely present in the vegetable kingdom, are involved in the role played by plant foods in disease prevention. The immune-modulating action of flavonoids in vitro suggests a specific role in modulating cytokines and transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). However, the majority of studies have been conducted with non-physiological concentrations of flavonoids and without considering the nature of the metabolites found in the bloodstream. In humans, the number of studies is limited and the results are contrasting, leaving open the debate about the role of flavonoids as modulators of immune response.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : S.R. Kuvibidila,S.B. Baliga,L.C. Chandra,C.L. French
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128086995
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Summary : Iron is required for many biochemical reactions of immune and non-immune cells, and pathogens. Iron deficiency remains a worldwide public health problem in children and women of childbearing age. Iron overload is common in individuals with genetic disorders of proteins involved in iron metabolism. The influence of iron homeostasis on the immune function and risk of infection has been recognized since the 1970s. Recent discoveries have shed light on the various proteins that modulate iron metabolism and their role in immunity. This chapter summarizes our current knowledge on the mechanisms by which iron dysregulation alters the immune response and the conflicting results relating to its effect on risk of infection.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : Z. Huang,P.R. China,P.R. Hoffmann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128086988
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Summary : Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that is important for various aspects of human health, including optimal immune responses. This chapter summarizes evidence to date regarding the effects of dietary Se on allergies and asthma, aging immunity, clinical sepsis, immunity against various pathogens and other types of inflammation and immune responses. Also presented is information pertaining to mechanisms by which Se influences inflammation and immunity, including roles for individual selenoproteins.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : K. Gruber,L. Rink
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128086971
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Summary : Zinc plays a diverse role in human health. It is an essential trace element for all life forms due to its role in cell proliferation, transcription and enzyme activity. Since the immune system is the organ system with the highest proliferation rate, zinc is crucial for maintaining an intact immune system and affects virtually all of its components. The chapter first gives an overview of zinc nutrition and the role of zinc in human health. The role of zinc in the modulation of cellular processes is discussed on the basis of the altered molecular mechanisms. The influence of zinc on the immune system is reported in more detail. Finally therapeutic uses and future options of zinc supplementation are critically analysed.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : F. Trejo,Y. Sanz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087022
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Summary : The intestinal microbiota and some probiotics are known to interact with the host’s immune system, thereby influencing both health status and disease risk. These interactions contribute to immune response activation against dangerous stimuli, as well as to the activation of regulatory mechanisms that avoid uncontrolled inflammation and chronic pathologies. To date, most of the applications of probiotics with immunomodulatory traits have been focused on prevention and treatment of different clinical conditions, including infections, chronic inflammatory bowel disorders and allergies. Herein, the modes of action of intestinal bacteria and probiotics on the immune system and their uses in human health are revised.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : M.A.R. Vinolo,H.G. Rodrigues,R.T. Nachbar,R. Curi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087091
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Summary : Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main metabolic products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation in the intestine. In addition to their important role as fuel for intestinal epithelial cells, SCFAs modulate different processes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in other tissues such as adipose and immune tissues. In this chapter, we first present a brief description of basic aspects of SCFA physiology, such as production, absorption and metabolism. The main mechanisms by which SCFAs act on cells and the effects of these fatty acids in isolated leukocytes are then discussed. We also highlight the results obtained by studies performed in vivo using SCFAs in the treatment of inflammatory pathologies. A brief discussion about the perspectives in this research field is presented at the end of the chapter.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : N.xC. Harvey,M.T. Cantorna
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087015
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Summary : This chapter discusses the role of vitamin D in the regulation of the immune system. The epidemiology, biology and physiology of vitamin D in humans is described, followed by a detailed exposition of the actions of 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D on immune cells. The chapter concludes that vitamin D appears to be important in immune function, but that at this time there is insufficient evidence on which to base clinical recommendations regarding supplementation.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : P. Yaqoob
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087114
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Summary : Animal studies suggest that olive oil modulates immune function in vivo and ex vivo when fed at high levels. In contrast, consumption of an olive oil-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell function, but may modulate levels of cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers. The lack of a clear effect of olive oil in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid, but there is also growing evidence that the non-lipid fraction, containing polyphenolic components, may influence some aspects of immune function, particularly inflammation.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : G. Wu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087138
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Summary : L-Arginine (Arg) was traditionally classified as a nutritionally non-essential amino acid for infant and adult humans; however, it is now known that besides serving as a building block for protein, it plays an essential role in the functions of the immune system. Arg is a physiological substrate for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), which is a key mediator of immune responses. Additionally, emerging evidence shows that Arg exerts a regulatory role in signal transduction pathways involving mammalian (or mechanistic) targets of rapamycin and specific mitogen-activated protein kinases in immunocytes, thereby affecting immunity. Because of high requirements for Arg in multiple metabolic pathways, dietary Arg supplementation may be a necessary strategy to maintain Arg homeostasis for good health and body functions under many physiological and pathological conditions. Much experimental and clinical data support the notion that Arg is an essential nutrient for both innate and adaptive immune systems in humans and other animals. An important outcome of this research is the availability of Arg- supplemented foods for humans and feed-grade Arg for livestock species. Future studies are needed to address the safety issue of chronic Arg supplementation to mammals so as to fully realize the health benefits of Arg as a functional amino acid.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : P. Brandtzaeg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128086940
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Summary : The intestinal immune system has generated two arms of adaptive anti-inflammatory defense which normally preserve the epithelial barrier: (i) immune exclusion performed by secretory IgA (SIgA) (and SIgM) antibodies to control surface colonization of micro-organisms and dampen penetration of potentially harmful antigens; and (ii) suppressive mechanisms to avoid hypersensitivity to innocuous antigens, particularly food proteins and the commensal microbiota. The latter phenomenon (‘oral tolerance’) largely depends on regulatory T (Treg) cells induced in mesenteric lymph nodes to which mucosal dendritic cells carry exogenous antigens and become conditioned for stimulation of Treg cells. Polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR/SC) knock-out mice that lack SIgA and SIgM show decreased epithelial barrier function and increased uptake of antigens from food and commensal bacteria. They therefore have a hyper-reactive immune system which is counteracted by enhanced intestinal tolerance induction as a homeostatic back-up mechanism.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : L. Müller,G. Pawelec,E. Derhovanessian
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087176
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Summary : This chapter deals with the overall age-associated changes observed in human immunity, beginning with an overview of the components of the immune system. We then summarize the effects of age on these different components, discussing the problems faced by investigators studying ageing in long-lived outbred species like humans. We describe the limitations inherent in cross-sectional studies together with some possible solutions to these problems, such as longitudinal studies. We then discuss the possible reasons for these age-associated changes, starting with hematopoiesis and the effects of age on stem cells and continuing with the phenomenon of thymic involution. We consider biomarkers termed ‘immune signatures’ and those forming an ‘immune risk profile’. We conclude with a brief consideration of overall impact of age on responses to vaccination in humans.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : R. Rueda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087053
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Summary : Gangliosides are negatively charged glycosphingolipids widely distributed in most vertebrate tissues and fluids. Human milk gangliosides might modulate physiological processes that take place in the early development of infants. This chapter describes the role of gangliosides as regulators of cell membrane organization and function, and in cell-cell recognition during normal differentiation or tissue targeting. As major components of membrane raft domains, dietary gangliosides may potentially influence a wide range of biological processes, including immune function, inflammation, neuronal signaling, entry of pathogens through the gut barrier and insulin resistance in metabolic disorders. Being involved in these processes, gangliosides may be critical for normal development and function, but they also might be involved in pathological processes.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : E.A. Miles
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087152
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Summary : The increasing prevalence of immune-mediated adverse reactions to food represents a significant personal and societal burden. These reactions can manifest as a range of debilitating and life-threatening conditions. This chapter describes the main immune-mediated adverse reactions to food including IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated food allergies and coeliac disease. It considers the prevalence, immune mechanisms, presentation and management of these disorders along with novel therapeutic strategies being developed. The chapter discusses the breadth of research activity into all aspects of these reactions, from the mechanism and natural history, to diagnosis and new treatments. This research is increasing our understanding and leading to novel management strategies.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : B. Watzl
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087060
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Summary : In addition to nutrients affecting chronic low-grade inflammation, dietary patterns and specific foods significantly modulate inflammatory processes. This chapter focuses on plant foods including whole grain, vegetables and fruits, soy, nuts, coffee and tea. It summarizes current information from human observational as well as human intervention studies and discusses relevant bioactive compounds such as dietary fibre and phytochemicals.

Diet, immunity and inflammation

Diet, immunity and inflammation
  • Author : E. Roth
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 9780128087121
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Summary : Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the human body. Although glutamine is not an essential amino acid, it is the most important nitrogenous nutrient for diploid cells growing in culture. Glutamine has cell- and immune-modulating properties and affects lymphocyte and monocyte metabolism. Moreover glutamine is one of the precursors of glutathione, stimulates the expression of heat shock proteins and influences gene expression. Glutamine starvation activates adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and is possibly involved in the metabolism of temporal hibernation. Glutamine is used as a nutritional substrate for enteral and parenteral nutrition (mainly in the form of a stable dipeptide) and has a positive effect on the immune response. Studies on morbidity and mortality are contradictory.

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease
  • Author : Shampa Chatterjee,Wolfgang Jungraithmayr,Debasis Bagchi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-31
  • Total pages :476
  • ISBN : 9780128054024
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Summary : Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease: Emerging Roles of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Immune Support provides a comprehensive description of the various pathways by which the vertebrate immune system works, the signals that trigger immune response and how fnew and novel nutraceuticals and functional foods, can be used to contain inflammation and also to boost immunity and immune health. Inflammation is a tool to fight pathogens and the vertebrate immune system has a very complex network of cells to achieve this. However inflammation that goes awry is also the leding cause of several diseases ranging from cardiovascular diseases to diabetes. This book covers the entire gamut from the various cellular players in the inflammation-immune response to its ramifications in terms of protection against pathogens as well as in onset of metabolic, aging and auto-immune related diseases. Finally, the balancing role of dietary nutrients between host defence and immune support is also showcased. The first three scetions explain the various components of the immune system and their modes of activation. The fourth section deals with the ramifications of a robust and execessive inflammatory response. The fifth section is focused on the association between nutrition and immunity and how deficiencies in certain nutrients may affect immunocompetence. The sixth section chapters represent a vision of paradigm shifts within the field and discusses possible future directions. This bool will be a valuable reference for researchers studying immune health either in academia, or in the nutraceutical or functional food industries. Product developers in nutraceutical, supplement, functional food, and health food companies will also appreciate the information presented here. Conceptualizes the key features in natural products which can boost immune function and immune health Explains the intricate mechanistic aspects and balance behind immune health Presents the pathophysiology of several diseases associated with immune system disruption