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Assessing Cellular Microstructure in Biological Tissues using In Vivo Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance

Assessing Cellular Microstructure in Biological Tissues using In Vivo Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance
  • Author : Julien Valette,Itamar Ronen,Sune Nørhøj Jespersen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-16
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889458417
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Summary : Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) techniques have opened new doors for examining biological tissues in vivo. By combining sensitization to diffusion using magnetic field gradients with a variety of imaging and localization schemes, diffusion-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRS allow investigating translational diffusion of endogenous molecules, such as water or metabolites, in biological tissues, most commonly the brain but also other organs such as the prostate. The typical voxel resolution of MRI or MRS is in the millimeter to centimeter range, much lower than the cellular scale. However, as molecules are typically diffusing over just a few µm during the duration of the measurement (the “diffusion time”) and encounter numerous biological membranes at these scales, the average cellular microstructure has a critical influence on the measured diffusion signal. Hence, diffusion-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRS are sensitive to tissue microstructure at a scale well below the nominal imaging resolution. However, the connection between diffusion properties and tissue microstructure remains indirect, so any attempt to quantify microstructure will rely on modeling. The goal of this Research Topic was to gather experts in various acquisition and modeling strategies and show how these approaches, despite their own strengths and weaknesses, can yield unique information about cellular microstructure, and sometimes complement each other.

Diffusion MRI

Diffusion MRI
  • Author : Heidi Johansen-Berg,Timothy E.J. Behrens
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-04
  • Total pages :632
  • ISBN : 9780124055094
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Summary : Diffusion MRI remains the most comprehensive reference for understanding this rapidly evolving and powerful technology and is an essential handbook for designing, analyzing, and interpreting diffusion MR experiments. Diffusion imaging provides a unique window on human brain anatomy. This non-invasive technique continues to grow in popularity as a way to study brain pathways that could never before be investigated in vivo. This book covers the fundamental theory of diffusion imaging, discusses its most promising applications to basic and clinical neuroscience, and introduces cutting-edge methodological developments that will shape the field in coming years. Written by leading experts in the field, it places the exciting new results emerging from diffusion imaging in the context of classical anatomical techniques to show where diffusion studies might offer unique insights and where potential limitations lie. Fully revised and updated edition of the first comprehensive reference on a powerful technique in brain imaging Covers all aspects of a diffusion MRI study from acquisition through analysis to interpretation, and from fundamental theory to cutting-edge developments New chapters covering connectomics, advanced diffusion acquisition, artifact removal, and applications to the neonatal brain Provides practical advice on running an experiment Includes discussion of applications in psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and basic neuroscience Full color throughout

Diffusion MRI for Well-posed and Optimal White Matter Microstructure Characterisation

Diffusion MRI for Well-posed and Optimal White Matter Microstructure Characterisation
  • Author : Santiago Coelho
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1144720058
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Diffusion MRI

Diffusion MRI
  • Author : Derek K Jones
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-11-11
  • Total pages :784
  • ISBN : 9780199708703
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Summary : Professor Derek Jones, a world authority on diffusion MRI, has assembled most of the world's leading scientists and clinicians developing and applying diffusion MRI to produce an authorship list that reads like a "Who's Who" of the field and an essential resource for those working with diffusion MRI. Destined to be a modern classic, this definitive and richly illustrated work covers all aspects of diffusion MRI from basic theory to clinical application. Oxford Clinical Neuroscience is a comprehensive, cross-searchable collection of resources offering quick and easy access to eleven of Oxford University Press's prestigious neuroscience texts. Joining Oxford Medicine Online these resources offer students, specialists and clinical researchers the best quality content in an easy-to-access format.

Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia

Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia
  • Author : Marek Kubicki,Martha E. Shenton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-18
  • Total pages :437
  • ISBN : 9783030352066
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Summary : This comprehensive book explains the importance of imaging techniques in exploring and understanding the role of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. The findings obtained using individual imaging modalities and their biological interpretation are reviewed in detail, and updates are provided on methodology, testable hypotheses, limitations, and new directions for research. The coverage also includes important recent applications of neuroimaging to schizophrenia, for example in relation to non-pharmacological interventions, brain development, genetics, and prediction of treatment response and outcome. Written by world renowned experts in the field, the book will be invaluable to all who wish to learn about the newest and most important developments in neuroimaging research in schizophrenia, how these developments relate to the last 30 years of research, and how they can be leveraged to bring us closer to a cure for this devastating disorder. Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia will assist clinicians in navigating what is an extremely complex field and will be a source of insight and stimulation for researchers.

Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI 2014

Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI 2014
  • Author : Polina Golland,Nobuhiko Hata,Christian Barillot,Joachim Hornegger,Robert Howe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-19
  • Total pages :436
  • ISBN : 331910442X
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Summary : The three-volume set LNCS 8673, 8674, and 8675 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2014, held in Boston, MA, USA, in September 2014. Based on rigorous peer reviews, the program committee carefully selected 253 revised papers from 862 submissions for presentation in three volumes. The 53 papers included in the third volume have been organized in the following topical sections: shape and population analysis; brain; diffusion MRI; and machine learning.

Visualization and Processing of Tensor Fields

Visualization and Processing of Tensor Fields
  • Author : Joachim Weickert,Hans Hagen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-06-25
  • Total pages :481
  • ISBN : 9783540312727
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Summary : Matrix-valued data sets – so-called second order tensor fields – have gained significant importance in scientific visualization and image processing due to recent developments such as diffusion tensor imaging. This book is the first edited volume that presents the state of the art in the visualization and processing of tensor fields. It contains some longer chapters dedicated to surveys and tutorials of specific topics, as well as a great deal of original work by leading experts that has not been published before. It serves as an overview for the inquiring scientist, as a basic foundation for developers and practitioners, and as as a textbook for specialized classes and seminars for graduate and doctoral students.

Characterization of Tumor Microstructures with Diffusion-weighted MRI

Characterization of Tumor Microstructures with Diffusion-weighted MRI
  • Author : Shu Xing
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1229040920
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Summary : "Cancerous tumors are often heterogenous in their cellular composition and morphology. The tumor subregions can differ in many properties including growth rate, ability to metastasize, immunological characteristics, and sensitivity to therapies. Characterizing the tumor microenvironment could be beneficial for cancer diagnosis and the development of targeted therapy. Diffusion-weighted MRI is a powerful tool for the characterization of tumor microenvironment, due to its sensitivity to the Brownian motion of water molecules. By relating plausible models of the underlying tissue architecture to the acquired diffusion signal, microstructural information such as cell size and volume fraction can be obtained. The overall goal of this thesis was to develop novel DW-MRI based techniques to characterize tumor microenvironment. Our first aim was to characterize heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment, by identifying different tumor habitats in soft tissue sarcoma. To this end, we developed a novel reference-tissue-based method for probabilistic classification of up to five tumor habitats, using maps of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2 relaxation maps, and a calculated map representing high-b-value diffusion-weighted MRI. The classification method was demonstrated in soft-tissue sarcoma. The classification results were qualitatively consistent with histopathology. The second part of our work focused on further characterization of tumor microenvironment by extracting microstructural information on a cellular level, such as cell size and volume fractions. Building on the existing microstructure imaging framework which assumed a single cell population in the tumor, we developed microstructure mapping with two cell populations co-existing in the same space. It was found that for a minimum difference of 3 [mu]m in radius between the large and small cell populations and an SNR of 50, the radii and volume fractions of both cell populations could be accurately estimated. To demonstrate the potential application of microstructure mapping in cancer treatment monitoring, the final component of this thesis focused on differentiating three potential post-treatment tumor microenvironments including necrosis, progression of disease, and infiltration of T-cells, all without a priori knowledge. This was achieved by developing a model selection method that chose the most suitable diffusion model to describe the tumor microenvironment. The method was evaluated with simulated diffusion data. Overall, this thesis introduced three novel DW-MRI based techniques for the characterization of tumor microenvironment"--

Advanced Diffusion Encoding Methods in MRI

Advanced Diffusion Encoding Methods in MRI
  • Author : Daniel Topgaard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-06
  • Total pages :436
  • ISBN : 9781788019927
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Summary : The medical MRI community is by far the largest user of diffusion NMR techniques and this book captures the current surge of methods and provides a primary source to aid adoption in this field. There is a trend to adapting the more advanced diffusion encoding sequences developed by NMR researchers within the fields of porous media, chemical engineering, and colloid science to medical research. Recently published papers indicate great potential for improved diagnosis of the numerous pathological conditions associated with changes of tissue microstructure that are invisible to conventional diffusion MRI. This book disseminates these recent developments to the wider community of MRI researchers and clinicians. The chapters cover the theoretical basis, hardware and pulse sequences, data analysis and validation, and recent applications aimed at promoting further growth in the field. This is a fast moving field and chapters are written by key MRI scientists that have contributed to the successful translation of the advanced diffusion NMR methods to the context of medical MRI, from global locations.

Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Diffusion Tensor Imaging
  • Author : Wim Van Hecke,Louise Emsell,Stefan Sunaert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-14
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9781493931187
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Summary : This book provides an overview of the practical aspects of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), from understanding the basis of the technique through selection of the right protocols, trouble-shooting data quality, and analyzing DTI data optimally. DTI is a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for visualizing and quantifying tissue microstructure based on diffusion. The book discusses the theoretical background underlying DTI and advanced techniques based on higher-order models and multi-shell diffusion imaging. It covers the practical implementation of DTI; derivation of information from DTI data; and a range of clinical applications, including neurosurgical planning and the assessment of brain tumors. Its practical utility is enhanced by decision schemes and a fully annotated DTI brain atlas, including color fractional anisotropy maps and 3D tractography reconstructions of major white matter fiber bundles. Featuring contributions from leading specialists in the field of DTI, Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Practical Handbook is a valuable resource for radiologists, neuroradiologists, MRI technicians and clinicians.

Diffusion MRI

Diffusion MRI
  • Author : Heidi Johansen-Berg,Timothy E.J. Behrens
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-04-28
  • Total pages :502
  • ISBN : 0080878512
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Summary : Diffusion MRI is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that produces in vivo images of biological tissues weighted with the local microstructural characteristics of water diffusion, providing an effective means of visualizing functional connectivities in the nervous system. This book is the first comprehensive reference promoting the understanding of this rapidly evolving and powerful technology and providing the essential handbook for designing, analyzing or interpreting diffusion MR experiments. The book presents diffusion imaging in the context of well-established, classical experimental techniques, so that readers will be able to assess the scope and limitations of the new imaging technology with respect to techniques available previously. All chapters are written by leading international experts and cover methodology, validation of the imaging technology, application of diffusion imaging to the study of variation and development of normal brain anatomy, and disruption to the white matter in neurological disease or psychiatric disorder. • Discusses all aspects of a diffusion MRI study from acquisition, through analysis, to interpretation, providing an essential reference text for scientists designing or interpreting diffusion MR experiments • Practical advice on running an experiment • Full color throughout

The Effect of Tumour Microstructure on Diffusion-weighted MRI Measurements

The Effect of Tumour Microstructure on Diffusion-weighted MRI Measurements
  • Author : Damien Joseph McHugh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1064555487
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Summary :

World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering 2018

World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering 2018
  • Author : Lenka Lhotska,Lucie Sukupova,Igor Lacković,Geoffrey S. Ibbott
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-25
  • Total pages :894
  • ISBN : 9789811090356
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Summary : This book (vol. 1) presents the proceedings of the IUPESM World Congress on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, a triennially organized joint meeting of medical physicists, biomedical engineers and adjoining health care professionals. Besides the purely scientific and technological topics, the 2018 Congress will also focus on other aspects of professional involvement in health care, such as education and training, accreditation and certification, health technology assessment and patient safety. The IUPESM meeting is an important forum for medical physicists and biomedical engineers in medicine and healthcare learn and share knowledge, and discuss the latest research outcomes and technological advancements as well as new ideas in both medical physics and biomedical engineering field.

Computational Diffusion MRI

Computational Diffusion MRI
  • Author : Andrea Fuster,Aurobrata Ghosh,Enrico Kaden,Yogesh Rathi,Marco Reisert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-08
  • Total pages :234
  • ISBN : 9783319285887
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Summary : These Proceedings of the 2015 MICCAI Workshop “Computational Diffusion MRI” offer a snapshot of the current state of the art on a broad range of topics within the highly active and growing field of diffusion MRI. The topics vary from fundamental theoretical work on mathematical modeling, to the development and evaluation of robust algorithms, new computational methods applied to diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data, and applications in neuroscientific studies and clinical practice. Over the last decade interest in diffusion MRI has exploded. The technique provides unique insights into the microstructure of living tissue and enables in-vivo connectivity mapping of the brain. Computational techniques are key to the continued success and development of diffusion MRI and to its widespread transfer into clinical practice. New processing methods are essential for addressing issues at each stage of the diffusion MRI pipeline: acquisition, reconstruction, modeling and model fitting, image processing, fiber tracking, connectivity mapping, visualization, group studies and inference. This volume, which includes both careful mathematical derivations and a wealth of rich, full-color visualizations and biologically or clinically relevant results, offers a valuable starting point for anyone interested in learning about computational diffusion MRI and mathematical methods for mapping brain connectivity, as well as new perspectives and insights on current research challenges for those currently working in the field. It will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the fields of computer science, MR physics, and applied mathematics.​

Computational Diffusion MRI

Computational Diffusion MRI
  • Author : Enrico Kaden,Francesco Grussu,Lipeng Ning,Chantal M. W. Tax,Jelle Veraart
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-04-02
  • Total pages :245
  • ISBN : 9783319738390
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Summary : This volume presents the latest developments in the highly active and rapidly growing field of diffusion MRI. The reader will find numerous contributions covering a broad range of topics, from the mathematical foundations of the diffusion process and signal generation, to new computational methods and estimation techniques for the in-vivo recovery of microstructural and connectivity features, as well as frontline applications in neuroscience research and clinical practice. These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 2017 MICCAI Workshop on Computational Diffusion MRI (CDMRI’17) held in Québec, Canada on September 10, 2017, sharing new perspectives on the most recent research challenges for those currently working in the field, but also offering a valuable starting point for anyone interested in learning computational techniques in diffusion MRI. This book includes rigorous mathematical derivations, a large number of rich, full-colour visualisations and clinically relevant results. As such, it will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the fields of computer science, MRI physics and applied mathematics.

Axons and Brain Architecture

Axons and Brain Architecture
  • Author : Kathleen Rockland
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-11-21
  • Total pages :426
  • ISBN : 9780128016824
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Summary : Several excellent monographs exist which deal with axons. These, however, focus either on the cellular and molecular biology of axons proper or on network organization of connections, the latter with only an incidental or abstract reference to axons per se. Still relatively neglected, however, is the middle ground of terminations and trajectories of single axons in the mammalian central nervous system. This middle level of connectivity, between networks on the one hand and local, in vitro investigations on the other, is to some extent represented by retrograde tracer studies and labeled neurons, but there have so far been many fewer of the complementary anterograde studies, with total visualization of the axonal arborization. The present volume brings together in one source an interrelated treatment of single axons from the perspective of microcircuitry and as substrates of larger scale organization (tractography). Especially for the former area - axons in microcircuitry - an abundance of published data exists, but these are typically in specialty journals that are not often accessed by the broader community. By highlighting and unifying the span from microcircuitry to tractography, the proposed volume serves as a convenient reference source and in addition inspires further interactions between what currently tend to be separate communities. The volume also redresses the imbalance between in vitro/local connectivity and long-distance connections. Focusing on mammalian systems, Part 1 of this book is devoted to anatomical investigations of connections at the single axon level, drawing on modern techniques and classical methods from the 1990s. A particular emphasis is on broad coverage of cortical and subcortical connections from different species, so that common patterns of divergence, convergence, and collateralization can be easily appreciated. Part 2 addresses mechanisms of axon guidance, as these seem particularly relevant to pathways and branching patterns. Part 3 covers axon dynamics and functional aspects; and Part 4 focuses on tractography, notably including comparisons between histological substrates and imaging. A novel innovative reference on the axon as a connectional unit, encompassing microcircuitry, axon guidance, and function Featuring chapters from leading researchers in the field Full-colour text that includes both an overview of axon function and the multiple underlying molecular mechanisms The only volume to bring together the configuration of individual axons at a circuit level and to relate the histological geometry of axons and axon bundles to in vivo tractography imaging studies

Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging
  • Author : Susumu Mori,J-Donald Tournier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-02
  • Total pages :140
  • ISBN : 9780123984074
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Summary : The concepts behind diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are commonly difficult to grasp, even for magnetic resonance physicists. To make matters worse, a many more complex higher-order methods have been proposed over the last few years to overcome the now well-known deficiencies of DTI. In Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging: And Higher Order Models, these concepts are explained through extensive use of illustrations rather than equations to help readers gain a more intuitive understanding of the inner workings of these techniques. Emphasis is placed on the interpretation of DTI images and tractography results, the design of experiments, and the types of application studies that can be undertaken. Diffusion MRI is a very active field of research, and theories and techniques are constantly evolving. To make sense of this constantly shifting landscape, there is a need for a textbook that explains the concepts behind how these techniques work in a way that is easy and intuitive to understand—Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging fills this gap. Extensive use of illustrations to explain the concepts of diffusion tensor imaging and related methods Easy to understand, even without a background in physics Includes sections on image interpretation, experimental design, and applications Up-to-date information on more recent higher-order models, which are increasingly being used for clinical applications

NMR Imaging of Materials

NMR Imaging of Materials
  • Author : Bernhard Blumich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-08-10
  • Total pages :566
  • ISBN : 9780191545078
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Summary : NMR imaging of materials is a field of increasing importance. Applications expand from fundamental science like the characterization of fluid transport in porous rock, catalyst pellets, and hemodialyzers into various fields of engineering for process optimization and product and quality control, for example, of polymer materials, biomaterials, elastomers, and ceramics. While the results of NMR imaging are being appreciated in a growing community, the methods of imaging are far more diverse for materials applications than for medical imaging of humans. This book provides an introduction to NMR imaging of materials covering solid-state NMR spectroscopy, imaging methods for liquid and solid samples, and unusual NMR in terms of special approaches to spatial resolution like an NMR surface scanner. Special attention is paid to the large variety of ways to generate image contrast - the most prominent feature of NMR. The text is strong on methodology, and includes today's important application areas.

Brainlesion: Glioma, Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injuries

Brainlesion: Glioma, Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injuries
  • Author : Alessandro Crimi,Spyridon Bakas,Hugo Kuijf,Farahani Keyvan,Mauricio Reyes,Theo van Walsum
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-02-08
  • Total pages :477
  • ISBN : 9783030117238
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Summary : This two-volume set LNCS 11383 and 11384 constitutes revised selected papers from the 4th International MICCAI Brainlesion Workshop, BrainLes 2018, as well as the International Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation, BraTS, Ischemic Stroke Lesion Segmentation, ISLES, MR Brain Image Segmentation, MRBrainS18, Computational Precision Medicine, CPM, and Stroke Workshop on Imaging and Treatment Challenges, SWITCH, which were held jointly at the Medical Image Computing for Computer Assisted Intervention Conference, MICCAI, in Granada, Spain, in September 2018. The 92 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 95 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: brain lesion image analysis; brain tumor image segmentation; ischemic stroke lesion image segmentation; grand challenge on MR brain segmentation; computational precision medicine; stroke workshop on imaging and treatment challenges.

Computational Diffusion MRI

Computational Diffusion MRI
  • Author : Elisenda Bonet-Carne,Francesco Grussu,Lipeng Ning,Farshid Sepehrband,Chantal M. W. Tax
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-23
  • Total pages :390
  • ISBN : 9783030058319
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Summary : This volume gathers papers presented at the Workshop on Computational Diffusion MRI (CDMRI’18), which was held under the auspices of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention in Granada, Spain on September 20, 2018. It presents the latest developments in the highly active and rapidly growing field of diffusion MRI. The reader will find papers on a broad range of topics, from the mathematical foundations of the diffusion process and signal generation, to new computational methods and estimation techniques for the in-vivo recovery of microstructural and connectivity features, as well as harmonisation and frontline applications in research and clinical practice. The respective papers constitute invited works from high-profile researchers with a specific focus on three topics that are now gaining momentum within the diffusion MRI community: i) machine learning for diffusion MRI; ii) diffusion MRI outside the brain (e.g. in the placenta); and iii) diffusion MRI for multimodal imaging. The book shares new perspectives on the latest research challenges for those currently working in the field, but also offers a valuable starting point for anyone interested in learning computational techniques in diffusion MRI. It includes rigorous mathematical derivations, a wealth of full-colour visualisations, and clinically relevant results. As such, it will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the fields of computer science, MRI physics and applied mathematics alike.

New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry

New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry
  • Author : John R. Geddes,Nancy C. Andreasen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-20
  • Total pages :1504
  • ISBN : 9780198713005
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Summary : Over its two editions, The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry has come to be regarded as one of the most popular and trusted standard psychiatry texts among psychiatrists and trainees. Bringing together 146 chapters from the leading figures in the discipline, it presents a comprehensive account of clinical psychiatry, with reference to its scientific basis and to the patient's perspective throughout. The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, Third Edition has been extensively re-structured and streamlined to keep pace with the significant developments that have taken place in the fields of clinical psychiatry and neuroscience since publication of the second edition in 2009. The new edition has been updated throughout to include the most recent versions of the two main classification systems---the DSM-5 and the ICD-11---used throughout the world for the diagnosis of mental disorders. In the years since publication of the first edition, many new and exciting discoveries have occurred in the biological sciences, which are having a major impact on how we study and practise psychiatry. In addition, psychiatry has fostered closer ties with philosophy, and these are leading to healthy discussions about how we should diagnose and treat mental illness. This new edition recognises these and other developments. Throughout, accounts of clinical practice are linked to the underlying science, and to the evidence for the efficacy of treatments. Physical and psychological treatments, including psychodynamic approaches, are covered in depth. The history of psychiatry, ethics, public health aspects, and public attitudes to psychiatry and to patients are all given due attention.