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Dissolved Gas Concentration in Water

Dissolved Gas Concentration in Water
  • Author : John Colt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-17
  • Total pages :306
  • ISBN : 9780124159679
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Summary : Aquacultural, oceanographic, and fisheries engineering, as well as other disciplines, require gas solubility data to compute the equilibrium concentration. These calculations, for example, can affect the output of aquacultural production or assist in environmental consulting. Until now, published solubility information has not been available in a consistent and uniform manner in one location. This book presents solubility concentrations of major atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide), noble gases (helium, neon, krypton, xenon), and trace gases (hydrogen, methane, nitrous oxide) as a function of temperature, salinity, pressure, and gas composition in a variety of formats. Data, equations, and theory are explained so that the user is able to understand the calculations and problems. Furthermore, data and solubility information are presented in a range of units to make them accessible across disciplines. This book will help the reader to look at a problem from a quantitative viewpoint and better understand carbonate chemistry. Revised from the earlier edition to include more accurate carbon dioxide tables and separate sections on the solubility of noble gases, trace gases, and oxygen in brines to provide a single resource for gas solubility data. This book is essential for all students and practitioners working in aquatic fields. A single source for highly accurate and comprehensive tables for gas solubility in aquatic systems Information provided in tables, equations, and computer programmes Theory is presented to better understand the equations and calculations

Computation of Dissolved Gas Concentrations in Water as Functions of Temperature, Salinity, and Pressure

Computation of Dissolved Gas Concentrations in Water as Functions of Temperature, Salinity, and Pressure
  • Author : John Colt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1984
  • Total pages :154
  • ISBN : UCAL:B4475983
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Summary : Both the measurement and control of dissolved gas concentrations depend on an accurate knowledge of equilibrium gas concentrations. It is necessary to be able to compute the equilibrium concentration as functions of temperature, salinity, pressure, and gas composition. In this book, solubilities of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide are presented for a variety of conditions. The book is divided into three sections: 1) the solubility of gases in fresh water; 2) the solubility of gases in saline waters; and 3) the computation and reporting of gas supersaturation levels. Solubility data are presented in both equation and tabular forms. With this information, the equilibrium concentration of pure gases, air, or mixtures of gases can be computed. In most cases, interpolation should not be required. Sample problems are included in each section. Programs for the computation of dissolved gas concentrations with hand-held calculators are also presented.

Total Dissolved Gas and Water Temperature in the Lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2004

Total Dissolved Gas and Water Temperature in the Lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2004
  • Author : Dwight Q. Tanner,Matthew W. Johnston,Heather M. Bragg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :19
  • ISBN : MINN:31951D024028687
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Summary : Of total-dissolved-gas data completeness and quality -- Quality-assurance data -- Effects of spill on total dissolved gas -- Comparisons of total dissolved gas and temperature to standards.

Tracer Measurement of Stream Reaeration; June 1967

Tracer Measurement of Stream Reaeration; June 1967
  • Author : United States. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1969
  • Total pages :86
  • ISBN : MINN:30000010649352
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Summary :

Tracer Measurement of Stream Reaeration

Tracer Measurement of Stream Reaeration
  • Author : E. C. Tsivoglou
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1967
  • Total pages :86
  • ISBN : UOM:39015002760299
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Summary :

Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces

Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces
  • Author : W. Brutsaert,G.H. Jirka
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-17
  • Total pages :641
  • ISBN : 9789401716604
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Summary : The transfer across the surface of environmental waters is of interest as an important phase in the geophysical and natural biochemical cycles of numer ous substances; indeed it governs the transition, one way or the other, be tween the dissolved state in the water and the gaseous state in the atmo sphere. Especially with increasing population and industrialization, gas transfer at water surfaces has become a critical factor in the understanding of the various pathways of wastes in the environment and of their engineering management. This interfacial mass transfer is, by its very nature, highly complex. The air and the water are usually in turbulent motion, and the interface be tween them is irregular, and disturbed by waves, sometimes accompanied by breaking, spray and bubble formation. Thus the transfer involves a wide variety of physical phenomena occurring over a wide range of scales. As a consequence, scientists and engineers from diverse disciplines and problem areas, have approached the problem, often with greatly differing analytical and experimental techniques and methodologies.

Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management

Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management
  • Author : Claude E. Boyd,C.S. Tucker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :700
  • ISBN : 9781461554073
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Summary : The efficient and profitable production of fish, crustaceans, and other aquatic organisms in aquaculture depends on a suitable environment in which they can reproduce and grow. Because those organisms live in water, the major environ mental concern within the culture system is water quality. Water supplies for aquaculture systems may naturally be oflow quality or polluted by human activity, but in most instances, the primary reason for water quality impairment is the culture activity itself. Manures, fertilizers, and feeds applied to ponds to enhance production only can be partially converted to animal biomass. Thus, at moderate and high production levels, the inputs of nutrients and organic matter to culture units may exceed the assimilative capacity of the ecosystems. The result is deteriorating water quality which stresses the culture species, and stress leads to poor growth, greater incidence of disease, increased mortality, and low produc tion. Effluents from aquaculture systems can cause pollution of receiving waters, and pollution entering ponds in source water or chemicals added to ponds for management purposes can contaminate aquacultural products. Thus, water quality in aquaculture extends into the arenas of environmental protection and food quality and safety. A considerable body of literature on water quality management in aquaculture has been accumulated over the past 50 years. The first attempt to compile this information was a small book entitled Water Quality in Warmwater Fish Ponds (Boyd I 979a).

Multiphase Flow Dynamics 3

Multiphase Flow Dynamics 3
  • Author : Nikolay Ivanov Kolev
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :308
  • ISBN : 3540714421
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Summary :

Regulation of Tissue Oxygenation, Second Edition

Regulation of Tissue Oxygenation, Second Edition
  • Author : Roland N. Pittman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-18
  • Total pages :99
  • ISBN : 9781615047215
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Summary : This presentation describes various aspects of the regulation of tissue oxygenation, including the roles of the circulatory system, respiratory system, and blood, the carrier of oxygen within these components of the cardiorespiratory system. The respiratory system takes oxygen from the atmosphere and transports it by diffusion from the air in the alveoli to the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries. The cardiovascular system then moves the oxygenated blood from the heart to the microcirculation of the various organs by convection, where oxygen is released from hemoglobin in the red blood cells and moves to the parenchymal cells of each tissue by diffusion. Oxygen that has diffused into cells is then utilized in the mitochondria to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of all cells. The mitochondria are able to produce ATP until the oxygen tension or PO2 on the cell surface falls to a critical level of about 4–5 mm Hg. Thus, in order to meet the energetic needs of cells, it is important to maintain a continuous supply of oxygen to the mitochondria at or above the critical PO2 . In order to accomplish this desired outcome, the cardiorespiratory system, including the blood, must be capable of regulation to ensure survival of all tissues under a wide range of circumstances. The purpose of this presentation is to provide basic information about the operation and regulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, as well as the properties of the blood and parenchymal cells, so that a fundamental understanding of the regulation of tissue oxygenation is achieved.

Ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, south-central Colorado, 2000-2001

Ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, south-central Colorado, 2000-2001
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781428984127
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Summary :

Salmonid bioassay of supersaturated dissolved air in water

Salmonid bioassay of supersaturated dissolved air in water
  • Author : United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development,Earl Dawley,United States. National Marine Fisheries Service
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1976
  • Total pages :39
  • ISBN : MINN:31951002820110M
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Summary : Tests were conducted to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of dissolved atmospheric gas on juvenile fall chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Testing took place at 0.25 and 2.5 meter depths in tanks with saturation levels ranging between 100% and 127%.

Solubility of Gases in Liquids

Solubility of Gases in Liquids
  • Author : Peter Fogg,W. Gerrard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991-01-29
  • Total pages :332
  • ISBN : UOM:39015019671463
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Summary : Gives a critical and detailed survey of the solubility in a wide range of liquids of all gases in common use. The first part covers basic theoretical and practical aspects of the measurement of solubilities of gases. Limitations in the reliability of the available data are discussed and ways of predicting approximate solubilities of gases are indicated. Tables of solubility data for dissolution in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents are also included. Also contains diagrams and graphs that show the variation of solubility with pressure or temperature. Will leave the reader with a solid overview of the differing gas solubilities under conditions commonly encountered in chemical plants and laboratories.

Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management

Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management
  • Author : Claude E. Boyd,C.S. Tucker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-08-31
  • Total pages :700
  • ISBN : 0412071819
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Summary : The only hope of supplying the world's ever-increasing demand for aquatic food products is through aquaculture, and the vast majority of this is conducted in ponds. Although pond aquaculture may appear at first to be an archaic method of growing aquatic animals, it is one that is consistently profitable when the pond is managed properly. The most important aspect of pond management is the maintenance of adequate environmental conditions for good growth and health of the animal under culture. Water quality in ponds also extends into the areas of environmental protection and food quality and safety, which are increasingly important in today's world. This book provides the most complete, up-to-date account of water quality and its management in aquaculture ponds. It provides background information on the physical, chemical, and biological environment of pond aquaculture, and illustrates how the proper balance of these factors is the essential ingredient for successful production of fish and other aquatic animals. Management techniques for the control of water quality and productivity include liming, fertilization, mechanical aeration, water exchange, and the use of algicides and herbicides. The authors examine the effects of pollution on aquaculture and the validity of current criticisms by environmentalists. This book will be of great benefit to students, extension agents, policy-makers, government officials and the commercial aquaculture industry.

Guyton & Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology - E-Book

Guyton & Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology - E-Book
  • Author : Mario Dr. Vaz,Tony Dr. Raj,Kurpad Dr Anura
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-23
  • Total pages :924
  • ISBN : 9788131236307
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Summary : Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology continues this bestselling title’s tradition as one of the world’s favourite physiology textbooks. The main aim of the South Asian Edition of Guyton & Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology is to meet the needs of undergraduate medical students and faculty in South Asia in alignment to the teaching methods in the subcontinent and also in terms of volume of content required. Presentation of the South Asian Edition is quite reflective of the way the lectures are being delivered in the classroom, both in terms of the breakup of topics and the basic level of detailing and explanations. The South Asian Edition incorporates several features aimed at aiding learning for students while retaining the flow and explanatory approach. Chapters have been rearranged and often split to work towards one chapter–one lecture model so that the text is linked to curriculum objectives which appeals to both students and faculty. Narrative length has been reduced while ensuring the original flow and explanation of concepts is not affected. Topics that are likely to be covered by other subjects and redundancies from the point of view of curriculum have been removed. Includes Learning Objectives and Glossary of Terms in the beginning of every chapter. Mobile App of physiology animations covering difficult and important concepts to enhance the learning process of students.

Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology E-Book

Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology E-Book
  • Author : John E. Hall
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-19
  • Total pages :1120
  • ISBN : 9781437726749
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Summary : The 12th edition of Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology continues this bestselling title's long tradition as one of the world's favorite physiology textbooks. The immense success of this book is due to its description of complex physiologic principles in language that is easy to read and understand. Now with an improved color art program, thorough updates reflecting today's medicine and science, this textbook is an excellent source for mastering essential human physiology knowledge. Learn and remember vital concepts easily thanks to short, easy-to-read, masterfully edited chapters and a user-friendly full-color design. See core concepts applied to real-life situations with clinical vignettes throughout the text. Discover the newest in physiology with updates that reflect the latest advances in molecular biology, cardiovascular, neurophysiology and gastrointestinal topics. Visualize physiologic principles clearly with over 1000 bold, full-color drawings and diagrams. Distinguish core concepts from more in-depth material with a layout that uses gray shading to clearly differentiate between "need-to-know" and "nice-to-know" information.

Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine E-Book

Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine E-Book
  • Author : Robert J. Mason,V.Courtney Broaddus,Thomas R Martin,Talmadge E King,Dean Schraufnagel,John F. Murray,Jay A. Nadel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-06-09
  • Total pages :2440
  • ISBN : 9781437735536
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Summary : Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine has long been the definitive and comprehensive pulmonary disease reference. Robert J. Mason, MD now presents the fifth edition in full color with new images and highlighted clinical elements. The fully searchable text is also online at www.expertconsult.com, along with regular updates, video clips, additional images, and self-assessment questions. This new edition has been completely updated and remains the essential tool you need to care for patients with pulmonary disease. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader, conduct rapid searches, and adjust font sizes for optimal readability. Compatible with Kindle®, nook®, and other popular devices. Master the scientific principles of respiratory medicine and its clinical applications. Work through differential diagnosis using detailed explanations of each disease entity. Learn new subjects in Pulmonary Medicine including Genetics, Ultrasound, and other key topics. Grasp the Key Points in each chapter. Search the full text online at expertconsult.com, along with downloadable images, regular updates, more than 50 videos, case studies, and self-assessment questions. Consult new chapters covering Ultrasound, Innate Immunity, Adaptive Immunity, Deposition and Clearance, Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. Find critical information easily using the new full-color design that enhances teaching points and highlights challenging concepts. Apply the expertise and fresh ideas of three new editors—Drs. Thomas R. Martin, Talmadge E. King, Jr., and Dean E. Schraufnagel. Review the latest developments in genetics with advice on how the data will affect patient care.

The Carp

The Carp
  • Author : R. Billard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-04-15
  • Total pages :342
  • ISBN : 1852331186
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Summary : As a group, carp provide 4 million metric tonnes of fish annually - over a quarter of all fish culture worldwide. For the first time, a book is available in English that concentrates solely on the carp as an economic rather than an ornamental fish with a panel of international experts producing a comprehensive, practical volume about carp production and management. Starting with a brief look at the biology of cyprinids, the book then discusses the methods and management of carp farming, from water quality to the economics of fish production in ponds. Novel methods to improve stock, including genetic engineering, are covered and case studies give added value to the text. As carp farming turns from traditional to intensive methods, farmers, researchers and technicians in industry will welcome this benchmark volume, which also is a valuable reference book for graduate and postgraduate students and lecturers in aquaculture.

Environmental Chemistry, Eighth Edition

Environmental Chemistry, Eighth Edition
  • Author : Stanley E. Manahan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-08-26
  • Total pages :816
  • ISBN : 1566706335
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Summary : Environmental Chemistry, Eighth Edition builds on the same organizational structure validated in previous editions tosystematically develop the principles, tools, and techniques of environmental chemistry to provide students and professionals with a clear understanding of the science and its applications. Revised and updated since the publication of the best-selling Seventh Edition, this text continues to emphasize the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental science, technology, and chemistry while introducing the newest innovations to the field. The author provides clear explanations to important concepts such as the anthrosphere, industrial ecosystems, geochemistry, aquatic chemistry, and atmospheric chemistry, including the study of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. The subject of industrial chemistry and energy resources is supported by pertinent topics in recycling and hazardous waste. Several chapters review environmental biochemistry and toxicology, and the final chapters describe analytical methods for measuring chemical and biological waste. New features in this edition include: enhanced coverage of chemical fate and transport; industrial ecology, particularly how it is integrated with green chemistry; conservation principles and recent accomplishments in sustainable chemical science and technology; a new chapter addressing terrorism and threats to the environment; and the use of real world examples.

Characterization of Air-sea Gas Exchange Processes and Dissolved Gas/ice Interactions Using Noble Gases

Characterization of Air-sea Gas Exchange Processes and Dissolved Gas/ice Interactions Using Noble Gases
  • Author : Eda Maria Hood
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822009122060
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Summary : In order to constrain the processes controlling the cycles of biogeochemically important gases such as 02 and C02, and thereby infer rates of biological activity in the upper ocean or the uptake of radiatively important "greenhouse" gases, the noble gases are used to characterize and quantify the physical processes affecting the dissolved gases in aquatic environments. The processes of vertical mixing, gas exchange, air injection, and radiative heating are investigated using a 2 year time-series of the noble gases, temperature, and meteorological data from Station S near Bermuda, coupled with a 1- dimensional upper ocean mixing model to simulate the physical processes in the upper ocean. The rate of vertical mixing that best simulates the thermal cycle is 1.1±0.1 x104 m The gas exchange rate required to simulate the data is consistent with the formulation of Wanninkhof (1992) to ± 40%, while the formulation of Liss and Merlivat 1986 must be increased by a factor of 1.7± 0.6. The air injection rate is consistent with the formulation of Monahan and Torgersen (1991) using an air entrainment velocity of 3±1 cm s1. Gas flux from bubbles is dominated on yearly time-scales by larger bubbles that do not dissolve completely, while the bubble flux is dominated by complete dissolution of bubbles in the winter at Bermuda. In order to obtain a high-frequency time-series of the noble gases to better parameterize the gas flux from bubbles, a moorable, sequential noble gas sampler was developed. Preliminary results indicate that the sampler is capable of obtaining the necessary data. Dissolved gas concentrations can be significantly modified by ice formation and melting, and due to the solubility of He and Ne in ice, the noble gases are shown to be unique tracers of these interactions. A three-phase equilibrium partitioning model was constructed to quantify these interactions in perennially ice-covered Lake Fryxell, and this work was extended to oceanic environments. Preliminary surveys indicate that the noble gases may provide useful and unique information about interactions between water and ice.

The Sea Surface and Global Change

The Sea Surface and Global Change
  • Author : Peter S. Liss,P. S. Liss,Robert A. Duce
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-07-07
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 0521017459
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Summary : Thorough review of sea-surface microlayer properties and role in global change.

Aquaculture Management

Aquaculture Management
  • Author : James W. Meade
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :175
  • ISBN : 9781461564706
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Summary : Although some nations, such as Japan, have invested in aquaculture research and developed major aquaculture industries, the opportunities for similar devel opment in the United States remain largely unnoticed. In a typical recent year the United States, which claims 20% of the world's marine fisheries resources, imported seafood worth $4. 8 billion and exported $l. 3 billion. In addition to the $3. 5 billion deficit in food-fish, was another $2. 7 billion deficit for nonedible fishery products. Next to oil, fishery products constituted the second highest drain on the United States balance of payments and accounts for a significant portion of the foreign trade deficit. Furthermore, fish consumption has been increasing in North America. In response to the demand for fishery products, aquaculture managers not only have the opportunity to realize economic profit, but in doing so can make an important contribution to reducing the national debt, providing employment, and enhancing our diet. This book might be considered a farm management text for those in aquaculture. It is intended to provide an introduction to aquaculture principles and an introduction to management, including business and people management, microeconomics, and the concepts of efficiency and productivity. I hope it will bridge the gap between conservationists, the academic community, and commer cial culturists. Abundant references should enable the reader to quickly access literature on most topics germane to the management of culture systems.