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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Genserik L. L. Reniers,Valerio Cozzani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :372
  • ISBN : 0444543236
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Summary : The topic concerns the so-called 'domino effects' or accidents with escalation effects within the chemical industry. Domino effects can be defined in a number of ways. For a list of domino effect definitions, see Reniers' article in the Journal of Hazardous Materials 177 (2010). The most widely used definition is that of Delvosalle (1998): "A domino effect is a cascade of accidents (domino events) in which the consequences of a previous accident are increased by the following one(s), spatially as well as temporally, leading to a major accident.". To the best of the authors' knowledge, no book is currently available that specifically deals with the important topic of preventing domino effects in the chemical and process industries. However, a large amount of academic research has been carried out since the EU Seveso-II Directive entered into force (1996), requiring that such low frequency/high consequence events are considered in companies' safety reports (art. 8). Academic interest is evident by the considerable amount of scientific papers on the subject published since 1996. The topic has thus gained importance within the academic world. With respect to industry, domino effects and their prevention are mainly considered important due to the legislative requirements, that goes beyond the capabilities of simplified domino assessment methods used before the year 2000. Since the 2003 Amendment of the Seveso-II Directive, imposing even more strict regulations on the reporting of domino scenarios and on the identification of domino effects outside the boundaries of a single industrial site, domino effects constitute an issue that needs to be specifically addressed in the management of industrial sites. Moreover, especially since 9/11, the possibility of domino effects has become important also from a security perspective, thus from the viewpoint of preventing and/or mitigating intentionally induced escalation events (e.g. by terrorists or by disgruntled employees). Presents Domino effects from a technological as well as a managerial (non-technological) perspective- holistic/multidisciplinary approach Covers Domino effects from a safety (non-intentional) as well as a security (intentional) perspective-guidelines for preventing accidents and actions to be taken Written for academics as well as industrialists (easy to understand, yet advanced science)-holistic overview of the topic from theoretical and practical aspects Provides State-of-the-art methodologies for domino effect assessment-easy to understand methods for assessment of domino effects Provides worked examples on key-methodologies-real life situations enabling the section of the most appropriate methodology Includes Glossary-clear and unambiguous definition of terms used throughout the text which avoids misunderstandings

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Valerio Cozzani,Genserik Reniers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082416
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Summary : Domino effects may cause more severe accident scenarios in the chemical and process industries. An introduction is given to the context and state of the art of technical and scientific knowledge concerning accident scenarios where domino effect(s) took place, as well as to European regulations on the subject. The specific context of chemical clusters with respect to safety and security assessment when dealing with domino scenarios is also introduced.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Valerio Cozzani,Gigliola Spadoni,Genserik Reniers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082485
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Summary : The assessment of hazards related to domino accidents is an important issue in the safety analysis of an industrial site. Several methodologies exist and different levels of detail may be used in the analysis. The present section provides a framework and a classification of the available techniques that may be used for domino assessment. Three approaches having a different level of detail are outlined and linked to needs and/or specific phases of process safety assessment. Criteria for the selection of the most appropriate approach are also discussed.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Alessandro Tugnoli,Valerio Cozzani,Faisal Khan,Paul Amyotte
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082522
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Summary : Risk-based design has an important role in the inherent prevention of domino effect, limiting the possibility of escalation by both physical distances between units and introduction of robust safety barriers. In this chapter, the role of design in reducing domino hazard has been explored. Layout definition was identified as a key factor for the prevention of escalation. Threshold values for escalation to be used in design activities were defined. Thus, criteria for the assessment of appropriate safety distances were developed and implemented in layout design. The integration of different strategies in accident mitigation was identified as the key in achieving safer plants with respect to domino accidents. Since conceptual tools alone frequently fail in solving the tradeoffs related to the conflicting needs in the design improvement, inherent safety metrics were introduced to support design activities.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Genserik Reniers,Valerio Cozzani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780444543240
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Summary : Domino Effects in the Process Industries discusses state-of-the-art theories, conceptual models, insights and practical issues surrounding large-scale knock-on accidents—so-called domino effects—in the chemical and process industries. The book treats such extremely low-frequency phenomena from a technological perspective, studying possible causes and introducing several approaches to assess and control the risks of these scenarios. The authors also examine these events from a managerial viewpoint, discussing single and multi-plant management insights and requirements to take pro-active measures to prevent such events. Academics, regulators, and industrialists who study and analyze domino effects in order to prevent such events will find the book unique and highly valuable. Outlines available methods in analyzing these events, aiding understanding of the accidents and their causes Covers current modelling, control and management tactics of domino effects, -facilitating prevention Identifies areas where new research is needed

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Gabriele Landucci,Ernesto Salzano,Jerome Taveau,Gigliola Spadoni,Valerio Cozzani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082515
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Summary : The analysis of domino escalation scenarios is a complex task. The use of advanced distributed parameter models may provide a significant contribution to domino effect escalation assessment. Nevertheless, this approach requires a detailed description of equipment geometry and the characterization of the primary scenarios leading to the escalation. This chapter is aimed at presenting the potentialities of the distributed parameters codes for the specific assessment of domino accidents triggered by fire and overpressure by the analysis of specific case studies.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Bahman Abdolhamidzadeh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082546
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Summary : Nowadays the application of decision support systems (DSSs) in process safety is more important than ever. The use of DSS for preventing domino effects is one of the diverse applications of these computer-automated toolkits. Different software packages were developed in recent years, each trying to manage domino risk by a specific approach. In this chapter, the definition, architecture, benefits and essential characteristics of DSS toolkits are described. The application, scope, approach, technical features, advantages, shortcomings and limitations of all the available computerized tools and software packages presented up to now for managing domino effect are then discussed and analyzed thoroughly. Finally, a framework for an integrated DSS to prevent domino effects based on all existing advancements and potential possibilities for improvement is introduced.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Valerio Cozzani,Elisabeth Krausmann,Genserik Reniers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082478
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Summary : Blast waves, fires and fragment projection are by far the most common causes of escalation leading to domino accidents. The present chapter deals with less-frequent and more controversial domino scenarios: domino events due to indirect escalation and external events. Indirect causes of escalation, even if not frequent, may be extremely important since they are likely to be overlooked, in particular in complex industrial clusters. External hazard factors can also cause severe domino accidents. Natural events or intentional malicious acts of interference can escalate to cause severe domino events. The present chapter focuses on these particular causes of escalations, aiming to provide an approach for the assessment of these specific domino scenarios.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries: Fostering Innovative Approaches and Advancing the State-of-the-art

Domino Effects in the Process Industries: Fostering Innovative Approaches and Advancing the State-of-the-art
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :90
  • ISBN : OCLC:931978325
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Summary :

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Ernesto Salzano,Pol Hoorelbeke,Faisal Khan,Paul Amyotte
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082447
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Summary : Explosions produce pressure waves which expand in the atmosphere. When impacting industrial equipment, domino effects may be caused if the equipment content is flammable or toxic. A detailed analysis of these scenarios requires complex computational tecniques based on finite element analysis. Simplified methodologies have been developed in the past years for land use planning and quantitative risk assessment. These approaches are based on the definition of probability functions and threshold values for the occurrence of loss of containment from damaged systems and rely on the prediction of peak overpressure with respect to distance from the explosion source and on the structural category of the target equipment.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Valerio Cozzani,Giacomo Antonioni,Nima Khakzad,Faisal Khan,Jerome Taveau,Genserik Reniers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082508
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Summary : The complexity of domino scenarios represented a considerable obstacle to the quantitative assessment of risk posed by escalation events. In the present chapter, the state of the art concerning quantitative approaches proposed for the assessment of risk caused by domino accidents is summarized. A procedure for the quantitative risk assessment of domino accidents, suitable for the calculation of individual and societal risk indexes, is outlined. Alternative approaches proposed for the quantitative assessment of domino effects, based on Bayesian techniques and Monte Carlo simulations, are also described.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Genserik Reniers,Valerio Cozzani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082430
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Summary : The first step in the assessment of domino accident scenarios is the definition of the basic elements of escalation resulting in a domino effect. In the present chapter, the fundamental elements of a domino accident are discussed. A generic and unambiguous definition for “domino effect” is provided, taking into consideration a myriad of definitions for the term that have been suggested since 1984. An approach is elaborated and discussed to allow drafting a comprehensive and full-scale categorization of events that may constitute a domino accident. The concepts of propagation and escalation are clarified. The possibility of simple, multiple-level and parallel propagation are introduced and discussed. A framework for the quantitative assessment of domino scenarios is provided.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Genserik Reniers,Robby Faes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082539
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Summary : Managing domino effects in an industrial area is not an easy task. It requires multidisciplinary knowledge and know-how, an adequate mindset, eye for detail and for the big picture, a short-term as well as a long-term vision, thorough collaboration efforts, a generalistic perspective with specialist knowledge, and so on. Different domains need to be dealt with in relation to domino effects: technological issues, procedural requirements, and human factor topics. This chapter describes for each of these domains how they should be viewed with respect to internal and external domino effects, and provides recommendations on how management may/should tackle risks related to possible domino effects within a chemical industrial park.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Joaquim Casal,Rosa-Mari Darbra
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082423
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Summary : The diverse historical surveys on accidents involving domino effect have been analyzed to identify their significance and their most important features. From these data, the importance of domino effect among all accidents in the process industry and in the transportation of hazardous materials has been highlighted. The characteristics of this type of accidents have been studied with a statistical approach: origin and causes of domino effect, materials most frequently involved and effects and consequences of accidents. The significance of the diverse domino sequences have been assessed by using the relative probability event tree. Finally, four relevant cases have been discussed, corresponding to the following initiating events: two vapor cloud explosions (Buncefield, 2005 and Naples, 1985), one jet fire (Valero, 2007) and one accident associated with dust explosion.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Alessandro Tugnoli,Valerio Cozzani,Faisal Khan,Paul Amyotte
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082461
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Summary : Fragments projected by equipment failures are a relevant cause of escalation leading to domino accidents. The patterns underlying this escalation mechanism were revised in detail. The fundamental phenomena available to cope with the three main steps of the phenomena (fragment formation, fragment ejection and flight, and damage from fragment impact on a target) were analyzed in detail. Models available for the calculation of escalation probability due to fragments are reported and their potentialities and limitations are discussed.

Dynamic Risk Assessment and Management of Domino Effects and Cascading Events in the Process Industry

Dynamic Risk Assessment and Management of Domino Effects and Cascading Events in the Process Industry
  • Author : Valerio Cozzani,Genserik Reniers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-06-08
  • Total pages :404
  • ISBN : 9780081028391
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Summary : Dynamic Risk Assessment and Management of Domino Effects and Cascading Events in the Process Industry provides insights into emerging and state-of-the-art methods for the dynamic assessment of risk and safety barrier performance in the framework of domino effect risk management. The book presents methods and tools to manage the risk of cascading events involving the chemical and process industry. It is an ideal reference for both safety and security managers, industrial risk stakeholders, scientists and practitioners. In addition, laymen may find the state-of-the-art methods concerning domino effects (large-scale accidents) and how to prevent their propagation an interesting topic of study. Includes dynamic hazard and risk assessment methods Presents methods for safety barrier performance assessment Addresses the effect of harsh environment on domino risk assessment Relates physical security in relation to domino effects Includes innovative methods and tools

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Valerio Cozzani,Alessandro Tugnoli,Sarah Bonvicini,Ernesto Salzano
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082492
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Summary : Escalation thresholds are widely used as a baseline approach to the assessment of the hazard posed by domino scenarios. These should be intended as conservative values of physical effects (thermal radiation, maximum overpressure, etc.) below which the escalation is deemed not credible. This chapter deals with this preliminary approach to domino hazard assessment, revising the values provided in the literature for escalation thresholds and providing suggested values based on recent results obtained in the revision of past accident data and in the modeling of equipment damage.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries
  • Author : Gabriele Landucci,Valerio Cozzani,Michael Birk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-08
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128082454
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Summary : Escalation triggered by fires resulting in domino scenarios was the cause of severe accidents in the process industry. As a matter of fact, the catastrophic failure of process equipment, both pressurized and atmospheric, may be induced by the heat-up due to the exposure to accidental fires, leading to the loss of containment of hazardous materials. In this chapter, the behavior of equipment exposed to accidental fire will be investigated in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms underlying the failure of vessels exposed to fire. In particular, both simplified tools and detailed models for the assessment of the performance of vessels involved in fires will be discussed. The final aim is to provide methods for the quantitative assessment of domino hazards caused by accidental fires, and for the application of both passive and active strategies for the control and reduction of the risk associated with incident escalation triggered by fire.

Risk Assessment In Chemical Process Industries

Risk Assessment In Chemical Process Industries
  • Author : F.I. Khan,Shahid Abbas Abbasi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 8171414222
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Summary : Contents: Introduction, Qualitative Methods of Risk Assessment, Quantitative Methods of Risk Assessment-I: Consequence Analysis, Quantitative Methods of Risk Assessment-II: Rapid Risk Assessment, Quantitative Methods of Risk Assessment-III: Probabilistic Hazard Assessment, Studies on Chain, of Accidents (Domino Effects), Methods of Hazard Identification, Screening and Ranking, Application of Risk Analysis in Process Design.

Physical Security in the Process Industry

Physical Security in the Process Industry
  • Author : Gabriele Landucci,Nima Khakzad,Genserik Reniers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-30
  • Total pages :252
  • ISBN : 9780444640550
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Summary : Physical Security in the Process Industry: Theory with Applications deals with physical security in the field of critical infrastructures where hazardous materials are a factor, along with the state-of-the-art thinking and modeling methods for enhancing physical security. The book offers approaches based on scientific insights, mainly addressing terrorist attacks. Moreover, the use of innovative techniques is explained, including Bayesian networks, game-theory and petri-networks. Dealing with economic parameters and constraints and calculating the costs and benefits of security measures are also included. The book will be of interest to security (and safety) scientists, security managers and the public at large. Discusses how to achieve inherent physical security using a scientific approach Explores how to take adequate add-on physical security measures Covers risk assessment tools and applications for practical use in the industry Demonstrates how to optimize security decisions using security models and approaches Considers economic aspects of security decisions

Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants

Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants
  • Author : Joaquim Casal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-21
  • Total pages :570
  • ISBN : 9780444638922
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Summary : Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants, Second Edition, covers the essential aspects of a diverse range of major accidents including fires, explosions and toxic clouds, and provides the key models necessary to calculate their effects and consequences with applications to real incidents. New topics in this up-to-date edition include dust explosions, evaluation of frequencies and probabilities, domino effect, transportation of hazardous materials, and analysis of significant accidents. The new edition of Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants is a valuable resource to engineers from the chemical/petrochemical industry and those working with the transportation of hazardous materials (by road, rail, or pipelines), in addition to engineering companies and academics alike. Evaluates the expected/probable occurrence frequency of major accidents Describes the main features of fires, explosions and toxic releases Includes mathematical modeling of major accidents, evaluation of their effects, and consequences on people and equipment Explains how to perform a Quantitative Risk Analysis