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Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : R. Pignatello
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091784
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Summary : DSC studies of the interaction between drugs or other biologically active compounds with biomembrane models has often been associated or integrated with other analytical methodologies. The information gained from various techniques can depict the different and complex elements that compose such interactions. This chapter will summarize some recent examples of successfully combining DSC with other physico-chemical methods, such as spectroscopy, chromatography, calorimetry, the Langmuir–Blodgett film technique and microscopy.

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : C. Carbone,R. Pignatello
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091814
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Summary : Interest in using DSC to study the interaction between different compounds and biomembrane models has increased in the last 20years. This is confirmed by the number of published research studies concerning the feasibility of investigating the behavior of different molecules, such as local anesthetics, anticancer drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants, antibiotics, peptides, proteins, polymers, surfactants, genetic materials, macromolecules, and also drug delivery systems (DDSs). This chapter provides a general consideration of the current applications of DSC in evaluating the interaction of different biomolecules and biomembrane models, which will be presented more thoroughly in the succeeding chapters. In particular, a detailed description of the DSC technique for studying the interaction of surfactants, genetic materials, polymers, and DDSs with biomembrane models and biomolecule toxicity studies will be provided, taking into consideration the most recent literature.

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : R. Pignatello
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091760
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Summary : This chapter will summarize recent information on cell membranes. Their structure, functions and the role of the various components are discussed, considering both their physiological tasks, such as mechanisms of drug internalization into cells, as well as membrane changes associated with or caused by particular disease states. Later chapters will discuss the possibility of testing biomembrane models to study their interaction with drugs and biological compounds.

Drug-Biomembrane Interaction Studies

Drug-Biomembrane Interaction Studies
  • Author : Rosario Pignatello
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9781908818348
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Summary : The design and development of drugs and new pharmaceutical formulations require a full characterization of the chemical and physicochemical events occurring at the level of the single active ingredients or excipients, as well as their reciprocal interaction. Thermal analysis techniques are among the most widely used methods to achieve this; among them, the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) technique, in which the thermotropic behaviour of a single substance or mixtures is analyzed as a function of a controlled temperature program. DSC is an accurate and rapid thermo-analytical technique, widely used by the pharmaceutical industry and in drug research to investigate several physico-chemical phenomena, such as polymorphism, melting and crystallization, purity, and drug-excipient interaction; as well as characterizing biomolecules such as genetic material. Drug-biomembrane interaction studies is written by scientists renowned for their work in the field of DSC applications to drug development and delivery, and especially to drug-biomembrane interaction studies. The book combines insights from biochemistry and physiology with those from structural biology, nanotechnology and biothermodynamics, to obtain a complete depiction of cell membranes and their functions. Summarizes and updates the recent development in a unique handbook format Consists of a combination of scientific updates within the field Contains chapters written by some of the highest-level experts in the field of DSC

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : T. Musumeci,G. Puglisi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091852
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Summary : Antimicrobial agents are from different classes of molecules that suppress multiplication and growth of or kill microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. The precise mechanism of action of some antimicrobial agents is unknown but they must interact with or cross the cell membrane to have an effect. Identification of the damage induced by these compounds is difficult due to the complexity of cell membranes. Studying interactions using membrane models is a first step in obtaining elementary information about the effects of such drugs. We discuss interaction studies in the recent literature that use calorimetric techniques, regarding the mechanism of action or side effects of antimicrobial agents. For interaction studies with mimetic membrane models using DSC analysis, we will try to answer some key questions: (a) Does lipid composition affect the interaction? (b) Does the composition of bilayers influence the secondary structure of a peptide antimicrobial? (c) Does lipid polymorphism influence the activity and toxicity of the molecules? We underline the importance of phospholipids (neutral or anionic) chosen to produce biomembrane vesicles as models for the different studies.

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : A. Wiśniewska-Becker,W.I. Gruszecki
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091777
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Summary : Biological membranes consisting of two main components, lipids and proteins, have many important functions in cells. Membrane structure, physical and chemical properties of lipids and proteins, and interactions between them determine membrane functions such as the barrier separating a cell from its environment, selective transport, cell recognition, signalling and compartmentalization of cellular processes. To investigate membrane structure and dynamics, and the interactions between membrane components on a molecular level, simplified artificial models of biological membranes have been developed. Various biophysical techniques are used with these models to study membrane properties and their changes under different environmental factors. This chapter describes common membrane models and some of their applications. There are two groups of models: vesicular models (micelles, bicelles and liposomes) and planar ones (lipid monolayers, supported lipid bilayers, black lipid membranes). The advantages and disadvantages of both types are discussed as well as their usefulness for particular biophysical techniques.

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : S. Giatrellis,G. Nounesis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091838
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Summary : DSC is a non-invasive experimental technique, which, besides other numerous applications, has been extensively applied in investigating the thermodynamic properties of synthetic and biological membranes. The calorimetric profiles of phase transitions of self-organized lipid membranes can provide valuable information about membrane interactions with biomolecules, pharmaceutical agents, other membranes, etc. The scope of this chapter is to review specific applications of DSC in studying membrane– nucleic acid interactions, which have attracted scientific attention for their biological relevance, as well as for their potential for biotechnological and pharmaceutical advances.

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : C. Carbone,T. Musumeci,R. Pignatello
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091845
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Summary : Several DSC studies have given a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of interaction of many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), such as indomethacin, ibuprofen, naproxen, nimesulide, ketoprofen and oxicam drugs with cell membranes or with simplified phospholipid-based biomembrane models. The consequent changes in the organization, fluidity and permeability of these membranes can, in some instances, be related to the pharmacological profile and toxicology of this drug class. The literature also attests the usefulness of DSC methods in studying the interaction of NSAID-loaded delivery systems (polymeric micro- and nanoparticles, micelles, lipid nanoparticles and prodrugs) with biomembrane models. DSC is also a valid tool for following the release of an anti-inflammatory drug from its carrier.

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : A. Raudino,M.G. Sarpietro,M. Pannuzzo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091791
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Summary : In this chapter we briefly introduce the main physical principles of DSC as well as related techniques. After a quick survey of the more common experimental techniques, we describe the thermodynamics and kinetics of events accompanying a heating/cooling process. We focus on lipid membranes of one or more components. Both the thermotropic and the barotropic behaviours are investigated, as well as the water/lipid ratio. The effect of foreign impurities (hydrophobic molecules, proteins) dissolved in the lipid matrix on DSC thermotropic behaviour is also investigated, either in the ideal mixing model or for non-ideal miscibility. In the poor miscibility limit, lipids and hydrophobic impurities may undergo phase separation. The mechanisms of phase separation are discussed and related to experimental DSC features. Out-of-equilibrium phenomena, such as the different thermotropic behaviour between heating and cooling modes or the kinetics of lipid/water partitioning, are explained using simple models for phase transitions.

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : M. Grazia Sarpietro,F. Castelli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091869
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Summary : This chapter describes a method for evaluating the release of a drug by different delivery systems to biomembrane models made of multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles, using DSC techniques. First, different delivery systems as well as biomembrane models are described followed by a detailed description of the experimental protocols that are the basis of the technique. A drug-loaded delivery system is incubated with the biomembrane model and drug release is evaluated by considering the effect of the drug on the biomembrane’s thermotropic behaviour, and comparing the experimental data with those of the free drug. Finally, examples of the application of this technique are given.

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : M.H. Chiu,N.S. Berezowski,E.J. Prenner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091821
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Summary : DSC is a straightforward, non-perturbing thermodynamic technique first developed in the early 1960s. The large number of parameters and the high sensitivity has made DSC one of the key calorimetric tools used for investigating thermodynamic properties of biopolymers, proteins, peptides and nucleic acids. There are numerous reviews covering the different macromolecular applications of DSC: this chapter will primarily focus on proteins and nucleic acids.

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies

Drug–biomembrane interaction studies
  • Author : A. Fortunato
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9780128091807
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Summary : In DSC, the heat flow in and out of a sample and a reference material is measured as a function of temperature as the sample is heated, cooled, or held isothermally at constant temperature. The measurement signal is the energy absorbed or released by the sample in milliwatts. DSC can detect endothermic and exothermic effects, determine peak areas (transition and reaction enthalpies), determine temperatures that characterize a peak or other effects, and measure specific heat capacity. Since the end of the nineteenth century, DSC has been improved and optimized. With the numerous technological innovations, in both hardware and software, it can explore new and demanding applications. Different measurement principles, sensors, signal processing, accessories, and evaluation capabilities make differential scanning calorimetry one of the most common and versatile techniques in material characterization. Today DSC benefits from technological solutions used previously for other applications (MEMS technology, optical devices, and parameter estimation methods).

Drug-Membrane Interactions

Drug-Membrane Interactions
  • Author : Joachim K. Seydel,Michael Wiese
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-07-10
  • Total pages :367
  • ISBN : 9783527616497
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Summary : Barrier, reservoir, target site - those are but some of the possible functions of biological lipid membranes in the complex interplay of drugs with the organism. A detailed knowledge of lipid membranes and of the various modes of drug-membrane interaction is therefore the prerequisite for a better understanding of drug action. Many of today's pharmaceuticals are amphiphilic or catamphiphilic, enabling them to interact with biological membranes. Crucial membrane properties are surveyed and techniques to elucidate drug-membrane interactions presented, including computer-aided predictions. Effects of membrane interaction on drug action and drug distribution are discussed, and numerous examples are given. This unique reference volume builds on the authors' long experience in the study of drug-membrane interaction. Recommended reading for everyone involved in pharmaceutical research.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell
  • Author : Bruce Alberts
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 0815332181
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Summary :

Interaction Forces Between Biomembranes

Interaction Forces Between Biomembranes
  • Author : James Kurniawan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 136961599X
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Summary : The complexity of cellular membranes, due in large part to the enormous variety of chemical species present and their active function, makes their study challenging. Due to the intricate nature of cellular membranes, fundamental biophysical studies have been carried out with model membrane platforms that capture the essential physical and chemical properties of biological membranes. Supported lipid bilayer (SLB) systems are one such platform and primarily studied in this work. Specifically, the surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to investigate membrane structure and the interaction forces between solid supported biomimetic membranes. The resulting SFA force-distance profiles were corroborated with various characterization techniques including atomic force microscopy (AFM), neutron reflectometry (NR), fluorescence microscopy (FM), zeta potential (ZP) and Langmuir monolayer experiments. Systematic studies were done using various systems to reveal the contributions of van der Waals, electrostatic, hydration, and hydrophobic interactions between SLBs. Binary mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and cholesterol was studied to reveal how cholesterol modifies the interactions between membranes. The interaction force-distance profiles between DPPC-cholesterol membranes measured using SFA and AFM imaging of the membrane revealed the presence of nanoscopic defects leading to an enhanced hydrophobic attraction between the membranes in contact. The membranes were found to carry a distinct and non-negligible negative charge due to the presence of lipid contaminants resulting in a long range electrostatic repulsion. More complex membranes containing equimolar ternary mixtures of saturated lipids (DPPC), unsaturated lipids (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)), and cholesterol were investigated and exhibited similar interaction behavior as the binary DPPC-cholesterol system. The pure component, ternary mixed membranes were then compared to a more biologically relevant lipid raft membranes composed of POPC, a complex mixture of brain sphingomyelin (BSM), and cholesterol. The heterogeneity of the sphingolipids used in the mixture led to a small variation in the long-range electrostatic repulsion and raft membrane adhesion. Nevertheless, these more complex raft membranes exhibited an adhesion magnitude and compressibility similar to the ternary mixed membranes containing pure components. In all of SLB studies, the quality of the resulting membrane is often overlooked and details such as membrane defects or holes can have a subtle to dramatic impact on the results and conclusions of an individual study. Thus, the deposition parameters required to construct SLBs with the fewest defects were delineated to generate general rules of thumb to guide preparation of novel SLB systems. Finally, membrane interactions and the deprotonation behavior of oleic acid in a DPPC membrane at physiological pH were determined. The findings clearly demonstrate that oleic acid’s degree of deprotonation can be tailored by the solution pH enabling the interaction between oleic acid containing membranes, which have not previously studied, to be controlled. The SLB charge tunability combined with the ability to tailor the phase state and interactions of the membrane are important for targeted drug-delivery and biosensor applications where the selective binding of ligands or proteins to membranes is important.

Advances in Biomembranes and Lipid Self-Assembly

Advances in Biomembranes and Lipid Self-Assembly
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-07
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 9780128209783
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Summary : Advances in Biomembranes and Lipid Self-assembly, Volume 31, formerly titled Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, provides a global platform for the study of cell membranes, lipid model membranes and lipid self-assemblies, from the micro- to the nanoscale. As planar lipid bilayers are widely studied due to their ubiquity in nature, this book presents research on their application in the formulation of biomimetic model membranes, and in the design of artificial dispersion of liposomes. Moreover, the book discusses how lipids self-assemble into a wide range of other structures, including micelles and the liquid crystalline hexagonal and cubic phases. Chapters in this volume present both original research and comprehensive reviews written by world leading experts and young researchers. Surveys recent theoretical and experimental results on lipid micro- and nanostructures Presents potential use applications, such as clinically relevant diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, biotechnology, pharmaceutical engineering and food products Includes both original research and comprehensive reviews written by world-leading experts and young researchers Provides a global platform for a broad community of experimental and theoretical researchers studying cell membranes, lipid model membranes, and lipid self-assemblies, from the micro- to the nanoscale

Transdermal Drug Delivery

Transdermal Drug Delivery
  • Author : Kevin Ita
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-12
  • Total pages :324
  • ISBN : 9780128225516
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Summary : Transdermal Drug Delivery: Concepts and Application provides comprehensive background knowledge and documents the most recent advances made in the field of transdermal drug delivery. It provides comprehensive and updated information regarding most technologies and formulation strategies used for transdermal drug delivery. There has been recent growth in the number of research articles, reviews, and other types of publications in the field of transdermal drug delivery. Research in this area is active both in the academic and industry settings. Ironically, only about 40 transdermal products with distinct active pharmaceutical ingredients are in the market indicating that more needs to be done to chronicle recent advances made in this area and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. This book will be helpful to researchers in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries as well as academics and graduate students working in the field of transdermal drug delivery and professionals working in the field of regulatory affairs focusing on topical and transdermal drug delivery systems. Researchers in the cosmetic and cosmeceutical industries, as well as those in chemical and biological engineering, will also find this book useful. Captures the most recent advancements and challenges in the field of transdermal drug delivery Covers both passive and active transdermal drug delivery strategies Explores a selection of state-of-the-art transdermal drug delivery systems

Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering

Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering
  • Author : Spiros V. Paras,Athanasios G. Kanaris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-26
  • Total pages :130
  • ISBN : 9783039212477
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Summary : The term ‘biomedical engineering’ refers to the application of the principles and problem-solving techniques of engineering to biology and medicine. Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary branch, as many of the problems health professionals are confronted with have traditionally been of interest to engineers because they involve processes that are fundamental to engineering practice. Biomedical engineers employ common engineering methods to comprehend, modify, or control biological systems, and to design and manufacture devices that can assist in the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. This Special Issue of Fluids aims to be a forum for scientists and engineers from academia and industry to present and discuss recent developments in the field of biomedical engineering. It contains papers that tackle, both numerically (Computational Fluid Dynamics studies) and experimentally, biomedical engineering problems, with a diverse range of studies focusing on the fundamental understanding of fluid flows in biological systems, modelling studies on complex rheological phenomena and molecular dynamics, design and improvement of lab-on-a-chip devices, modelling of processes inside the human body as well as drug delivery applications. Contributions have focused on problems associated with subjects that include hemodynamical flows, arterial wall shear stress, targeted drug delivery, FSI/CFD and Multiphysics simulations, molecular dynamics modelling and physiology-based biokinetic models.

Nanostructures for Drug Delivery

Nanostructures for Drug Delivery
  • Author : Ecaterina Andronescu,Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-24
  • Total pages :1024
  • ISBN : 9780323461498
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Summary : Nanostructures for Drug Delivery extensively covers the various nanostructured products that have been tested as carriers in target drug delivery systems. In addition, the book analyses the advantages of, and issues related to, using nanostructured materials in drug delivery systems, also detailing various nanocarrier preparation techniques. As delivering the drug to the target site is a major problem in providing effective treatment for many diseases, this book covers the latest advancements in numerous nanotechnological products that are being used in disease detection, controlled drug delivery, as biosensors, and in tissue engineering that have been developed for more efficient patient healthcare. Due to the versatility of nanostructured materials, it is now possible to deliver a drug at its target site in a more accurate and efficient way. This volume is an up-to-date, state-of-the-art work that highlights the principal mechanistic aspects related to the delivery of active nanoscale therapeutic agents (natural or synthetic) and their release profile in different environmental media. It highlights nanoscale encapsulation strategies and discusses both organic and inorganic nanomaterials as carriers and delivery platforms. Demonstrates how nanostructures are successfully employed in drug delivery stems and as drug delivery agents, allowing biomaterials scientists and biochemists to create more effective drug delivery systems Offers an overview of recent research into the use of nanostructures in drug delivery techniques in a cogent, synthesized way, allowing readers to quickly familiarize themselves with this area Includes examples of how the application of nanostructures have improved the efficiency of drug delivery systems, showing medical scientists how they are beneficial

Open Source Software in Life Science Research

Open Source Software in Life Science Research
  • Author : Lee Harland,Mark Forster
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-31
  • Total pages :582
  • ISBN : 9781908818249
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Summary : The free/open source approach has grown from a minor activity to become a significant producer of robust, task-orientated software for a wide variety of situations and applications. To life science informatics groups, these systems present an appealing proposition - high quality software at a very attractive price. Open source software in life science research considers how industry and applied research groups have embraced these resources, discussing practical implementations that address real-world business problems. The book is divided into four parts. Part one looks at laboratory data management and chemical informatics, covering software such as Bioclipse, OpenTox, ImageJ and KNIME. In part two, the focus turns to genomics and bioinformatics tools, with chapters examining GenomicsTools and EBI Atlas software, as well as the practicalities of setting up an ‘omics’ platform and managing large volumes of data. Chapters in part three examine information and knowledge management, covering a range of topics including software for web-based collaboration, open source search and visualisation technologies for scientific business applications, and specific software such as DesignTracker and Utopia Documents. Part four looks at semantic technologies such as Semantic MediaWiki, TripleMap and Chem2Bio2RDF, before part five examines clinical analytics, and validation and regulatory compliance of free/open source software. Finally, the book concludes by looking at future perspectives and the economics and free/open source software in industry. Discusses a broad range of applications from a variety of sectors Provides a unique perspective on work normally performed behind closed doors Highlights the criteria used to compare and assess different approaches to solving problems

Clinical Research in Asia

Clinical Research in Asia
  • Author : U Sahoo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-05-25
  • Total pages :412
  • ISBN : 9781908818133
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Summary : Asia is increasingly taking on a leading role in the fields of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and ethics, two areas that are central to clinical research practices worldwide. Clinical research in Asia examines the evolution of these key sectors in the Asian countries where the greatest developments are taking place, offering valuable perspectives on a wide range of issues affecting clinical research. Following an introduction that provides an overview of the topic and its strengths and weaknesses, each chapter of the book is devoted to clinical research in a specific country, focusing on issues including the history and evolution of clinical research, clinical trials and regulatory aspects. The chapters also offer a perspective on future trends in clinical research in each country. The book concludes with a discussion of the importance of political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legal and environmental factors (PESTLE analysis). Analysis from a leading and highly respected professional in the sector An overview of country-specific regulatory environments Discussion of challenges and solutions for clinical research