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Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules
  • Author : Hsinjin Edwin Yang,Roger French,Laura Bruckman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-15
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9780128115459
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Summary : Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials

Photovoltaic Module Reliability

Photovoltaic Module Reliability
  • Author : John H. Wohlgemuth
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-08
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9781119459026
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Summary : Provides practical guidance on the latest quality assurance and accelerated stress test methods for improved long-term performance prediction of PV modules This book has been written from a historical perspective to guide readers through how the PV industry learned what the failure and degradation modes of PV modules were, how accelerated tests were developed to cause the same failures and degradations in the laboratory, and then how these tests were used as tools to guide the design and fabrication of reliable and long-life modules. Photovoltaic Module Reliability starts with a brief history of photovoltaics, discussing some of the different types of materials and devices used for commercial solar cells. It then goes on to offer chapters on: Module Failure Modes; Development of Accelerated Stress Tests; Qualification Testing; and Failure Analysis Tools. Next, it examines the use of quality management systems to manufacture PV modules. Subsequent chapters cover the PVQAT Effort; the Conformity Assessment and IECRE; and Predicting PV Module Service Life. The book finishes with a look at what the future holds for PV. A comprehensive treatment of current photovoltaic (PV) technology reliability and necessary improvement to become a significant part of the electric utility supply system Well documented with experimental and practical cases throughout, enhancing relevance to both scientific community and industry Timely contribution to the harmonization of methodological aspects of PV reliability evaluation with test procedures implemented to certify PV module quality Written by a leading international authority in PV module reliability Photovoltaic Module Reliability is an excellent book for anyone interested in PV module reliability, including those working directly on PV module and system reliability and preparing to purchase modules for deployment.

Durability Testing of Nonmetallic Materials

Durability Testing of Nonmetallic Materials
  • Author : Robert J. Herling
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :234
  • ISBN : 0803124074
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Summary :

Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies

Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies
  • Author : Carl S. Ponseca
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-31
  • Total pages :374
  • ISBN : 9781000021769
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Summary : The need to address the energy problem and formulate a lasting solution to tame climate change has never been so urgent. The rise of various renewable energy sources, such as solar cell technologies, has given humanity a glimpse of hope that can delay the catastrophic effects of these problems after decades of neglect. This review volume provides in-depth discussion of the fundamental photophysical processes as well as the state-of-the-art device engineering of various emerging photovoltaic technologies, including organic (fullerene, non-fullerene, and ternary), dye-sensitized (ruthenium, iron, and quantum dot), and hybrid metal-halide perovskite solar cells. The book is essential reading for graduate and postgraduate students involved in the photophysics and materials science of solar cell technologies.

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules
  • Author : Abdulkerim Gok
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-08
  • Total pages :170
  • ISBN : 9781789848229
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Summary : Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy is expected to be the world's largest source of electricity in the future. To enhance the long-term reliability of PV modules, a thorough understanding of failure mechanisms is of vital importance. In addition, it is important to address the potential downsides to this technology. These include the hazardous chemicals needed for manufacturing solar cells, especially for thin-film technologies, and the large number of PV modules disposed of at the end of their lifecycles. This book discusses the reliability and environmental aspects of PV modules.

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules
  • Author : Peter Hacke
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:727264785
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Summary : The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

Energy Research Abstracts

Energy Research Abstracts
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1986
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : MSU:31293010868556
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Summary :

ASHRAE Handbook

ASHRAE Handbook
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UVA:X004134845
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Summary :

Corrosion Abstracts

Corrosion Abstracts
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1987
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105016788247
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Summary :

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells
  • Author : Frederik C. Krebs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-02
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : 9781118312230
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Summary : Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing measures for extending the duration of operation. Topics covered include: Chemical and physical probes for studying degradation Imaging techniques Photochemical stability of OPV materials Degradation mechanisms Testing methods Barrier technology and applications Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells is an essential reference source for researchers in academia and industry, engineers and manufacturers working on OPV design, development and implementation.

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation
  • Author : Adolf Goetzberger,Volker Uwe Hoffmann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-09-07
  • Total pages :234
  • ISBN : 9783540266280
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Summary : The intention of this book is to provide an impression of all aspects of p- tovoltaics (PV). It is not just about physics and technology or systems, but it looks beyond that at the entire environment in which PV is embedded. The ?rst chapter is intended as an introduction to the subject. It can also be considered an executive summary. Chapters 2–4 describe very brie?y the basic physics and technology of the solar cell. The silicon cell is the vehicle for this description because it is the best understood solar cell and also has the greatest practical importance. A reader who is not interested in the ph- ical details of the solar cell can skip Chap.2 and still understand the rest of the book. In general, it was the intention of the authors to keep the book at a level that does not require too much previous knowledge of photovoltaics. Chapter5isdevotedtoothermaterialsandnewconceptspresentlyunder- velopment or consideration. It intends to provide an impression of the many possibilities that exist for the conversion of solar radiation into electricity by solid state devices. These new concepts will keep researchers occupied for decades to come. Chapter 6 gives an introduction to cell and module techn- ogy and also informs the reader about the environmental compatibility and recycling of modules. The following chapters are devoted to practical applications. Chapters 7 and 8 introduce systems technology for di?erent applications. The envir- mental impact of PV systems and their reliability is the subject of Chap.9.

Materials for Sustainable Energy

Materials for Sustainable Energy
  • Author : Vincent Dusastre
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :331
  • ISBN : 9789814317641
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Summary : The search for cleaner, cheaper, smaller and more efficient energy technologies has to a large extent been motivated by the development of new materials. The aim of this collection of articles is therefore to focus on what materials-based solutions can offer and show how the rationale design and improvement of their physical and chemical properties can lead to energy-production alternatives that have the potential to compete with existing technologies. In terms of alternative means to generate electricity that utilize renewable energy sources, the most dramatic breakthroughs for both mobile (i.e., transportation) and stationary applications are taking place in the fields of solar and fuel cells. And from an energy-storage perspective, exciting developments can be seen emerging from the fields of rechargeable batteries and hydrogen storage.

Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications

Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications
  • Author : Michael Köhl,Michaela Georgine Meir,Philippe Papillon,Gernot M. Wallner,Sandrin Saile
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-14
  • Total pages :418
  • ISBN : 9783527659623
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Summary : Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications. Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, discussing the potential of polymeric materials in solar thermal applications, as well as demands on durability, design and building integration. With its emphasis on applications, this monograph is relevant for researchers at universities and developers in commercial companies.

Photovoltaic Solar Energy

Photovoltaic Solar Energy
  • Author : Ang?le Reinders,Pierre Verlinden,Alexandre Freundlich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-06
  • Total pages :718
  • ISBN : 9781118927465
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Summary : Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of existing PV technologies in conjunction with an assessment of technological developments. Key features: Written by leading specialists active in concurrent developments in material sciences, solar cell research and application-driven R&D. Provides a basic knowledge base in light, photons and solar irradiance and basic functional principles of PV. Covers characterization techniques, economics and applications of PV such as silicon, thin-film and hybrid solar cells. Presents a compendium of PV technologies including: crystalline silicon technologies; chalcogenide thin film solar cells; thin-film silicon based PV technologies; organic PV and III-Vs; PV concentrator technologies; space technologies and economics, life-cycle and user aspects of PV technologies. Each chapter presents basic principles and formulas as well as major technological developments in a contemporary context with a look at future developments in this rapidly changing field of science and engineering. Ideal for industrial engineers and scientists beginning careers in PV as well as graduate students undertaking PV research and high-level undergraduate students.

Handbook of Thermoplastics, Second Edition

Handbook of Thermoplastics, Second Edition
  • Author : Olagoke Olabisi,Kolapo Adewale
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-02-03
  • Total pages :994
  • ISBN : 9781466577237
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Summary : This new edition of the bestselling Handbook of Thermoplastics incorporates recent developments and advances in thermoplastics with regard to materials development, processing, properties, and applications. With contributions from 65 internationally recognized authorities in the field, the second edition features new and updated discussions of several topics, including: Polymer nanocomposites Laser processing of thermoplastic composites Bioplastics Natural fiber thermoplastic composites Materials selection Design and application Additives for thermoplastics Recycling of thermoplastics Regulatory and legislative issues related to health, safety, and the environment The book also discusses state-of-the-art techniques in science and technology as well as environmental assessment with regard to the impact of thermoplastics. Each chapter is written in a review format that covers: Historical development and commercialization Polymerization and process technologies Structural and phase characteristics in relation to use properties The effects of additives on properties and applications Blends, alloys, copolymers, and composites derived from thermoplastics Applications Giving thorough coverage of the most recent trends in research and practice, the Handbook of Thermoplastics, Second Edition is an indispensable resource for experienced and practicing professionals as well as upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in a wide range of disciplines and industries.

Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells

Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells
  • Author : M. Parans Paranthaman,Winnie Wong-Ng,Raghu N. Bhattacharya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-16
  • Total pages :279
  • ISBN : 9783319203317
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Summary : This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing. Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost. Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce costs, with particular focus on how to reduce the gap between laboratory scale efficiency and commercial module efficiency. This book will aid materials scientists and engineers in identifying research priorities to fulfill energy needs, and will also enable researchers to understand novel semiconductor materials that are emerging in the solar market. This integrated approach also gives science and engineering students a sense of the excitement and relevance of materials science in the development of novel semiconductor materials. · Provides a comprehensive introduction to solar PV cell materials · Reviews current and future status of solar cells with respect to cost and efficiency · Covers the full range of solar cell materials, from silicon and thin films to dye sensitized and organic solar cells · Offers an in-depth account of the semiconductor material strategies and directions for further research · Features detailed tables on the world leaders in efficiency demonstrations · Edited by scientists with experience in both research and industry

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices
  • Author : Jaydeep Sarkar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-12-13
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780815519874
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Summary : An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall productivity of various processes. Two unique chapters of this book deal with productivity and troubleshooting issues. The content of the book has been divided into two sections: (a) the first section (Chapter 1 to Chapter 3) has been prepared for the readers from a range of disciplines (e.g. electrical, chemical, chemistry, physics) trying to get an insight into use of sputtered films in various devices (e.g. semiconductor, display, photovoltaic, data storage), basic of sputtering and performance of sputtering target in relation to productivity, and (b) the second section (Chapter 4 to Chapter 8) has been prepared for readers who already have background knowledge of sputter deposition of thin films, materials science principles and interested in the details of sputtering target manufacturing methods, sputtering behavior and thin film properties specific to semiconductor, liquid crystal display, photovoltaic and magnetic data storage applications. In Chapters 5 to 8, a general structure has been used, i.e. a description of the applications of sputtered thin films, sputtering target manufacturing methods (including flow charts), sputtering behavior of targets (e.g. current - voltage relationship, deposition rate) and thin film properties (e.g. microstructure, stresses, electrical properties, in-film particles). While discussing these topics, attempts have been made to include examples from the actual commercial processes to highlight the increased complexity of the commercial processes with the growth of advanced technologies. In addition to personnel working in industry setting, university researchers with advanced knowledge of sputtering would also find discussion of such topics (e.g. attributes of target design, chamber design, target microstructure, sputter surface characteristics, various troubleshooting issues) useful. . Unique coverage of sputtering target manufacturing methods in the light of semiconductor, displays, data storage and photovoltaic industry requirements Practical information on technology trends, role of sputtering and major OEMs Discussion on properties of a wide variety of thin films which include silicides, conductors, diffusion barriers, transparent conducting oxides, magnetic films etc. Practical case-studies on target performance and troubleshooting Essential technological information for students, engineers and scientists working in the semiconductor, display, data storage and photovoltaic industry

Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Modules and Their Applications

Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Modules and Their Applications
  • Author : G. N. Tiwari,Swapnil Dubey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9781849730204
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Summary : Presently there is no single publication available which covers the topics related to photovoltaic (PV) or photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) technologies, thermal modelling, CO2 mitigation and carbon trading. This book disseminates the current knowledge in the fundamentals of solar energy, photovoltaic (PV) or photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) technologies, energy security and climate change and is aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students and professionals. The main emphasis of the book is on the design, construction, performance and application of PV and PV/T from the electricity and thermal standpoint. Hot topics covered in the book include: energy security of a nation, climate change, CO2 mitigation and carbon credit earned by using PV or PV/T technologies (Carbon Trading). This information will prove helpful in filling the gap between the researchers and professionals working on the application of photovoltaic and global climate change. It also covers economic, cost effective and sustainable aspects of photovoltaic technologies. The book gives a detailed history of the new technological developments in PV/T systems worldwide with system photographs and references and elaborates on the fundamentals of hybrid systems and their performances with thermal modelling. Energy and exergy analysis, techno-economic analysis and carbon trading are key chapters for research professionals. The book also includes important case studies to aid understanding of the subject for all readers.

Optoelectronics

Optoelectronics
  • Author : Sergei Pyshkin,John Ballato
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-07
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9789535121749
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Summary : Optoelectronics Materials and Devices follows the Optoelectronics Books II and III published in 2011 and 2013, as part of the InTech collection of international works on optoelectronics. Accordingly, as with the first two books of the collection, this book covers recent achievements by specialists around the world. The growing number of countries participating in this endeavor as well as joint participation of the US and Moldova scientists in this edition testifies to the unifying effect of science. An interested reader will find in the book the description of properties and applications employing organic and inorganic materials, as well as the methods of fabrication and analysis of operation and regions of application of modern optoelectronic devices.

Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering

Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering
  • Author : Antonio Luque,Steven Hegedus
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-03-29
  • Total pages :1162
  • ISBN : 9780470976128
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Summary : The most comprehensive, authoritative and widely cited reference on photovoltaic solar energy Fully revised and updated, the Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Second Edition incorporates the substantial technological advances and research developments in photovoltaics since its previous release. All topics relating to the photovoltaic (PV) industry are discussed with contributions by distinguished international experts in the field. Significant new coverage includes: three completely new chapters and six chapters with new authors device structures, processing, and manufacturing options for the three major thin film PV technologies high performance approaches for multijunction, concentrator, and space applications new types of organic polymer and dye-sensitized solar cells economic analysis of various policy options to stimulate PV growth including effect of public and private investment Detailed treatment covers: scientific basis of the photovoltaic effect and solar cell operation the production of solar silicon and of silicon-based solar cells and modules how choice of semiconductor materials and their production influence costs and performance making measurements on solar cells and modules and how to relate results under standardised test conditions to real outdoor performance photovoltaic system installation and operation of components such as inverters and batteries. architectural applications of building-integrated PV Each chapter is structured to be partially accessible to beginners while providing detailed information of the physics and technology for experts. Encompassing a review of past work and the fundamentals in solar electric science, this is a leading reference and invaluable resource for all practitioners, consultants, researchers and students in the PV industry.

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage
  • Author : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Working Group III.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-12-19
  • Total pages :431
  • ISBN : 9780521866439
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Summary : IPCC Report on sources, capture, transport, and storage of CO2, for researchers, policy-makers and engineers.