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Economic Evaluation in Genomic Medicine

Economic Evaluation in Genomic Medicine
  • Author : Vasilios Fragoulakis,Christina Mitropoulou,Marc Williams,George P. Patrinos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-20
  • Total pages :174
  • ISBN : 9780128016114
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Summary : Economic Evaluation in Genomic Medicine introduces health economics and economic evaluation to genomic clinicians and researchers, while also introducing the topic to health economists. Each chapter includes an executive summary, questions, and case studies, along with supplementary online materials, including process guides, maps, flow charts, diagrams, and economic evaluation spreadsheets to enhance the learning process. The text can easily be used as course material for related graduate and undergraduate courses, providing a succinct overview of the existing, state-of-the-art application of economic evaluation to genomic healthcare and precision medicine. Interrelates economic evaluation and genomic medicine Instructs healthcare professionals and bioscientists about economic evaluation in genomic medicine Teaches health economists about application of economic evaluation in genomic medicine Introduces health economics and economic evaluation to clinicians and researchers involved in genomics Includes process guides, maps, flow charts and diagrams

Economic Evaluation in Genomic and Precision Medicine

Economic Evaluation in Genomic and Precision Medicine
  • Author : Christina Mitropoulou,Sarah Wordsworth,George P. Patrinos,James Buchanan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 0128133821
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Summary : Economic Evaluation in Genomic and Precision Medicine provides an in-depth examination of essential concepts, protocols and applications of economic evaluation in genomic and precision medicine. Contributions from leading international medical geneticists and health economists compile new ways to effectively assess the costs and outcomes of different genomic care pathways, implement cost-effective medical interventions, and enhance the value of genomic and precision healthcare. Foundational chapters and discipline-specific case studies cover topics ranging from the economic analysis of genomic trial design, to health technology assessment of next-generation sequencing, ethical aspects, economic policy in genomic medicine, and pricing and reimbursement in clinical genomics. Introduces clinicians, researchers and students to essential concepts, protocols and applications of economic evaluation in genomic and precision medicine Demonstrates, through foundational chapters and discipline-specific case studies, how to assess the relative costs and outcomes of different genomic care pathways and implement cost-effective budgets Establishes clear precedents on how genomic technologies can be leveraged to simultaneously reduce costs and enhance the value of healthcare Features contributions from leading international medical geneticists and health economists that are actively evolved in economic assessments of genomic and precision medicine

World Scientific Handbook Of Global Health Economics And Public Policy (A 3-volume Set)

World Scientific Handbook Of Global Health Economics And Public Policy (A 3-volume Set)
  • Author : Scheffler Richard M
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-01-28
  • Total pages :1628
  • ISBN : 9789814612333
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Summary : This Handbook covers major topics in global health economics and public policy and provides a timely, systematic review of the field. Edited by Richard M Scheffler, Distinguished Professor of Health Economics and Public Policy and Director of the Global Center for Health Economics and Policy Research at the University of California, Berkeley, the Handbook features academics and practitioners from more than a dozen countries. Contributors are from the London School of Economics and Political Science, Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, University of York, University of Oslo, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of California - Berkeley, Stanford University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Toronto, University of Oxford, Harvard Medical School, OECD, the World Health Organization and the World Bank, many of whom have also acted as economic and policy advisors to government and non-governmental organizations across the world. Experts in these areas who provide critical analyses and relevant data for further exploration and research include: Thomas E Getzen, Executive Director of the International Health Economics Association (iHEA); Douglas E Hough, Associate Scientist and Associate Director of the Master in Healthcare Management programme at the Bloomberg School of Public Health of John Hopkins University; Guillem López-Casasnovas, former President of iHEA and member of the Advisory Council of the Spanish Health and Social Welfare Ministry and of the Advisory Council of the Catalan Health Ministry since 1984; Alistair McGuire, Professor of Health Economics at the London School of Economics and Political and advisor to a number of governments and governmental bodies across Europe; Tor Iversen, Research Director at the Health Economics Research Programme at the University of Oslo and former member of the iHEA Arrow Award Committee 2007-2011; William H Dow, Professor and Associate Dean for Research at University of California ,Berkeley and former Senior Economist for the Council of Economic Advisors (White House); Audrey Laporte, the Director of the Canadian Centre for Health Economics; Alexander S Preker, President and CEO of Health Investment & Financing Corporation; Ayda Yurekli, who initiated and developed the World Health Organization TaXSiM simulation model that has been used by many Ministries of Finance around the world for the development of tax policies; Marko Vujicic, Managing Vice President of the Health Policy Resources Center at the American Dental Association; Mark Sculpher, Director of the Programme on Economic Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment at the University of York and former President of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) (2011-2012); and Peter Berman, who has had almost 40 years of experience in global health and was formerly a Lead Health Economist at the World Bank. The Handbook spans across three volumes. The chapters deal with key global issues in health economics, are evidence-based, and offer innovative policy alternatives and solutions. The Handbook's approach toward global health economics and public policy will make it a useful resource for health economists, policymakers, private sector companies, NGOs, government decision-makers and those who manage healthcare systems.

Applied Genomics and Public Health

Applied Genomics and Public Health
  • Author : George P. Patrinos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-13
  • Total pages :404
  • ISBN : 9780128136966
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Summary : Applied Genomics and Public Health examines the interdisciplinary and growing area of how evidence-based genomic knowledge can be applied to public health, population health, healthcare and health policies. The book gathers experts from a variety of disciplines, including life sciences, social sciences, and health care to develop a comprehensive overview of the field. In addition, the book delves into subjects such as pharmacogenomics, genethics, big data, data translation and analysis, economic evaluation, genomic awareness and education, sociology, pricing and reimbursement, policy measures and economic evaluation in genomic medicine. This book is essential reading for researchers and students exploring applications of genomics to population and public health. In addition, it is ideal for those in the biomedical sciences, medical sociologists, healthcare professionals, nurses, regulatory bodies and health economists interested in learning more about this growing field. Explores the growing application of genomics to population and public health Features internationally renowned contributors from a variety of related fields Contains chapters on important topics such as genomic data sharing, genethics and public health genomics, genomics and sociology, and regulatory aspects of genomic medicine and pharmacogenomics

Genomic Medicine in Emerging Economies

Genomic Medicine in Emerging Economies
  • Author : George Patrinos,Catalina Lopez-Correa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-29
  • Total pages :204
  • ISBN : 9780128115510
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Summary : Genomic Medicine in Resource-limited Countries: Genomics for Every Nation provides in-depth analysis and key examples of the implementation of medical genomics in low-income nations across the globe, demonstrating how this advancing medical science has not only transformed health systems, but also led to improved patient care in Indonesian, Nepalese, Chilean, Malaysian, Tanzanian, Argentinian, Chinese, Sri Lankan and Columbian populations, among others. In addition to defining tools, diagnostics and treatment pathways at the population-wide level for medical geneticists, genomic researchers and public health workers, this book offers a case-study based approach that helps users understand how genomic medicine is used in disease-management. Examines essential concepts and protocols, and economic, social and legal considerations related to the implementation of genomic medicine in resource-limited nations Features concrete success stories of the implementation of medical genomics in Indonesian, Nepalese, Chilean, Malaysian, Tanzanian, Argentinian, Chinese, Sri Lankan and Columbian populations, amongst others Provides tools, diagnostics and treatment pathways for medical geneticists, genomic researchers and public health workers to apply in their own work Establishes clear precedents on how genomic technologies can be accessed by nations with limited means and financial support for healthcare

Economic Dimensions of Personalized and Precision Medicine

Economic Dimensions of Personalized and Precision Medicine
  • Author : Ernst R. Berndt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-22
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780226611068
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Summary : Personalized and precision medicine (PPM)--the targeting of therapies according to an individual's genetic, environmental, or lifestyle characteristics--is becoming an increasingly important approach in health care treatment and prevention. The advancement of PPM is a challenge in traditional clinical, reimbursement, and regulatory landscapes because it is costly to develop and introduces a wide range of scientific, clinical, ethical, and socioeconomic issues. PPM raises a multitude of economic issues, including how information on accurate diagnosis and treatment success will be disseminated and who will bear the cost; changes to physician training to incorporate genetics, probability and statistics, and economic considerations; questions about whether the benefits of PPM will be confined to developed countries or will diffuse to emerging economies with less developed health care systems; the effects of patient heterogeneity on cost-effectiveness analysis; and opportunities for PPM's growth beyond treatment of acute illness, such as prevention and reversal of chronic conditions. This volume explores the intersection of the scientific, clinical, and economic factors affecting the development of PPM, including its effects on the drug pipeline, on reimbursement of PPM diagnostics and treatments, and on funding of the requisite underlying research; and it examines recent empirical applications of PPM.

Genomic and Precision Medicine

Genomic and Precision Medicine
  • Author : Geoffrey S. Ginsburg,Huntington F Willard,Sean P. David
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-30
  • Total pages :370
  • ISBN : 9780128006542
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Summary : Genomic and Precision Medicine: Primary Care, Third Edition is an invaluable resource on the state-of-the-art tools, technologies and policy issues that are required to fully realize personalized health care in the area of primary care. One of the major areas where genomic and personalized medicine is most active is the realm of the primary care practitioner. Risk, family history, personal genomics and pharmacogenomics are becoming increasingly important to the PCP and their patients, and this book discusses the implications as they relate to primary care practitioners. Presents a comprehensive volume for primary care providers Provides succinct commentary and key learning points that will assist providers with their local needs for the implementation of genomic and personalized medicine Includes a current overview on major opportunities for genomic and personalized medicine in practice Highlights case studies that illustrate the practical use of genomics in the management in patients

Health Economics of Genomic Medicine

Health Economics of Genomic Medicine
  • Author : Sarah Wordsworth,Dean Regier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2022-01-15
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 3110699559
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Summary : Although genomic medicine is still a fairly new clinical area, the history of health economics involvement in genomics has a longer history than might be anticipated. Some of the earliest health economics input into genomics was in areas such as neonatal and newborn screening, where health economists contributed to decisions about adding new conditions into newborn screening programmes worldwide. More recently, the first human genome was only sequenced in 2003, costing between US$500 million and US$1 billion. However, by 2008 costs had fallen to a level where so called 'next-generation sequencing (NGS)' approaches started to enter clinical research. NGS approaches allow either the whole genome using methods such as whole-genome sequencing (WGS) or parts of it using whole-exome sequencing (WES) or targeted panels to be sequenced in hours with increased sensitivity compared to older less advanced genetic testing approaches. These sequencing approaches provide information that can inform diagnosis, prognosis and clinical management for a variety of disorders, such as rare diseases and some cancers. However, the current costs are still too expensive for some health care providers and the benefit of the tests is largely unknown. Indeed, a lack of evidence on the cost-effectiveness of novel genomic technologies such as WGS is considered a key translational challenge. This is partly because economic evaluations of genomic technologies often fall outside the remit of health technology assessment (HTA) agencies, such as NICE and PBAC. Where they are undertaken (in a HTA context), the methods used for the assessment sometimes differ from those recommended by HTA agencies for cost-effectiveness analysis. This is against a background of uncertainty as to whether the terms precision medicine, personalised medicine or genomic medicine best capture this space in health care. Methodological challenges Some applications of genomic sequencing generate information that may not improve quality of life (as measured using preference-based health-related quality of life [HRQoL] instruments such as the EuroQol-five dimensions questionnaire) or extend life expectancy. One example is the use of WGS and WES to guide diagnosis in autism spectrum disorder. However, genomic sequencing results may influence patient wellbeing via non-clinical routes, generating 'personal utility'. This is a particular issue for individuals with rare diseases, who often have lengthy diagnostic journeys but few (if any) treatment options available once they receive a diagnosis. This could also be an issue if individuals without known health problems (healthy cohorts) undergo genomic sequencing and find out that they have an elevated risk of a disease, but no preventive action can be taken to manage this risk. With respect to costs, the costs of undertaking genomic tests are only one component of the cost of the overall genomic testing process. The costs that are incurred beyond those associated with the production of genomic information (so probably beyond the scope of any national tariffs that might be generated) include the costs of bioinformatics analysis, interpretation of results in multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings and genetic counselling services. Such issues have raised questions about whether or not genomics is exceptional for health economists - possibly not, but the combined issues perhaps lead to it often requiring additional attention. There is also a consideration of the importance of accounting for the 'personal' when evaluating personalized medicine and considers the extent to which extra-welfarist and welfarist approaches to economic evaluation achieve this objective. Extra-welfarist approaches are currently used by many health technology assessment agencies but may not capture all of the outcomes that are important to patients in this context. Extensions to the extra-welfarist approach that might better capture the 'personal' are outlined, including multi-criteria decision analysis and the capability approach. Evidence A recent literature review identified only 36 economic evaluations of either WGS or WES, six of which were cost-effectiveness analyses using diagnostic yield as the outcome measure. Only two publications presented cost-utility analyses using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the measure of health outcomes. HTA agencies generally require data on survival and quality of life when evaluating new healthcare interventions, which, when combined, allow clinical utility to be quantified using QALYs. However, existing studies have primarily quantified the clinical utility of genomic tests in terms of changes in diagnostic yield. Methodological uncertainty among health economists is one potential explanation for the lack of evidence on the health outcomes associated with genomic sequencing. Over the past decade, health economists have repeatedly questioned whether metrics such as the QALY in genomic medicine, which focuses on clinical utility, can fully quantify the outcomes that are important to patients when they undergo genomic testing. Policy picture There are high-level discussions in several countries, including the UK, about extending the use of genomic sequencing into newborning screening, so effectively screening everyone at birth for a large range of conditions, far more than those currently being screened for and which there might not be treatments for yet. This is in addition to long term epidemiological and health economic discussions on using newborn screening for conditions such as hereditary hemochromatosis. A further area of uncertainty is the use of genomic sequencing in 'healthy populations', including direct to consumer testing (private genetic tests). In a public health care system setting, the UK Department of health is exploring the value of establishing a healthy cohort of volunteer. Furthermore, research studies are assessing the costs and effects of polygenetic risk scores in the context of primary care as an opportunistic 'health check' approach, which could incorporate risks for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, different cancers and conditions such as chrohn's disease etc. Clearly, there are health economic questions to be asked about the downstream costs and consequences of genomic tests in these newborn and 'healthy' populations. In cancer, there are discussions about how to handle the new invention of agnostic cancer drugs (which essentially target the mutation rather than the cancer, so the same drug can treat several cancers). This is an area where assessments are going through HTA agencies who are unsure about the best approaches to adopt to these assessments where drug companies are putting forward a drug for assessment that can potentially treat different cancers with very different disease profiles. These developments require careful consideration from many perspectives, including health economics. Besides highlighting some of the challenges in assessing the economic impact of genomic medicine and the use of advanced (and less advanced) technologies, the book will propose potential solutions to these key challenges. For example, in terms of data availability, one obstacle to translating genomic sequencing into routine health care has been a lack of large randomised controlled clinical trials data for health economists and others to use to populate cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). Arguably, in response, reimbursement decisions have moved towards lower evidentiary standards, with the development of managed access programs that hope to balance the intense pressure for patient access with the need to consider the sustainability objectives of health care systems. Single arm trials are common for assessing clinical utility of precision medicine. By excluding a counterfactual, these trials introduce outcomes uncertainty through their inability to establish causal treatment effects. In this section of the book, we illustrate the application of quasi-experimental methods for evaluating precision medicine in case studies linking real-world big data and single arm trials. A further potential option here might be provided by 'big data' can be used to partially support CEAs in genomics. Advanced genomic sequencing is considered to be a prominent example of big data because of the quantity and complexity of data it produces and because it presents an opportunity to use powerful information sources that could reduce clinical and health economic uncertainty at a patient level. The creation of large national sequencing initiatives with sequencing data linked to clinical data (including health outcomes) and resource use data such as hospital episode statistics data and claims data. Large-scale sequencing projects such as the 100,000 Genome Project in the UK and the All of Us Program in the US are collecting an unprecedented amount of genomic, clinical and healthcare resource use data on individuals with cancer or rare diseases, as well as healthy individuals. Some of these large-scale projects are now approaching completion, and national health services are deciding whether WGS and WES should be translated into clinical practice for specific disorders.

Socio-economics of Personalized Medicine in Asia

Socio-economics of Personalized Medicine in Asia
  • Author : Shirley Sun
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-01
  • Total pages :198
  • ISBN : 9781134989126
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Summary : The second decade of the twenty-first century has witnessed a surging interest in personalized medicine with the concomitant promise to enable more precise diagnosis and treatment of disease and illness, based upon an individual’s unique genetic makeup. In this book, my goal is to contribute to a growing body of literature on personalized medicine by tracing and analyzing how this field has blossomed in Asia. In so doing, I aim to illustrate how various social and economic forces shape the co-production of science and social order in global contexts. This book shows that there are inextricable transnational linkages between developing and developed countries and also provides a theoretically guided and empirically grounded understanding of the formation and usage of particular racial and ethnic human taxonomies in local, national and transnational settings.

Genomic and Precision Medicine

Genomic and Precision Medicine
  • Author : Geoffrey S. Ginsburg,Huntington F Willard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-22
  • Total pages :398
  • ISBN : 9780128006566
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Summary : Genomic and Precision Medicine: Translation and Implementation highlights the various points along the continuum from health to disease where genomic information is impacting clinical decision-making and leading to more personalization of health care. The book pinpoints the challenges, barriers, and solutions that have been, or are being, brought forward to enable translation of genome based technologies into health care. A variety of infrastructure (data systems and EMRs), policy (regulatory, reimbursement, privacy), and research (comparative effectiveness research, learning health system approaches) strategies are also discussed. Readers will find this volume to be an invaluable resource for the translational genomics and implementation science that is required to fully realize personalized health care. Provides a comprehensive volume on the translation and implementation of biology into health care provision Presents succinct commentary and key learning points that will assist readers with their local needs for translation and implementation Includes an up-to-date overview on major ‘translational events’ in genomic and personalized medicine, along with lessons learned

The Economics of Genomic Medicine

The Economics of Genomic Medicine
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-20
  • Total pages :128
  • ISBN : 9780309269735
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Summary : The sequencing of the human genome and the identification of links between specific genetic variants and diseases have led to tremendous excitement over the potential of genomics to direct patient treatment toward more effective or less harmful interventions. Still, the use of whole genome sequencing challenges the traditional model of medical care where a test is ordered only when there is a clear indication for its use and a path for downstream clinical action is known. This has created a tension between experts who contend that using this information is premature and those who believe that having such information will empower health care providers and patients to make proactive decisions regarding lifestyle and treatment options. In addition, some stakeholders are concerned that genomic technologies will add costs to the health care system without providing commensurate benefits, and others think that health care costs could be reduced by identifying unnecessary or ineffective treatments. Economic models are frequently used to anticipate the costs and benefits of new health care technologies, policies, and regulations. Economic studies also have been used to examine much more specific issues, such as comparing the outcomes and cost effectiveness of two different drug treatments for the same condition. These kinds of analyses offer more than just predictions of future health care costs. They provide information that is valuable when implementing and using new technologies. Unfortunately, however, these economic assessments are often limited by a lack of data on which to base the examination. This particularly affects health economics, which includes many factors for which current methods are inadequate for assessing, such as personal utility, social utility, and patient preference. To understand better the health economic issues that may arise in the course of integrating genomic data into health care, the Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health hosted a workshop in Washington, DC, on July 17-18, 2012, that brought together economists, regulators, payers, biomedical researchers, patients, providers, and other stakeholders to discuss the many factors that may influence this implementation. The workshop was one of a series that the roundtable has held on this topic, but it was the first focused specifically on economic issues. The Economics of Genomic Medicine summarizes this workshop.

Implementing and Evaluating Genomic Screening Programs in Health Care Systems

Implementing and Evaluating Genomic Screening Programs in Health Care Systems
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Roundtable on Genomics and Precision Health
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-16
  • Total pages :150
  • ISBN : 9780309473415
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Summary : Genomic applications are being integrated into a broad range of clinical and research activities at health care systems across the United States. This trend can be attributed to a variety of factors, including the declining cost of genome sequencing and the potential for improving health outcomes and cutting the costs of care. The goals of these genomics-based programs may be to identify individuals with clinically actionable variants as a way of preventing disease, providing diagnoses for patients with rare diseases, and advancing research on genetic contributions to health and disease. Of particular interest are genomics- based screening programs, which will, in this publication, be clinical screening programs that examine genes or variants in unselected populations in order to identify individuals who are at an increased risk for a particular health concern (e.g., diseases, adverse drug outcomes) and who might benefit from clinical interventions. On November 1, 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a public workshop to explore the challenges and opportunities associated with integrating genomics-based screening programs into health care systems. This workshop was developed as a way to explore the challenges and opportunities associated with integrating genomics-based programs in health care systems in the areas of evidence collection, sustainability, data sharing, infrastructure, and equity of access. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Precision Public Health

Precision Public Health
  • Author : Tarun Weeramanthri,Hugh Dawkins,Gareth Baynam,Matthew Bellgard,Ori Gudes,James Semmens
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-25
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889455010
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Summary : Precision Public Health is a new and rapidly evolving field, that examines the application of new technologies to public health policy and practice. It draws on a broad range of disciplines including genomics, spatial data, data linkage, epidemiology, health informatics, big data, predictive analytics and communications. The hope is that these new technologies will strengthen preventive health, improve access to health care, and reach disadvantaged populations in all areas of the world. But what are the downsides and what are the risks, and how can we ensure the benefits flow to those population groups most in need, rather than simply to those individuals who can afford to pay? This is the first collection of theoretical frameworks, analyses of empirical data, and case studies to be assembled on this topic, published to stimulate debate and promote collaborative work.

The Ethics of Biomedical Big Data

The Ethics of Biomedical Big Data
  • Author : Brent Daniel Mittelstadt,Luciano Floridi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-03
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9783319335254
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Summary : This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. ‘Biomedical Big Data’ refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approaches and methods are discussed that can be used to address these problems to achieve the appropriate balance between the social goods of biomedical Big Data research and the safety and privacy of individuals. Seventeen original contributions analyse the ethical, social and related policy implications of the analysis and curation of biomedical Big Data, written by leading experts in the areas of biomedical research, medical and technology ethics, privacy, governance and data protection. The book advances our understanding of the ethical conundrums posed by biomedical Big Data, and shows how practitioners and policy-makers can address these issues going forward.

Genomic and Personalized Medicine

Genomic and Personalized Medicine
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-30
  • Total pages :1350
  • ISBN : 9780123822284
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Summary : Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Second Edition — winner of a 2013 Highly Commended BMA Medical Book Award for Medicine — is a major discussion of the structure, history, and applications of the field, as it emerges from the campus and lab into clinical action. As with the first edition, leading experts review the development of the new science, the current opportunities for genome-based analysis in healthcare, and the potential of genomic medicine in future healthcare. The inclusion of the latest information on diagnostic testing, population screening, disease susceptability, and pharmacogenomics makes this work an ideal companion for the many stakeholders of genomic and personalized medicine. With advancing knowledge of the genome across and outside protein-coding regions of DNA, new comprehension of genomic variation and frequencies across populations, the elucidation of advanced strategic approaches to genomic study, and above all in the elaboration of next-generation sequencing, genomic medicine has begun to achieve the much-vaunted transformative health outcomes of the Human Genome Project, almost a decade after its official completion in April 2003. Highly Commended 2013 BMA Medical Book Award for Medicine More than 100 chapters, from leading researchers, review the many impacts of genomic discoveries in clinical action, including 63 chapters new to this edition Discusses state-of-the-art genome technologies, including population screening, novel diagnostics, and gene-based therapeutics Wide and inclusive discussion encompasses the formidable ethical, legal, regulatory and social challenges related to the evolving practice of genomic medicine Clearly and beautifully illustrated with 280 color figures, and many thousands of references for further reading and deeper analysis

Genomics and Society

Genomics and Society
  • Author : Dhavendra Kumar,Ruth Chadwick
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-29
  • Total pages :438
  • ISBN : 9780127999210
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Summary : Genomics and Society; Ethical, Legal-Cultural, and Socioeconomic Implications is the first book to address the vast and thorny web of ELSI topics identified as core priorities of the NHGRI in 2011. The work addresses fundamental issues of biosociety and bioeconomy as the revolution in biology moves from research lab to healthcare system. Of particular interest to healthcare practitioners, bioethicists, and health economists, and of tangential interest to the gamut of applied social scientists investigating the societal impact of new medical paradigms, the work describes a myriad of issues around consent, confidentiality, rights, patenting, regulation, and legality in the new era of genomic medicine. Addresses the vast and thorny web of ELSI topics identified as core priorities of the NHGRI in 2011 Presents the core fundamental issues of biosociety and bioeconomy as the revolution in biology moves from research lab to healthcare system Describes a myriad of issues around consent, including confidentiality, rights, patenting, regulation, and more

Genomic Medicine

Genomic Medicine
  • Author : Dhavendra Kumar,Charis Eng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :814
  • ISBN : 9780199896028
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Summary : Preceded by Genomics and clinical medicine / edited by Dhavendra Kumar. [First edition]. 2008.

Toward Precision Medicine

Toward Precision Medicine
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on A Framework for Developing a New Taxonomy of Disease
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-16
  • Total pages :142
  • ISBN : 9780309222228
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Summary : Motivated by the explosion of molecular data on humans-particularly data associated with individual patients-and the sense that there are large, as-yet-untapped opportunities to use this data to improve health outcomes, Toward Precision Medicine explores the feasibility and need for "a new taxonomy of human disease based on molecular biology" and develops a potential framework for creating one. The book says that a new data network that integrates emerging research on the molecular makeup of diseases with clinical data on individual patients could drive the development of a more accurate classification of diseases and ultimately enhance diagnosis and treatment. The "new taxonomy" that emerges would define diseases by their underlying molecular causes and other factors in addition to their traditional physical signs and symptoms. The book adds that the new data network could also improve biomedical research by enabling scientists to access patients' information during treatment while still protecting their rights. This would allow the marriage of molecular research and clinical data at the point of care, as opposed to research information continuing to reside primarily in academia. Toward Precision Medicine notes that moving toward individualized medicine requires that researchers and health care providers have access to very large sets of health- and disease-related data linked to individual patients. These data are also critical for developing the information commons, the knowledge network of disease, and ultimately the new taxonomy.

Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes

Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes
  • Author : M. F. Drummond,Michael F. Drummond,Mark J. Sculpher,George W. Torrance,Bernie J. O'Brien,Greg L. Stoddart
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :379
  • ISBN : 0198529457
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Summary : This highly successful textbook is now available in its third edition. The book has been extensively updated in order to keep pace with the considerable advances in theory and practice in recent years.

Economic Dimensions of Personalized and Precision Medicine

Economic Dimensions of Personalized and Precision Medicine
  • Author : Ernst R. Berndt,Dana P. Goldman,John Rowe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-22
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9780226611235
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Summary : Personalized and precision medicine (PPM)—the targeting of therapies according to an individual’s genetic, environmental, or lifestyle characteristics—is becoming an increasingly important approach in health care treatment and prevention. The advancement of PPM is a challenge in traditional clinical, reimbursement, and regulatory landscapes because it is costly to develop and introduces a wide range of scientific, clinical, ethical, and socioeconomic issues. PPM raises a multitude of economic issues, including how information on accurate diagnosis and treatment success will be disseminated and who will bear the cost; changes to physician training to incorporate genetics, probability and statistics, and economic considerations; questions about whether the benefits of PPM will be confined to developed countries or will diffuse to emerging economies with less developed health care systems; the effects of patient heterogeneity on cost-effectiveness analysis; and opportunities for PPM’s growth beyond treatment of acute illness, such as prevention and reversal of chronic conditions. This volume explores the intersection of the scientific, clinical, and economic factors affecting the development of PPM, including its effects on the drug pipeline, on reimbursement of PPM diagnostics and treatments, and on funding of the requisite underlying research; and it examines recent empirical applications of PPM.

Adverse Cutaneous Drug Eruptions

Adverse Cutaneous Drug Eruptions
  • Author : Lars E. French
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9783805599702
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Summary : An indispensable tool for understanding, diagnosing and managing this common clinical problem The skin is one of the most frequently involved organs in adverse drug reactions. Occurring with an incidence of 1-5% for certain types of drugs, cutaneous drug eruptions are mostly benign in nature, and comprise the maculopapular type of eruption and urticaria. However, about one third of them require hospital treatment, leading to a considerable burden for the health care system. In this book, a selected group of experts provide an up-to-date, condensed and clinically relevant overview of the field of cutaneous drug eruptions, ranging from epidemiology and genetic predisposition to available therapeutic measures, including rapid drug desensitization. Reflecting the great progress made in recent years in this field, this publication will be a useful tool for a better understanding, diagnosis and management of cutaneous drug eruptions, not only for general physicians, dermatologists and clinical allergologists, but also for nurses and scientists.