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Effects of Climate Change on Forests

Effects of Climate Change on Forests
  • Author : Fabrizio D'Aprile,Piermaria Corona
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-01
  • Total pages :220
  • ISBN : 9780128151334
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Summary : Effects of Climate Change on Forests: An Evidence-Based Primer for Sustainable Management of Temperate and Mediterranean Forests presents concepts, case studies and application techniques for theories on forest management under climate change. Readers will gain an understanding on how forest planning and management ties into the ecological functioning and resilience of forests by following variability in growth (or other processes) over time, a concept weakly implemented in traditional forest planning. This shift in focus has significant benefits, not only in better incorporating the services provided by forests, but also in opening up better adaptation planning. Outlines innovative tools to evaluate and assess forest management plans Provides guidelines and criteria for forest planning, sustainability and management techniques for adapting to climate change Helps the reader develop comprehensive forest management plans— complete with sylvicultural interventions—which account for uncertainties in climate change Ties directly into A for Climate project from the EU Commission as part of Horizon 2020

Climate Change Impacts on Tropical Forests in Central America

Climate Change Impacts on Tropical Forests in Central America
  • Author : Aline Chiabai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-25
  • Total pages :220
  • ISBN : 9781317961505
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Summary : The loss of biodiversity is a major environmental problem in nearly every terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. This loss is accelerating driven by climate change, as well as by other causes including agricultural exploitation, fragmentation and degradation triggered by land use changes. The crucial issue under debate is the impact on the welfare of current and future population, and the role of humans in the exploitation of natural resources. This is of particular importance in Central America, which it is amongst the richest and most threatened biodiversity regions on the Earth, and where the loss of ecosystems strongly affects its socio-economic vulnerability. This book addresses the impacts of climate and land-use change on tropical forest ecosystems in this important region, and assesses the expected economic costs if no policy action is taken, under different future scenarios and for different geographical scales. This innovative collection utilises both theoretical approaches and empirical results to provide a conceptual framework for an integrated analysis of climate and land-use change impacts on forest ecosystems and related economic effects, offering insight into the complex relationship between ecosystems and benefits to humans. This important contribution to forest ecosystems and climate change provides invaluable reading for students and scholars in the fields of environmental and ecological economics, environmental science and forestry, natural resource management, agriculture and climate change.

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Tropical Forest Ecosystems

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Tropical Forest Ecosystems
  • Author : Adam Markham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-11
  • Total pages :463
  • ISBN : 9789401727303
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Summary : Climate change represents one of the most alarming long-term threats to ecosystems the world over. This new collection of papers provides, for the first time, an overview of the potentially serious impact that climate change may have on tropical forests. The authors, a multi-disciplinary group of leading experts in climatology, forestry, ecology and conservation biology, present a state-of-knowledge snapshot of how tropical forests are likely to react to the changes being wrought on our planet's atmosphere and climate. Tropical forests represent extraordinary harbours for biological diversity, and yet as deforestation and degradation continue apace, they are under greater pressure from human impacts than ever before. Climate change adds yet another threat to these valuable ecosystems, and this volume demonstrates just how significant a problem this may really be. The authors identify certain types of forest, including tropical montane cloud forest that may be particularly vulnerable. They also show the strong likelihood of global warming aggravating problems in already fragmented forest areas.

Climate Change and United States Forests

Climate Change and United States Forests
  • Author : Peterson David L.,James M. Vose,Toral Patel-Weynand
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-19
  • Total pages :261
  • ISBN : 9789400775152
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Summary : This volume offers a scientific assessment of the effects of climatic variability and change on forest resources in the United States. Derived from a report that provides technical input to the 2013 U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment, the book serves as a framework for managing U.S. forest resources in the context of climate change. The authors focus on topics having the greatest potential to alter the structure and function of forest ecosystems, and therefore ecosystem services, by the end of the 21st century. Part I provides an environmental context for assessing the effects of climate change on forest resources, summarizing changes in environmental stressors, followed by state-of-science projections for future climatic conditions relevant to forest ecosystems. Part II offers a wide-ranging assessment of vulnerability of forest ecosystems and ecosystem services to climate change. The authors anticipate that altered disturbance regimes and stressors will have the biggest effects on forest ecosystems, causing long-term changes in forest conditions. Part III outlines responses to climate change, summarizing current status and trends in forest carbon, effects of carbon management, and carbon mitigation strategies. Adaptation strategies and a proposed framework for risk assessment, including case studies, provide a structured approach for projecting and responding to future changes in resource conditions and ecosystem services. Part IV describes how sustainable forest management, which guides activities on most public and private lands in the United States, can provide an overarching structure for mitigating and adapting to climate change.

The Impact of Climate Change Mitigation on Indigenous and Forest Communities

The Impact of Climate Change Mitigation on Indigenous and Forest Communities
  • Author : Maureen Frances Tehan,Kirsty Ann Gover
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-31
  • Total pages :454
  • ISBN : 9781107074262
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Summary : Legal frameworks to 'reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation' (REDD+) are analysed to focus on protections and benefits for indigenous peoples and forest communities.

Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Management Options

Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Management Options
  • Author : James M. Vose,Kier D. Klepzig
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-05
  • Total pages :492
  • ISBN : 9781466572751
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Summary : Forest land managers face the challenges of preparing their forests for the impacts of climate change. However, climate change adds a new dimension to the task of developing and testing science-based management options to deal with the effects of stressors on forest ecosystems in the southern United States. The large spatial scale and complex interactions make traditional experimental approaches difficult. Yet, the current progression of climate change science offers new insights from recent syntheses, models, and experiments, providing enough information to start planning now for a future that will likely include an increase in disturbances and rapid changes in forest conditions. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Management Options: A Guide for Natural Resource Managers in Southern Forest Ecosystems provides a comprehensive analysis of forest management options to guide natural resource management in the face of future climate change. Topics include potential climate change impacts on wildfire, insects, diseases, and invasives, and how these in turn might affect the values of southern forests that include timber, fiber, and carbon; water quality and quantity; species and habitats; and recreation. The book also considers southern forest carbon sequestration, vulnerability to biological threats, and migration of native tree populations due to climate change. This book utilizes the most relevant science and brings together science experts and land managers from various disciplines and regions throughout the south to combine science, models, and on-the-ground experience to develop management options. Providing a link between current management actions and future management options that would anticipate a changing climate, the authors hope to ensure a broader range of options for managing southern forests and protecting their values in the future.

Tropical Forests and Adaptation to Climate Change

Tropical Forests and Adaptation to Climate Change
  • Author : Carmenza Robledo,Markku Kanninen,Lucio Pedroni
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-01-01
  • Total pages :186
  • ISBN : 9789792446043
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Summary :

Forestry and Climate Change

Forestry and Climate Change
  • Author : Peter H. Freer-Smith,Mark S.J. Broadmeadow,Jim M. Lynch
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-01-01
  • Total pages :253
  • ISBN : 9781845932954
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Summary : Climate change is one of the greatest challenges we face - both in terms of its potential impact on our societies and the earth, and the scale of international co-operation that is needed to confront it. Emerging as a component of the international dialogue on the environment and climate, the role of forests in influencing earth systems will need to be assessed. Drawing together perspectives from researchers and policy makers, this book explores how forests will interact with the physical and natural world, and with human society as the climate changes. Also considered is how the world's forests can be managed to contribute to the mitigation of climate change and to maximize the full range of economic and non-market benefits. Providing an examination of the science, a detailed consideration of the science policy interface and the international frameworks and conventions, this book is valuable reading for all those interested in sustainable forest management, climate change and the associated environmental sciences.

Water, Climate Change, and Forests

Water, Climate Change, and Forests
  • Author : Michael J. Furniss
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :75
  • ISBN : 9781437939842
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Summary : This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Water from forested watersheds provides irreplaceable habitat for aquatic and riparian species and supports our homes, farms, industries, and energy production. Yet population pressures, land uses, and rapid climate change combine to seriously threaten these waters and the resilience of watersheds in most places. Forest land managers are expected to anticipate and respond to these threats and steward forested watersheds to ensure the sustained protection and provision of water and the services it provides. Contents of this report: (1) Intro.; (2) Background: Forests and Water; Climate Change: Hydrologic Responses and Ecosystem Services; (3) Moving Forward: Think; Collaborate; Act; (4) Closing; (5) Examples of Watershed Stewardship. Illus.

New Perspectives in Forest Science

New Perspectives in Forest Science
  • Author : Helder Viana,Francisco Antonio García-Morote
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-04-26
  • Total pages :212
  • ISBN : 9781789230369
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Summary : Forest management should allow the sustainable use of forests. This is only possible through solid knowledge in the disciplines that forest science encompasses. The readers of New Perspectives in Forest Science have an excellent source of information on actual trends of forest research and knowledge about the use of forest and landscape. This book has been written by specialists focusing on the following aspects of forest science: C cycle, biomass, forest restoration, forest resources and biodiversity. The authors of this book are of different nationalities and specialties, thus providing diverse perspectives on the subject of forestry. We hope that the chapters of this book can serve both students and researchers, as excellent guides to improve their knowledge on forest science.

Forests, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

Forests, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change
  • Author : Denis Loustau
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :311
  • ISBN : 9782759203840
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Summary : "The results presented in this book summarize the main findings of the CARBOFOR project, which brought together 52 scientists from 14 research units to investigate the effects of future climate on the carbon cycle, the productivity and vulnerability of French forests. This book explains the current forest carbon cycle in temperate and Mediterranean climates, including the dynamics of soil carbon and the total carbon stock of French forests, based on forest inventories. It reviews and illustrates the main ground-based methods for estimating carbon stocks in tree biomass. Spatial variations in projected climate change over metropolitan France throughout the 21st century are described. The book then goes on to consider the impacts of climate change on tree phenology and forest carbon balance, evapotranspiration and production as well as their first order interaction with forest management alternatives. The impact of climate change on forest vulnerability is analysed. A similar simulation study was carried out for a range of pathogenic fungi, emphasizing the importance of both warming and precipitation changes. The consequences of climate change on the occurrence of forest fires and the forest carbon cycle in the Mediterranean zone are also considered."--Publisher.

Climate change vulnerability assessment of forests and forest-dependent people

Climate change vulnerability assessment of forests and forest-dependent people
  • Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-29
  • Total pages :98
  • ISBN : 9789251319819
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Summary : Negative impacts of climate change on forests threaten the delivery of crucial wood and non-wood goods and environmental services on which an estimated 1.6 billion people fully or partly depend. Assessment of the vulnerability of forests and forest-dependent people to climate change is a necessary first step for identifying the risks and the most vulnerable areas and people, and for developing measures for adaptation and targeting them for specific contexts. This publication provides practical technical guidance for forest vulnerability assessment in the context of climate change. It describes the elements that should be considered for different time horizons and outlines a structured approach for conducting these assessments. The framework will guide practitioners in conducting a step-by-step analysis and will facilitate the choice and use of appropriate tools and methods. Background information is provided separately in text boxes, to assist readers with differing amounts of experience in forestry, climate change and assessment practices. The publication will provide useful support to any vulnerability assessment with a forest- and tree-related component.

Climate Change Forests and Forest Management: An Overview

Climate Change Forests and Forest Management: An Overview
  • Author : William M. Ciesta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :128
  • ISBN : 8170352096
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Summary : This publication presents a review of the current state of knowledge of global climate change, as it applies to forest and forest management, in question and answer format. It addresses the dynamic nature of the earth s climate, the greenhouse effect, predicted effects of climate change, the global carbon cycle, trees and forests as sources and sinks of carbon, possible effects of climate change on forests, means of helping forests adapt to climate change and how forests can mitigate predicted effects of climate change. Contents: Chapter 1: The Earth s Climate: A Dynamics Entity; How Are Weather and Climate Defines?, To What Extent Has the Earth s Climate Changed During the Course of Geologic History?, What Changes Have Occured in the Earth s Climate Since the Beginning of Recorded Human History?, What Factors Can Cause Changes in the Earth s Climate?, Chapter 2: The Greenhouse Effect; What is the Greenhouse Effect and How Does it Influence the Earth s Climate?, Which Gases are Considered to be GHGS and What are the Sources of These Gases?, What is the Significance of Human Sources of GHGS?, Do All GHGS have an Equal Warming Effect?, What Evidence Exists to Support the Idea that GHG Levels in the Atmosphere are Increasing?, Which Countries Presentaly Make the Greatest Contribution to Elevated Levels of GHGS?, How Can Aerosols Counteract the Effects of GHGS, Chapter 3: Predicted Changes in the Earth s Climate and Expected Effects; In General, What are the Predicted Effects of Increased Levels of GHGS on the Earth s Climate?, How are Changes in the Earth s Climate Predicted?, How Reliable are Present Predictions of Climate Change?, What Changes in Climate are Predicted with a Doubling of CO2 from Pre-Industrial Revolution Levels?, Is the Climate of Some Regions of the World Expected to Change to a Greater Degree than Others?, What Changes in the Levle of the Oceans are Expected Due to Climate Change?, How Will Plants, Including Trees, be Influenced by Changes in the Levels of GHGS in the Earth s Atmosphere and Resultant Changes in Temperature and Precipitation?, How Might Soils be Affected by Changes in Climate?, Is There Any Evidence Which Indicates That Climate Changes May Have Already Occurred Due to Increase in GHG Levels?, Chapter 4: The Global Carbon Cycle; What Processes Exist for the Exchange of Carbon Between the Atmosphere, the Oceans and the Land?, How are Exchanges of Carbon Expressed?, What is the Present Levle of Carbon Exchange Between the Atmosphere, the Oceans and the Land?, Chapter 5: Trees and Forests as Sources and Sinks of Carbon; How Much of the Earth s Surface is Presently Covered by Forests and Other Woody Vegetation?, What Processes Occur in Trees and Forests Which Contribute to Changes in Levels of GHGS in the Earth s Atmosphere?, How Much Carbon is Released and How Much is Taken up Annually by Forests?, Do Different Forest Ecosystems Vary in their Capacity to Absorb and Store Carbon?, Do Trees and Forests Remove Carbon from the Earth s Atmosphere at Different Rates During Different Stages in their Lives?, Which Human Activities in Forests and Woodlands Contribute to Increases in the Levels of GHGS?, What are the Current Rates of Deforestation in the World s Forests?, How are Forest Soils Affected by Deforestation?, Chapter 6: Possible Effects of Climate Change on Forests; What Changes in Growth and Yield of Trees and Forests Can be Expected as a Result of Climate Change?, What Changes Can be Expected in the Natural Ranges of Tree Species and Plant Communities Due to Climate Change?, What is the Likelihood that Climate Change Could Threaten Some Species or Plant Communities with Extinction?, How Might Climate Change Influence the Incidence and Intensity of Wildfires?, What are the Expected Effects of Climate Change on Forest Health Including Susceptibility to Pests and Disease or Decline?, Chapter 7: Helping Forests Adapt to Climate Change; How Can we Respond to Predicted Climate Change?, Do Natural Processes Exist Which Can Help Trees and Forests Adapt to a Changing Climate?, How Can Forest Management Help Forests Adapt to Climate Change?, What Can be Done to Help Forests Adapt to Increased Hazards of Wildfire and (or) Pest and Disease Outbreaks Which Could Result from Climate Change?, Chapter 8: The Role Forests in Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change; What Opportunities Do Forests and Forest Management Offer for Mitigating the Effects of Predicted Climate Change?, What Features Should Characterize Actions Taken to Mitigate Potential Effects of Climate Change?, What Additional Research is Needed to More Fully Understand the Potential Effects of Climate Change on Trees and Forests and Forestry and to Develop Adaptation and Mitigation Tactics?, Do International Agreements Exist Which Encourage Development and Protection of Forests to Enhance their Ability to Mitigate the Effects of Climate Change?, How Can the Tropical Forests action Programme (TFAP) Assist in Developing Forest Sector Programmes to Help Mitigate Effects of Climate Change?, Chapter 8A: Reducing Sources of Greenhouse Gases; What Actions Can be Taken to Reduce the Current Rates of Tropical Deforestation and How Might this Affect Emissions of GHGS from Forests?, What Can be Done to Reduce the Frequency and Scale of Forests and Savanna Woodland Consumed by Biomass Burnning?, How Can Increasing the Efficiency of Burning Fuel Wood and Other Biofuels Reduce Emissions of GHGS?, How Cane Use of Wood and Other Biofuels in Place of Fossil Fuels Help Reduce the Levels of GHGS in the Atmosphere?, How Can More Efficient Timber Harvesting Operations Reduce Emissions of GHGS from Forests?, Chapter 8B: Maintaining Existing Sinks of Greenhouse Gases; How Can Management and Conservation of Natural Forests Enhance their Capacity to Fix and Store Carbon?, What Uses of Forests and Forest Products are Most Desirable the Standpoint of Long Term Carbon Storage?, Chapter 8C: Expanding Sinks of Greenhouse Gases; How Much Carbon Can be Fixed in Wood and Soil on a Per Hectare Basis in Forest Plantations in Boreal, Temperate and Tropical Zones?, How Much Additional Area of Forest Plantations Would be Required to Fully Offset Present Annual Increases in GHG Levels from All Sources?, To What Extent are Suitable Lands Available for Afforestation and Reforestation? Where are They?, Other Than Availability of Land, What Other Constraints are there to Large Scale Afforestation Initiatives?, What Assistance is Available to Support Afforestation and Reforestation, Particularly at the International Level?, How Can Agroforestry and Urban Tree Plantings Contribute to the Mitigation of Climate Change?, Is the Planting of Trees Solely for CO2 Absorption a Sound Policy Considering Other Needs for Available Land?, What Forest Policies Should be Considered at the Country Level to Address the Threat of Climate Change?

Climate Change Guidelines for Forest Managers

Climate Change Guidelines for Forest Managers
  • Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :104
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822041355181
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Summary : These guidelines have been prepared to assist forest managers to better assess and respond to climate change challenges and opportunities at the forest management unit level. The actions they propose are relevant to all kinds of forest managers - such as individual forest owners, private forest enterprises, public-sector agencies, indigenous groups and community forest organisations. They are applicable in all forests types and regions and for all management objectives. This document complements a set of guidelines prepared by FAO in 2010 to support policy-makers in integrating climate change concerns into new or existing forest policies and national forests programmes.

Forests and Global Change

Forests and Global Change
  • Author : David A. Coomes,David F. R. P. Burslem,William D. Simonson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-20
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781107783072
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Summary : Forests hold a significant proportion of global biodiversity and terrestrial carbon stocks and are at the forefront of human-induced global change. The dynamics and distribution of forest vegetation determines the habitat for other organisms, and regulates the delivery of ecosystem services, including carbon storage. Presenting recent research across temperate and tropical ecosystems, this volume synthesises the numerous ways that forests are responding to global change and includes perspectives on: the role of forests in the global carbon and energy budgets; historical patterns of forest change and diversification; contemporary mechanisms of community assembly and implications of underlying drivers of global change; and the ways in which forests supply ecosystem services that support human lives. The chapters represent case studies drawn from the authors' expertise, highlighting exciting new research and providing information that will be valuable to academics, students, researchers and practitioners with an interest in this field.

Sustainable Development Goals

Sustainable Development Goals
  • Author : Pia Katila,Carol J. Pierce Colfer,Wil de Jong,Glenn Galloway,Pablo Pacheco,Georg Winkel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-12-12
  • Total pages :652
  • ISBN : 9781108486996
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Summary : A global assessment of potential and anticipated impacts of efforts to achieve the SDGs on forests and related socio-economic systems. This title is available as Open Access via Cambridge Core.

Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks

Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks
  • Author : Gillian Cerbu,Marc Hanewinkel,Giacomo Gerosa,Robert Jandl
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-28
  • Total pages :396
  • ISBN : 9789535111948
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Summary : Climate scenarios suggest that current forest stands will face radically different temperature and precipitation conditions in the future. Developing future strategies for forest management in the face of uncertain and highly variable forecasts of future site conditions is a great challenge. Here we have analyzed transnational case studies dealing with different manifestations of climate change effects. We intend to stimulate the discussion on management strategies to adapt forests in the Alps to climate change risks. The presented results are derived from the INTERREG project "Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks" that was implemented within the framework of the European Territorial Cooperation "Alpine Space Programme" 2007-2013.

Climate Change

Climate Change
  • Author : Mark S. J. Broadmeadow
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :198
  • ISBN : MINN:31951D020746453
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Summary :

Trees and Global Warming

Trees and Global Warming
  • Author : William J. Manning
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-30
  • Total pages :350
  • ISBN : 9781108471787
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Summary : Looks at the question: do forests cool or warm the atmosphere and reduce global warming?

Climate Change and Forests

Climate Change and Forests
  • Author : Charlotte Streck,Robert O'Sullivan,Toby Janson-Smith,Richard Tarasofsky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-10-30
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 0815701489
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Summary : The global climate change problem has finally entered the world's consciousness. While efforts to find a solution have increased momentum, international attention has focused primarily on the industrial and energy sectors. The forest, and land-use sector, however, remains one of the most significant untapped opportunities for carbon mitigation. The expiration of the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period in 2012 presents an opportunity for the international community to put this sector back on the agenda. In this timely, wide-ranging volume, an international team of experts explain the links between climate change and forests, highlighting the potential utility of this sector within emerging climate policy frameworks and carbon markets. After framing forestry activities within the larger context of climate-change policy, the contributors analyze the operation and efficacy of market-based mechanisms for forest conservation and climate change. Drawing on experiences from around the world, the authors present concrete recommendations for policymakers, project developers, and market participants. They discuss sequestration rights in Chile, carbon offset programs in Australia and New Zealand, and emerging policy incentives at all levels of the U.S. government. The book also explores the different voluntary schemes for carbon crediting, provides an overview of best practices in carbon accounting, and presents tools for use in future sequestration and offset programs. It concludes with consideration of various incentive options for slowing deforestation and protecting the world's remaining forests. Climate Change and Forests provides a realistic view of the role that the forest and land-use sector can play in a post-Kyoto regime. It will serve as a practical reference manual for anyone concerned about climate policy, including the negotiators working to define a robust and enduring international framework for addressing climate change.

Air Pollution, Global Change and Forests in the New Millennium

Air Pollution, Global Change and Forests in the New Millennium
  • Author : D.F. Karnosky,Kevin E Percy,A.H. Chappelka,C. Simpson,J. Pikkarainen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-12-18
  • Total pages :492
  • ISBN : 0080526918
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Summary : The chapters in this book present a snapshot of the state of knowledge of air pollution effects at the beginning of the 21st century. From their different disciplines, a distinguished collection of authors document their understanding of how leaves, trees, and forests respond to air pollutants and climate change. Scenarios of global change and air pollution are described. The authors describe responses of forests to climate variability, tropospheric ozone, rising atmospheric CO2, the combination of CO2 and ozone, and deposition of acidic compounds and heavy metals. The responses to ozone receive particular attention because of increasing concern about its damaging effects and increasing concentrations in rural areas. Scaling issues are addressed - from leaves to trees, from juvenile trees to mature trees, from short-term responses to long-term responses, and from small-scale experiments and observations to large-scale forest ecosystems. This book is one major product of a conference sponsored by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, the USDA Forest Service Global Change Northern Stations Program, the Arthur Ross Foundation, NCASI, the Canadian Forest Service, and Michigan Technological University. The conference, held in May 2000 in Houghton, Michigan, USA, was appropriately titled "Air Pollution, Global Change, and Forests in the New Millennium". The Editors, David Karnosky, Kevin Percy, Art Chappelka, Caroline Simpson, and Janet Pikkarainen organized the conference and edited this book.