Download Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling And Application In Reservoir Simulation Book PDF

Download full Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling And Application In Reservoir Simulation books PDF, EPUB, Tuebl, Textbook, Mobi or read online Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling And Application In Reservoir Simulation anytime and anywhere on any device. Get free access to the library by create an account, fast download and ads free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library.

Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation

Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation
  • Author : Kamy Sepehrnoori,Yifei Xu,Wei Yu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-27
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780128196885
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The development of naturally fractured reservoirs, especially shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, exploded in recent years due to advanced drilling and fracturing techniques. However, complex fracture geometries such as irregular fracture networks and non-planar fractures are often generated, especially in the presence of natural fractures. Accurate modelling of production from reservoirs with such geometries is challenging. Therefore, Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation demonstrates how production from reservoirs with complex fracture geometries can be modelled efficiently and effectively. This volume presents a conventional numerical model to handle simple and complex fractures using local grid refinement (LGR) and unstructured gridding. Moreover, it introduces an Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) to efficiently deal with complex fractures by dividing the fractures into segments using matrix cell boundaries and creating non-neighboring connections (NNCs). A basic EDFM approach using Cartesian grids and advanced EDFM approach using Corner point and unstructured grids will be covered. Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation is an essential reference for anyone interested in performing reservoir simulation of conventional and unconventional fractured reservoirs. Highlights the current state-of-the-art in reservoir simulation of unconventional reservoirs Offers understanding of the impacts of key reservoir properties and complex fractures on well performance Provides case studies to show how to use the EDFM method for different needs

Implementation and Application of the Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) for Reservoir Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs

Implementation and Application of the Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) for Reservoir Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs
  • Author : Yifei Xu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :246
  • ISBN : OCLC:946749569
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Fractured reservoirs have gained continuous attention from oil and gas industry. A huge amount of hydrocarbon are trapped in naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs. Besides, the advanced technology of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing have gained a great success in economic development of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Fractures add complexity into reservoir flow and significantly impact the ultimate recovery. Therefore, it is important yet challenging to accurately and effectively predict the recovery from fractured reservoirs. Conventional dual-continuum approaches, although effective in the simulation of naturally fractured reservoirs, may fail in some cases due to the highly idealized reservoir model. The unstructured-grid discrete fracture models, although flexible in representing complex fracture geometries, are restricted by the high complexity in gridding and high computational cost. An Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) was recently developed to honor the accuracy of discrete fracture models while keeping the efficiency offered by structured gridding. By dividing the fractures into segments using matrix cell boundaries and creating non-neighboring connections (NNCs), the flow influence of fractures can be efficiently modeled through transport indices. In this work, the EDFM was implemented in UTCHEM, a chemical flooding in-house reservoir simulator developed at The University of Texas, to study complex recovery processes in fractured reservoirs. In addition, the model was applied in commercial simulators by making use of the non-intrusive property of the EDFM and the NNC functionality offered by the simulators. The accuracy of the EDFM in the modeling of orthogonal, non-orthogonal, and inclined fractures was verified against fine-grid explicit fracture simulations. Furthermore, case studies were performed to investigate the influence of hydraulic fracture orientations on primary depletion and the impact of large-scale natural fractures on water flooding processes. The influence of matrix grid size and fracture relative permeability was also studied. Finally, with modifications in NNC transmissibility calculation, the EDFM was applied to the modeling of a multi-lateral well stimulation technology. The accuracy of the modified formulations was verified through comparison with a multi-branch well method. The simulations carried out in this work confirmed the flexibility, applicability, and extensiveness of the EDFM.

Shale Gas and Tight Oil Reservoir Simulation

Shale Gas and Tight Oil Reservoir Simulation
  • Author : Wei Yu,Kamy Sepehrnoori
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-10
  • Total pages :430
  • ISBN : 9780128138694
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Shale Gas and Tight Oil Reservoir Simulation delivers the latest research and applications used to better manage and interpret simulating production from shale gas and tight oil reservoirs. Starting with basic fundamentals, the book then includes real field data that will not only generate reliable reserve estimation, but also predict the effective range of reservoir and fracture properties through multiple history matching solutions. Also included are new insights into the numerical modelling of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in tight oil reservoirs. This information is critical for a better understanding of the impacts of key reservoir properties and complex fractures. Models the well performance of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs with complex fracture geometries Teaches how to perform sensitivity studies, history matching, production forecasts, and economic optimization for shale-gas and tight-oil reservoirs Helps readers investigate data mining techniques, including the introduction of nonparametric smoothing models

Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Flow in Naturally and Hydraulically Fractured Reservoirs Using Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM)

Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Flow in Naturally and Hydraulically Fractured Reservoirs Using Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM)
  • Author : Mahmood Shakiba
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :314
  • ISBN : OCLC:902680960
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Modeling and simulation of fluid flow in subsurface fractured systems has been steadily a popular topic in petroleum industry. The huge potential hydrocarbon reserve in naturally and hydraulically fractured reservoirs has been a major stimulant for developments in this field. Although several models have found limited applications in studying fractured reservoirs, still more comprehensive models are required to be applied for practical purposes. A recently developed Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) incorporates the advantages of two of the well-known approaches, the dual continuum and the discrete fracture models, to investigate more complex fracture geometries. In EDFM, each fracture is embedded inside the matrix grid and is discretized by the cell boundaries. This approach introduces a robust methodology to represent the fracture planes explicitly in the computational domain. As part of this research, the EDFM was implemented in two of The University of Texas in-house reservoir simulators, UTCOMP and UTGEL. The modified reservoir simulators are capable of modeling and simulation of a broad range of reservoir engineering applications in naturally and hydraulically fractured reservoirs. To validate this work, comparisons were made against a fine-grid simulation and a semi-analytical solution. Also, the results were compared for more complicated fracture geometries with the results obtained from EDFM implementation in the GPAS reservoir simulator. In all the examples, good agreements were observed. To further illustrate the application and capabilities of UTCOMP- and UTGEL-EDFM, a few case studies were presented. First, a synthetic reservoir model with a network of fractures was considered to study the impact of well placement. It was shown that considering the configuration of background fracture networks can significantly improve the well placement design and also maximize the oil recovery. Then, the capillary imbibition effect was investigated for the same reservoir models to display its effect on incremental oil recovery. Furthermore, UTCOMP-EDFM was applied for hydraulic fracturing design where the performances of a simple and a complex fracture networks were evaluated in reservoirs with different rock matrix permeabilities. Accordingly, it was shown that a complex network is an ideal design for a very low permeability reservoir, while a simple network results in higher recovery when the reservoir permeability is moderate. Finally, UTGEL-EDFM was employed to optimize a conformance control process. Different injection timings and different gel concentrations were selected for water-flooding processes and their impact on oil recovery was evaluated henceforth.

Development of an Efficient Embedded Discrete Fracture Model for 3D Compositional Reservoir Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs

Development of an Efficient Embedded Discrete Fracture Model for 3D Compositional Reservoir Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs
  • Author : Ali Moinfar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : OCLC:859259182
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Naturally fractured reservoirs (NFRs) hold a significant amount of the world's hydrocarbon reserves. Compared to conventional reservoirs, NFRs exhibit a higher degree of heterogeneity and complexity created by fractures. The importance of fractures in production of oil and gas is not limited to naturally fractured reservoirs. The economic exploitation of unconventional reservoirs, which is increasingly a major source of short- and long-term energy in the United States, hinges in part on effective stimulation of low-permeability rock through multi-stage hydraulic fracturing of horizontal wells. Accurate modeling and simulation of fractured media is still challenging owing to permeability anisotropies and contrasts. Non-physical abstractions inherent in conventional dual porosity and dual permeability models make these methods inadequate for solving different fluid-flow problems in fractured reservoirs. Also, recent approaches for discrete fracture modeling may require large computational times and hence the oil industry has not widely used such approaches, even though they give more accurate representations of fractured reservoirs than dual continuum models. We developed an embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) for an in-house fully-implicit compositional reservoir simulator. EDFM borrows the dual-medium concept from conventional dual continuum models and also incorporates the effect of each fracture explicitly. In contrast to dual continuum models, fractures have arbitrary orientations and can be oblique or vertical, honoring the complexity and heterogeneity of a typical fractured reservoir. EDFM employs a structured grid to remediate challenges associated with unstructured gridding required for other discrete fracture models. Also, the EDFM approach can be easily incorporated in existing finite difference reservoir simulators. The accuracy of the EDFM approach was confirmed by comparing the results with analytical solutions and fine-grid, explicit-fracture simulations. Comparison of our results using the EDFM approach with fine-grid simulations showed that accurate results can be achieved using moderate grid refinements. This was further verified in a mesh sensitivity study that the EDFM approach with moderate grid refinement can obtain a converged solution. Hence, EDFM offers a computationally-efficient approach for simulating fluid flow in NFRs. Furthermore, several case studies presented in this study demonstrate the applicability, robustness, and efficiency of the EDFM approach for modeling fluid flow in fractured porous media. Another advantage of EDFM is its extensibility for various applications by incorporating different physics in the model. In order to examine the effect of pressure-dependent fracture properties on production, we incorporated the dynamic behavior of fractures into EDFM by employing empirical fracture deformation models. Our simulations showed that fracture deformation, caused by effective stress changes, substantially affects pressure depletion and hydrocarbon recovery. Based on the examples presented in this study, implementation of fracture geomechanical effects in EDFM did not degrade the computational performance of EDFM. Many unconventional reservoirs comprise well-developed natural fracture networks with multiple orientations and complex hydraulic fracture patterns suggested by microseismic data. We developed a coupled dual continuum and discrete fracture model to efficiently simulate production from these reservoirs. Large-scale hydraulic fractures were modeled explicitly using the EDFM approach and numerous small-scale natural fractures were modeled using a dual continuum approach. The transport parameters for dual continuum modeling of numerous natural fractures were derived by upscaling the EDFM equations. Comparison of the results using the coupled model with that of using the EDFM approach to represent all natural and hydraulic fractures explicitly showed that reasonably accurate results can be obtained at much lower computational cost by using the coupled approach with moderate grid refinements.

Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs

Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs
  • Author : Sutthaporn Tripoppoom,Wei Yu,Kamy Sepehrnoori,Jijun Miao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-08-01
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 9780128222430
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : As unconventional reservoir activity grows in demand, reservoir engineers relying on history matching are challenged with this time-consuming task in order to characterize hydraulic fracture and reservoir properties, which are expensive and difficult to obtain. Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs delivers a critical tool for today’s engineers proposing an Assisted History Matching (AHM) workflow. The AHM workflow has benefits of quantifying uncertainty without bias or being trapped in any local minima and this reference helps the engineer integrate an efficient and non-intrusive model for fractures that work with any commercial simulator. Additional benefits include various applications of field case studies such as the Marcellus shale play and visuals on the advantages and disadvantages of alternative models. Rounding out with additional references for deeper learning, Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs gives reservoir engineers a holistic view on how to model today’s fractures and unconventional reservoirs. Provides understanding on simulations for hydraulic fractures, natural fractures, and shale reservoirs using embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) Reviews automatic and assisted history matching algorithms including visuals on advantages and limitations of each model Captures data on uncertainties of fractures and reservoir properties for better probabilistic production forecasting and well placement

Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs

Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs
  • Author : Sutthaporn Tripoppoom,Wei Yu,Kamy Sepehrnoori,Jijun Miao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-08-15
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 0128222425
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : As unconventional reservoir activity grows in demand, reservoir engineers relying on history matching are challenged with this time-consuming task in order to characterize hydraulic fracture and reservoir properties, which are expensive and difficult to obtain. Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs delivers a critical tool for today's engineers proposing an Assisted History Matching (AHM) workflow. The AHM workflow has benefits of quantifying uncertainty without bias or being trapped in any local minima and this reference helps the engineer integrate an efficient and non-intrusive model for fractures that work with any commercial simulator. Additional benefits include various applications of field case studies such as the Marcellus shale play and visuals on the advantages and disadvantages of alternative models. Rounding out with additional references for deeper learning, Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs gives reservoir engineers a holistic view on how to model today's fractures and unconventional reservoirs. Provides understanding on simulations for hydraulic fractures, natural fractures, and shale reservoirs using embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) Reviews automatic and assisted history matching algorithms including visuals on advantages and limitations of each model Captures data on uncertainties of fractures and reservoir properties for better probabilistic production forecasting and well placement

Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstone and Carbonate Reservoirs

Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstone and Carbonate Reservoirs
  • Author : Emad Walid Al Shalabi,Kamy Sepehrnoori
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-14
  • Total pages :178
  • ISBN : 9780128136058
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstones and Carbonate Reservoirs provides a first of its kind review of the low salinity and engineered water injection (LSWI/EWI) techniques for today’s more complex enhanced oil recovery methods. Reservoir engineers today are challenged in the design and physical mechanisms behind low salinity injection projects, and to date, the research is currently only located in numerous journal locations. This reference helps readers overcome these challenging issues with explanations on models, experiments, mechanism analysis, and field applications involved in low salinity and engineered water. Covering significant laboratory, numerical, and field studies, lessons learned are also highlighted along with key areas for future research in this fast-growing area of the oil and gas industry. After an introduction to its techniques, the initial chapters review the main experimental findings and explore the mechanisms behind the impact of LSWI/EWI on oil recovery. The book then moves on to the critical area of modeling and simulation, discusses the geochemistry of LSWI/EWI processes, and applications of LSWI/EWI techniques in the field, including the authors’ own recommendations based on their extensive experience. It is an essential reference for professional reservoir and field engineers, researchers and students working on LSWI/EWI and seeking to apply these methods for increased oil recovery. Teaches users how to understand the various mechanisms contributing to incremental oil recovery using low salinity and engineering water injection (LSWI/EWI) in sandstones and carbonates Balances guidance between designing laboratory experiments, to applying the LSWI/EWI techniques at both pilot-scale and full-field-scale for real-world operations Presents state-of-the-art approaches to simulation and modeling of LSWI/EWI

Fractured Vuggy Carbonate Reservoir Simulation

Fractured Vuggy Carbonate Reservoir Simulation
  • Author : Jun Yao,Zhao-Qin Huang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-08
  • Total pages :245
  • ISBN : 9783662550328
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book solves the open problems in fluid flow modeling through the fractured vuggy carbonate reservoirs. Fractured vuggy carbonate reservoirs usually have complex pore structures, which contain not only matrix and fractures but also the vugs and cavities. Since the vugs and cavities are irregular in shape and vary in diameter from millimeters to meters, modeling fluid flow through fractured vuggy porous media is still a challenge. The existing modeling theory and methods are not suitable for such reservoir. It starts from the concept of discrete fracture and fracture-vug networks model, and then develops the corresponding mathematical models and numerical methods, including discrete fracture model, discrete fracture-vug model, hybrid model and multiscale models. Based on these discrete porous media models, some equivalent medium models and methods are also discussed. All the modeling and methods shared in this book offer the key recent solutions into this area.

Hydraulic Fracture Modeling

Hydraulic Fracture Modeling
  • Author : Yu-Shu Wu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-12
  • Total pages :566
  • ISBN : 9780128129999
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Hydraulic Fracture Modeling delivers all the pertinent technology and solutions in one product to become the go-to source for petroleum and reservoir engineers. Providing tools and approaches, this multi-contributed reference presents current and upcoming developments for modeling rock fracturing including their limitations and problem-solving applications. Fractures are common in oil and gas reservoir formations, and with the ongoing increase in development of unconventional reservoirs, more petroleum engineers today need to know the latest technology surrounding hydraulic fracturing technology such as fracture rock modeling. There is tremendous research in the area but not all located in one place. Covering two types of modeling technologies, various effective fracturing approaches and model applications for fracturing, the book equips today’s petroleum engineer with an all-inclusive product to characterize and optimize today’s more complex reservoirs. Offers understanding of the details surrounding fracturing and fracture modeling technology, including theories and quantitative methods Provides academic and practical perspective from multiple contributors at the forefront of hydraulic fracturing and rock mechanics Provides today’s petroleum engineer with model validation tools backed by real-world case studies

An Introduction to Reservoir Simulation Using MATLAB/GNU Octave

An Introduction to Reservoir Simulation Using MATLAB/GNU Octave
  • Author : Knut-Andreas Lie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-31
  • Total pages :700
  • ISBN : 9781108492430
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Presents numerical methods for reservoir simulation, with efficient implementation and examples using widely-used online open-source code, for researchers, professionals and advanced students. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

A History Matching Workflow Using Proxy-based MCMC Applied in Tight Reservoir Simulation Studies

A History Matching Workflow Using Proxy-based MCMC Applied in Tight Reservoir Simulation Studies
  • Author : Silpakorn Dachanuwattana
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :220
  • ISBN : OCLC:1004424109
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Reservoir simulation for tight reservoirs often requires characterization of hydraulic and natural fracture networks in the reservoir model. Microseismic data reveals approximate boundary of the fracture networks but its direct application of stimulated rock volume (SRV) fails short to capture fracture connectivity and fracture conductivity, which significantly dominate well performance. Embedding discrete fractures in reservoir simulation is thus required to attain more realistic reservoir behavior. However, using local grid refinement (LGR) to model discrete fractures is computationally expensive. Even more challenging is generating multiple realizations of the fracture-embedded reservoir models during history-matching. Not only one simulation but extensive series of simulations are required to deal with complex geometry of fractures as well as other uncertain parameters. However, recent developments in a methodology called Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) have overcome the computational complexity using discrete fractures in reservoir simulations. In this thesis, we develop an efficient assisted history matching (AHM) workflow using proxy-based Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm and integrate the workflow with the EDFM preprocessor. To improve the efficiency, the optimal proxy is studied by comparing the performance of four types of proxies: quadratic polynomial, cubic polynomial, k-nearest neighboring (KNN), and kriging under various contexts such as different measurement errors. The results show that kriging proxy is more accurate than KNN proxy and cubic proxy. The quadratic proxy was the least accurate in our evaluations. However, if larger measurement error is introduced, the distinction between accuracy of the four proxies becomes less clear in spite of their different computational costs. Incorporating these findings, the proxy-based MCMC workflow is developed and implemented in conjunction with the EDFM to history match a shale oil well in Vaca Muerta formation to demonstrate the application of the workflow. The microseismic data are accounted to constrain the uncertain geometries of the fractures. The integrated workflow can successfully and efficiently history match the actual shale-oil well with complex fractures. Not only the uncertainties of reservoir properties are narrowed down but the posterior likelihood of fracture geometry scenario is also attained after history matching. We also compare the proxy-based MCMC workflow with the direct MCMC and a commercial history matching software in terms of accuracy and efficiency. It is found that the direct MCMC cannot find enough solutions to construct the posterior probability density (PPD) in an efficient manner. For the commercial software, it can find solutions faster than the proxy-based MCMC. However, the former is stuck in the local minima, thus resulting in an invalid PPD. Ultimately, the proxy-based MCMC workflow provides the most accurate history matching results with efficient manner for this tight oil reservoir.

Fractured Porous Media

Fractured Porous Media
  • Author : Pierre M. Adler,Jean-François Thovert,Valeri V. Mourzenko
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :175
  • ISBN : 9780199666515
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This monograph on fractures, fracture networks, and fractured porous media provides a systematic treatment of their geometrical and transport properties for students and professionals in Geophysics, Materials Science, and Earth Sciences.

Modeling Interwell Fracture Interference and Huff-n-Puff Pressure Containment in Eagle Ford Using EDFM

Modeling Interwell Fracture Interference and Huff-n-Puff Pressure Containment in Eagle Ford Using EDFM
  • Author : Mauricio Xavier Fiallos Torres
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :278
  • ISBN : OCLC:1107323560
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Shale field operators have vested a tremendous interest in optimal spacing of infill wells and further fracture optimization, which ideally should have as little interference with the existing wells as possible. Although proper modeling has been employed to show the existence of well interference, few models have forecasted the impact of multiple inter-well fractures on child wells production and also implemented Huff-n-Puff and injection containment methods. These prognoses of the reservoir simulations abet to optimize further hydraulic fracture designs and improve the efficiency of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) in unconventional reservoirs. This thesis presented a rigorous workflow for estimating the impacts of spatial variations in fracture conductivity and complexity on fracture geometries of inter-well interference when modeling EOR Huff-n-Puff. Furthermore, we applied a non-intrusive embedded discrete fracture modeling (EDFM) method in conjunction with a commercial reservoir simulator to investigate the impact of well interference through connecting fractures by multi-well history matching, to propose profitable opportunities for Huff-n-Puff application. In this sense, the value of our workflow relies on a robust understanding of fracture properties, real production data validation, and the add-on feature of multi-pad wellbore image logging interpretation in the process. First, according to updated production data from Eagle Ford, the model was constructed to perform four (parent) wells history matching including five inner (child) wells. Later, fracture diagnostic results from well image logging were employed to perform sensitivity analysis on properties of long interwell connecting fractures such as number, conductivity, geometry, and explore their impacts on history matching. However, the estimation of these inter-well connecting fractures which were employed for enhanced history matching varied significantly from unmeasured fracture sensitivities. Finally, optimal cluster spacing was recommended considering interwell interference. The obtained results lead our study to the implementation of Huff-n-Puff models that capture inter-well interference seen in the field and their affordable impact sensitivities focused on variable injection rates/locations and multi-point water injection to mimic pressure barriers. The simulation results strengthen the understanding of modeling complex fracture geometries with robust history matching and support the need to incorporate containment strategies when EOR Huff-n-Puff is implemented. Moreover, the simulation outcomes show that well interference is present and reduces effectiveness of the fracture hits when connecting natural fractures. As a result of the inter-well long fractures, the bottom hole pressure behavior of the parent wells tends to equalize, and the pressure does not recover fast enough. Furthermore, the EDFM application is strongly supported by complex fracture propagation interpretation from image logs through the child wells in the reservoir. Through this study, multiple containment scenarios were proposed to contain the pressure in the area of interest, considering more than 2000 hydraulic fractures. The model became a valuable stencil to inform the impacts on well location and spacing, the completion staging, initial huff-n-puff decisions, and subsequent containment strategies (e.g. to improve cycle timing and efficiency), so that it can be expanded to other areas of the field. The simulation results and understandings afforded have been applied to the field satisfactorily to support significant reductions in offset fracture interference by up to 50% and reduce completion costs up to 23% while improving new well capital efficiency. Consequently, these outcomes support pressure containment benefits that lead to increased pressure build, reduced gas communication, reduced offset shut-in volumes, and ultimately, improvements in net utilization and capital efficiency

Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow

Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Fracture Characterization and Fluid Flow
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996-08-27
  • Total pages :568
  • ISBN : 9780309049962
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Scientific understanding of fluid flow in rock fractures--a process underlying contemporary earth science problems from the search for petroleum to the controversy over nuclear waste storage--has grown significantly in the past 20 years. This volume presents a comprehensive report on the state of the field, with an interdisciplinary viewpoint, case studies of fracture sites, illustrations, conclusions, and research recommendations. The book addresses these questions: How can fractures that are significant hydraulic conductors be identified, located, and characterized? How do flow and transport occur in fracture systems? How can changes in fracture systems be predicted and controlled? Among other topics, the committee provides a geomechanical understanding of fracture formation, reviews methods for detecting subsurface fractures, and looks at the use of hydraulic and tracer tests to investigate fluid flow. The volume examines the state of conceptual and mathematical modeling, and it provides a useful framework for understanding the complexity of fracture changes that occur during fluid pumping and other engineering practices. With a practical and multidisciplinary outlook, this volume will be welcomed by geologists, petroleum geologists, geoengineers, geophysicists, hydrologists, researchers, educators and students in these fields, and public officials involved in geological projects.

Streamline Simulation

Streamline Simulation
  • Author : Akhil Datta-Gupta,Michael J. King
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :394
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105131908829
GET BOOK HERE

Summary :

Conceptual Models of Flow and Transport in the Fractured Vadose Zone

Conceptual Models of Flow and Transport in the Fractured Vadose Zone
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,U.S. National Committee for Rock Mechanics,Panel on Conceptual Models of Flow and Transport in the Fractured Vadose Zone
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-05-21
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 0309170990
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Fluid flow and solute transport within the vadose zone, the unsaturated zone between the land surface and the water table, can be the cause of expanded plumes arising from localized contaminant sources. An understanding of vadose zone processes is, therefore, an essential prerequisite for cost-effective contaminant remediation efforts. In addition, because such features are potential avenues for rapid transport of chemicals from contamination sources to the water table, the presence of fractures and other channel-like openings in the vadose zone poses a particularly significant problem, Conceptual Models of Flow and Transport in the Fractured Vadose Zone is based on the work of a panel established under the auspices of the U.S. National Committee for Rock Mechanics. It emphasizes the importance of conceptual models and goes on to review the conceptual model development, testing, and refinement processes. The book examines fluid flow and transport mechanisms, noting the difficulty of modeling solute transport, and identifies geochemical and environmental tracer data as important components of the modeling process. Finally, the book recommends several areas for continued research.

Development of a Multi-mechanistic Triple-porosity, Triple-permeability Compositional Model for Unconventional Reservoirs

Development of a Multi-mechanistic Triple-porosity, Triple-permeability Compositional Model for Unconventional Reservoirs
  • Author : Nithiwat Siripatrachai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:959934578
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Most existing compositional reservoir simulators often model fractures using local grid refinement, unstructured-grid, or fine-grid models. Modeling different scales of fractures requires a large number of grid blocks to capture the heterogeneity of the formation. Using a large number of grid blocks presents computational challenges, even with todays powerful processors. An enhanced matrix permeability on the grid block that hosts short-scale fractures is commonly used to eliminate natural fractures and simplify the model. Additionally, several existing multi-porosity models may not be able to capture heterogeneity and flow behavior in different porosity domains. Sequential flow assumption is frequently made in their models. Flows between different porosity types are not fully coupled, and in some model, a simplified inter-porosity transmissibility function is used for any porosity pairs. The oil and gas reserves and flow of reservoir fluids are strongly dependent on phase behavior. Large capillary pressure values are encountered in tight formations such as tight-rocks and shales. The tiny pore throats in these formations result in large capillary pressure. The effect of capillary pressure in tight formations can significantly impact the fluid phase behaviors in the reservoir during production and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Not incorporating this effect into the simulation can result in an inaccurate estimation of ultimate recovery as well as inefficient design and implementation of EOR techniques. In spite of this, the effect of capillary pressure on phase behavior in tight reservoirs has not been well studied using compositional simulation, especially for hydraulically fractured reservoirs.In this research, a fully implicit, multi-mechanistic, fully coupled, triple-porosity, triple-permeability compositional model has been developed for unconventional reservoirs. The hydraulically fractured tight rock and shale reservoir is treated as a triple-porosity system consisting of matrix blocks, natural fractures (micro fractures), and hydraulic fractures (macro fractures). Small-scale fractures are handled by a dual-continuum model. An embedded discrete fracture model is used to effectively and efficiently capture the flow dynamics of hydraulic fractures at any orientations, honoring the complexity and heterogeneity of the fracture networks. The triple-porosity model enables us to assign reservoir properties corresponding to the porosity type. The flows in three porosity types are fully coupled without making the assumption of sequential flow. The inter-porosity fluid transfer honors the geometry of the intersecting porosity pair. The development of the proposed numerical model incorporates the effect of capillary pressure on phase behavior. The transport of hydrocarbon follows a multi-mechanistic flow mechanism that is driven by pressure and concentration fields. The simulator has been validated with analytical solutions and a commercial reservoir simulator for a single-porosity model and a dual-porosity, dual-permeability model, both with and without grid refinement. With the proposed model, we can accurately capture major physics of transport phenomena that have been done to date and have the most realistic modeling of fluid flow in hydraulically fractured tight rock and shale reservoirs. The simulator is used in parametric studies to investigate the production performance from hydraulically fractured reservoirs under different modeling techniques and the effect of capillary pressure on phase behavior on reserves and ultimate recovery. The simulator is used to study the impact of inter-porosity transport on the recovery and fluid transport and phase behavior in hydraulically fractured tight rocks and shale formations under high capillary pressure. The outcomes of this project are an improved understanding of phase behavior and fluid flow in hydraulically fractured shale and tight rocks and an increased accuracy of the production prediction and ultimate recovery.

Fundamental Controls on Fluid Flow in Carbonates

Fundamental Controls on Fluid Flow in Carbonates
  • Author : S.M. Agar,S. Geiger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-02-02
  • Total pages :473
  • ISBN : 9781862396593
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This volume highlights key challenges for fluid-flow prediction in carbonate reservoirs, the approaches currently employed to address these challenges and developments in fundamental science and technology. The papers span methods and case studies that highlight workflows and emerging technologies in the fields of geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir modelling and computer science. Topics include: detailed pore-scale studies that explore fundamental processes and applications of imaging and flow modelling at the pore scale; case studies of diagenetic processes with complementary perspectives from reactive transport modelling; novel methods for rock typing; petrophysical studies that investigate the impact of diagenesis and fault-rock properties on acoustic signatures; mechanical modelling and seismic imaging of faults in carbonate rocks; modelling geological influences on seismic anisotropy; novel approaches to geological modelling; methods to represent key geological details in reservoir simulations and advances in computer visualization, analytics and interactions for geoscience and engineering.

Petrophysics

Petrophysics
  • Author : Erle C. Donaldson,Djebbar Tiab
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-01-24
  • Total pages :880
  • ISBN : 0080497659
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The petroleum geologist and engineer must have a working knowledge of petrophysics in order to find oil reservoirs, devise the best plan for getting it out of the ground, then start drilling. This book offers the engineer and geologist a manual to accomplish these goals, providing much-needed calculations and formulas on fluid flow, rock properties, and many other topics that are encountered every day. New updated material covers topics that have emerged in the petrochemical industry since 1997. Contains information and calculations that the engineer or geologist must use in daily activities to find oil and devise a plan to get it out of the ground Filled with problems and solutions, perfect for use in undergraduate, graduate, or professional courses Covers real-life problems and cases for the practicing engineer

Structurally Complex Reservoirs

Structurally Complex Reservoirs
  • Author : S. J. Jolley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :488
  • ISBN : 1862392412
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This volume reviews our current understanding and ability to model the complex distribution and behaviour of fault and fracture networks, highlighting their fluid compartmentalizing effects and storage-transmissivity characteristics, and outlining approaches for predicting the dynamic fluid flow and geomechanical behaviour of these reservoirs. This collection of 25 papers provides an overview of recent progress and outstanding issues in the areas of structural complexity and fault geometry, detection and prediction of faults and fractures, compartmentalizing effects of fault systems and complex siliciclastic reservoirs and critical controls affecting fractured reservoirs.