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Emerging Concepts in Ribosome Structure, Biogenesis, and Function

Emerging Concepts in Ribosome Structure, Biogenesis, and Function
  • Author : Vijay Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11
  • Total pages :500
  • ISBN : 012816364X
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Summary : Ribosome biogenesis is the process of making ribosomes which are responsible for mRNA translation into proteins. It is a tightly regulated process closely linked to nearly all biochemical and cellular processes, including cell division, growth and development. Emerging Concepts in Ribosome Structure, Biogenesis, and Function provides a synthesized overview of all the parts engaged in this process. The book begins by providing an introduction to the ribosome factory, its origin, and its evolution of translation. It then goes on to describe ribosome structure including subunits, RNA, and protein components. Ribosome biogenesis and its emergence as a frontier research area for translational potential in cancer and other diseases are also discussed. In addition, the book explores current developments in ribosome research like the emergence of ribosomopathies, how deregulation of ribosome biogenesis can impact disease mechanisms and aging, and the discovery of specialized ribosomes that have specific functions that may translate differentially with consequences on normal and pathological processes. Emerging Concepts in Ribosome Structure, Biogenesis, and Function provides fundamental coverage and emerging research on ribosomes, biogenesis, and their structure and function and is a resourceful introduction for new researchers and those engaged in interdisciplinary ribosomal research.

The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles

The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles
  • Author : Chris Mullins
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-03-06
  • Total pages :181
  • ISBN : 9780387268675
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Summary : The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles represents a comprehensive summary of recent advances in the study of the biogenesis and functional dynamics of the major organelles operating in the eukaryotic cell. This book begins by placing the study of organelle biogenesis in a historical perspective by describing past scientific strategies, theories, and findings and relating these foundations to current investigations. Reviews of protein and lipid mediators important for organelle biogenesis are then presented, and are followed by summaries focused on the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosome, nucleus, mitochondria, and peroxisome.

The Nucleolus

The Nucleolus
  • Author : Mark O. J. Olson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-09-15
  • Total pages :414
  • ISBN : 9781461405146
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Summary : Within the past two decades, extraordinary new functions for the nucleolus have begun to appear, giving the field a new vitality and generating renewed excitement and interest. These new discoveries include both newly-discovered functions and aspects of its conventional role. The Nucleolus is divided into three parts: nucleolar structure and organization, the role of the nucleolus in ribosome biogenesis, and novel functions of the nucleolus.

The Eukaryotic Ribosome

The Eukaryotic Ribosome
  • Author : H. Bielka
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1982-08-01
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : 3540110593
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Summary : Contents References 11 II. A short historical survey 13 References 16 III. Ribosomes within the cell 20 1. Proportion of ribosomes in tissues 21 2. Free and membrane-bound ribo- mes 22 3. Ribosomes in nucleoli 26 4. Structure of polysomes in the cell 26 5. Ribosomal crystals 33 6. References 33 IV. Some general properties of ribosomes 41 1. Physical characteristics 41 2. Chemical characteristics 43 3. References 44 V. Morphology of ribosomes and poly­ somes 47 1. Electron microscopy 47 a) The small ribosomal subunit 48 b) The large ribosomal subunit 48 c) The monomeric ribosome 52 d) Three-dimensional models 54 e) Polysomes 55 2. Small-angle X-ray scattering 55 a) The monomeric ribosome 56 b) Polysomes 57 3. References 57 VI. Chemical components 61 1. Ribosomal proteins 61 a) Electrophoretic separation and num­ ber 61 b) Preparation of single ribosomal pro­ teins 67 c) Molecular weights 68 d) Amino acid composition and amino acid sequences 71 e) Stoichiometry 71 f) Posttranslational modifications 72 g) Comparison of ribosomal proteins of different tissues 73 h) Species specificities and evolution 74 i) Ribosomal proteins of mitochondria and chloroplasts 75 k) Ribosomal mutants with altered pro­ teins 75 5 3. Formation of preribosomal 2. Phosphorylation of ribosomal prote­ particles 139 ins 76 4. References 141 a) In vitro phosphorylation and de­ phosphorylation 76 VIII. Dissociation - reassociation processes b) In vivo phosphorylation 77 of ribosomal particles 151 c) Phosphorylation of ribosomal pro­ tein S 6 78 1.

The Ribosome

The Ribosome
  • Author : Aleksandr S. Spirin,Lidija P. Gavrilova
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :164
  • ISBN : 9783642884467
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Summary : This monograph is neither a historical outline of the development of the concepts of protein biosynthesis and the structure and functions of the ribosomes, nor an exhaustive survey of the literature on these questions. The monograph is based upon an analysis of the modern trends in this field. The purpose of the monograph was to formulate more or less generalized representations of the structure and" function of the ribosome, as we envision it at the present day. It may be that this attempt is premature for a number of reasons, and the concepts outlined here will very soon be revised. Nonetheless, despite this risk, we believe it to be advisable to undertake this attempt for the following reasons: firstly, the undertaken analysis could aid in the comprehension of the substantial mass of extremely scattered experimental data on the ribosomes presently available; secondly, in any event, even if most of the concepts outlined rapidly become obselete, they can still serve as a stimulus for a whole series of experiments; and thirdly, we hope that some of the concepts outlined will still remain essentially correct and relatively stable. In view of the aforementioned, we should make the following reservations. First of all, we made no attempt to cite all the literature on the problems discussed, but considered it sufficient to illustrate the various premises with one or several sample references.

The Translational Apparatus

The Translational Apparatus
  • Author : K.H. Nierhaus,F. Franceschi,A.R. Subramanian,Volker Alfred Erdmann,Brigitte Wittmann-Liebold
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :746
  • ISBN : 9781461524076
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Summary : Proceedings of an international conference held in Berlin, Germany, October 31-November 5, 1992

Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation

Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation
  • Author : Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-08-28
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9780387351360
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Summary : Written by an international panel of recognized leaders in the field, Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation discusses all aspects of modern neural crest biology from its evolutionary significance to its specification, migration, plasticity and contribution to multiple lineages of the vertebrate body, to the pathologies associated with abnormal neural crest development and function. Abundant color figures enhance the text providing clear and attractive illustrations of central issues and concepts.

Proteins of the Nucleolus

Proteins of the Nucleolus
  • Author : Danton H O'Day,Andrew Catalano
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-02-26
  • Total pages :371
  • ISBN : 9789400758186
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Summary : This book contains 14 original review chapters each yielding new, exciting and intriguing data about the emerging understanding of nucleolar structure and function in normal, stressed and diseased cells. The goal of this work is to provide special insight into the nucleolus of the past, present and future, as well its regulation, translocation, and biomedical function. A multitude of topics are introduced and discussed in detail, including nucleologenesis, nucleolar architecture, nucleolar targeting, retention, anchoring, translocation, and the relationship between the nucleolus and cancer. This book also brings together work from several different species, from human to Drosophila to Dictyostelium and other eukaryotic microbes. The final chapter summarizes some of the issues brought up in the various chapters with a view to future research. This book supports the continued emergence of the nucleolus as a dynamic intranuclear region that oversees a vast diversity of events.

RNA Damage and Repair

RNA Damage and Repair
  • Author : Ioly Kotta-Loizou
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9783030765712
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Summary :

Mass Spectrometry in Structural Biology and Biophysics

Mass Spectrometry in Structural Biology and Biophysics
  • Author : Igor A. Kaltashov,Stephen J. Eyles
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-03
  • Total pages :289
  • ISBN : 9780470937792
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Summary : With its detailed and systematic coverage of the current state of biophysical mass spectrometry (MS), here is one of the first systematic presentations of the full experimental array of MS-based techniques used in biophysics, covering both fundamental and practical issues. The book presents a discussion of general biophysical concepts and a brief overview of traditional biophysical techniques before outlining the more advanced concepts of mass spectrometry. The new edition gives an up-to-date and expanded coverage of experimental methodologies and a clear look at MS-based methods for studying higher order structures and biopolymers. A must for researchers in the field of biophysics, structural biology, and protein chemistry.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell
  • Author : Bruce Alberts
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 0815332181
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Summary :

The Plasticity of Skeletal Muscle

The Plasticity of Skeletal Muscle
  • Author : Kunihiro Sakuma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-01
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 9789811032929
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Summary : This book discusses recent advances and various topics in plasticity of skeletal muscle from the perspectives of morphology, biological function, and clinical applications. Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic organ to adapt to environmental various demands, appears to endocrine various myokines, which flow into blood to protect the recognizing function of brain and inhibit the appearance of several cancer tumorigenesis. The book deals with current stem-cell based, pharmacological, and nutritional therapies for muscle wasting (sarcopenia, cachexia, and muscular dystrophy). It also explains the roles of biological mediators such as PGC-1, transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC), and AMPK in modulating muscle function. The functional roles of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-dependent signaling in muscle homeostasis, ribosome biogenesis, and redox regulation of mechanotransduction to modulate skeletal muscle mass are also covered. It is an essential resource for physicians, researchers, post-docs as well as graduate students in the field of sports science including rehabilitation therapy, exercise physiology, exercise biochemistry, and molecular biology dealing with skeletal muscle.

Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics

Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics
  • Author : Anita Göndör
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-25
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9780128034026
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Summary : Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics integrates knowledge on the dynamic regulation of primary chromatin fiber with the 3D nuclear architecture, then connects related processes to circadian regulation of cellular metabolic states, representing a paradigm of adaptation to environmental changes. The final chapters discuss the many ways chromatin dynamics can synergize to fundamentally contribute to the development of complex diseases. Chromatin dynamics, which is strategically positioned at the gene-environment interface, is at the core of disease development. As such, Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics, part of the Translational Epigenetics series, facilitates the flow of information between research areas such as chromatin regulation, developmental biology, and epidemiology by focusing on recent findings of the fast-moving field of chromatin regulation. Presents and discusses novel principles of chromatin regulation and dynamics with a cross-disciplinary perspective Promotes crosstalk between basic sciences and their applications in medicine Provides a framework for future studies on complex diseases by integrating various aspects of chromatin biology with cellular metabolic states, with an emphasis on the dynamic nature of chromatin and stochastic principles Integrates knowledge on the dynamic regulation of primary chromatin fiber with 3D nuclear architecture, then connects related processes to circadian regulation of cellular metabolic states, representing a paradigm of adaptation to environmental changes

Mitochondrial Gene Expression

Mitochondrial Gene Expression
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1071608347
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Summary :

The Membranes of Cells

The Membranes of Cells
  • Author : Philip Yeagle
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :349
  • ISBN : UOM:39015026979164
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Summary : In this new edition of The Membranes of Cells, all of the chapters have been updated, some have been completely rewritten, and a new chapter on receptors has been added. The book has been designed to provide both the student and researcher with a synthesis of information from a number of scientific disciplines to create a comprehensive view of the structure and function of the membranes of cells. The topics are treated in sufficient depth to provide an entry point to the more detailed literature needed by the researcher. Key Features * Introduces biologists to membrane structure and physical chemistry * Introduces biophysicists to biological membrane function * Provides a comprehensive view of cell membranes to students, either as a necessary background for other specialized disciplines or as an entry into the field of biological membrane research * Clarifies ambiguities in the field

The Functional Nucleus

The Functional Nucleus
  • Author : David P. Bazett-Jones,Graham Dellaire
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-17
  • Total pages :513
  • ISBN : 9783319388823
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Summary : This book gives an in-depth overview on nuclear structure and function. It clearly shows that the epigenome and the three-dimensional organization of the nucleus are not independent properties. The intimate relationship between the location and the epigenetic modifications of gene loci is highlighted. Finally, it shows that the complex three-dimensional organization of the nucleus is not just of academic interest: The structure, composition and function of virtually all of the sub-nuclear compartments identified so far can be implicated to a list of human genetic diseases. Hence, a detailed elucidation of how these domains are assembled and function will provide new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in clinical practice.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015059029408
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Summary :

Plant Physiological Ecology

Plant Physiological Ecology
  • Author : Hans Lambers,F Stuart Chapin III,Thijs L. Pons
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-10-08
  • Total pages :605
  • ISBN : 0387783415
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Summary : Box 9E. 1 Continued FIGURE 2. The C–S–R triangle model (Grime 1979). The strategies at the three corners are C, competiti- winning species; S, stress-tolerating s- cies; R,ruderalspecies. Particular species can engage in any mixture of these three primary strategies, and the m- ture is described by their position within the triangle. comment briefly on some other dimensions that Grime’s (1977) triangle (Fig. 2) (see also Sects. 6. 1 are not yet so well understood. and 6. 3 of Chapter 7 on growth and allocation) is a two-dimensional scheme. A C—S axis (Com- tition-winning species to Stress-tolerating spe- Leaf Economics Spectrum cies) reflects adaptation to favorable vs. unfavorable sites for plant growth, and an R- Five traits that are coordinated across species are axis (Ruderal species) reflects adaptation to leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf life-span, leaf N disturbance. concentration, and potential photosynthesis and dark respiration on a mass basis. In the five-trait Trait-Dimensions space,79%ofallvariation worldwideliesalonga single main axis (Fig. 33 of Chapter 2A on photo- A recent trend in plant strategy thinking has synthesis; Wright et al. 2004). Species with low been trait-dimensions, that is, spectra of varia- LMA tend to have short leaf life-spans, high leaf tion with respect to measurable traits. Compared nutrient concentrations, and high potential rates of mass-based photosynthesis. These species with category schemes, such as Raunkiaer’s, trait occur at the ‘‘quick-return’’ end of the leaf e- dimensions have the merit of capturing cont- nomics spectrum.

RNA Nanotechnology

RNA Nanotechnology
  • Author : Bin Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-02
  • Total pages :466
  • ISBN : 9789814411653
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Summary : In the past few decades there has been incredible growth in "bionano"-related research, which has been accompanied by numerous publications in this field. Although various compilations address topics related to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein, there are few books that focus on determining the structure of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and using RNA as building blocks to construct nanoarchitectures for biomedical and healthcare applications. RNA Nanotechnology is a comprehensive volume that details both the traditional approaches and the latest developments in the field of RNA-related technology. This book targets a wide audience: a broad introduction provides a solid academic background for students, researchers, and scientists who are unfamiliar with the subject, while the in-depth descriptions and discussions are useful for advanced professionals. The book opens with reviews on the basic aspects of RNA biology, computational approaches for predicting RNA structures, and traditional and emerging experimental approaches for probing RNA structures. This section is followed by explorations of the latest research and discoveries in RNA nanotechnology, including the design and construction of RNA-based nanostructures. The final segment of the book includes descriptions and discussions of the potential biological and therapeutic applications of small RNA molecules, such as small/short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), RNA aptamers, and ribozymes.

Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences

Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences
  • Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Policy and Global Affairs,Development, Security, and Cooperation,Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-06-07
  • Total pages :316
  • ISBN : 0309164753
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Summary : Biomedical advances have made it possible to identify and manipulate features of living organisms in useful ways--leading to improvements in public health, agriculture, and other areas. The globalization of scientific and technical expertise also means that many scientists and other individuals around the world are generating breakthroughs in the life sciences and related technologies. The risks posed by bioterrorism and the proliferation of biological weapons capabilities have increased concern about how the rapid advances in genetic engineering and biotechnology could enable the production of biological weapons with unique and unpredictable characteristics. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of Life Sciences examines current trends and future objectives of research in public health, life sciences, and biomedical science that contain applications relevant to developments in biological weapons 5 to 10 years into the future and ways to anticipate, identify, and mitigate these dangers.

Epigenetics in Society

Epigenetics in Society
  • Author : Windsor Epigenetics Study Group
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-26
  • Total pages :327
  • ISBN : 9780920233726
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Summary : This is a book written by students of diverse disciplines, and intended for students and educated lay people. We intend this book to serve several functions. First, we want to make the field of epigenetics accessible to lay readers. Second, and more importantly, we want to excite further interest and concern regarding the social, ethical, legal, health, and policy implications that this field will have for all arenas of our lives. Third, we want to arm our readers with knowledge and wariness so that they can understand and critique the nuanced debates that will inevitably arise when costs and benefits must be weighed: while the effects of epigenetics upon us as individuals may be subtle, the demographic implications and costs are huge.