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Emulsions

Emulsions
  • Author : Alexandru Grumezescu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-13
  • Total pages :768
  • ISBN : 9780128043776
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Summary : Emulsions, the third volume of the Nanotechnology in the Food Industry series, is an invaluable resource for anyone in the food industry who needs the most recent information about scientific advances in nanotechnology on this topic. This volume focuses on basic and advanced knowledge about nanoemulsion, and presents an overview of the production methods, materials (solvents, emulsifiers, and functional ingredients), and current analytical techniques that can be used for the identification and characterization of nanoemulsions. The book also discusses the applications of nanoemulsion with special emphasis on systems suitable for utilization within the food industry. This book is useful to a wide audience of food science research professionals and students who are doing research in this field, as well as others interested in recent nanotechnological progress worldwide. Presents fundamentals of nanoemulsions, methods of preparation (high-energy and low-energy techniques), and applications in the food industry Includes research studies of nanoemulsification technology to improve bioavailability of food ingredients and research analysis Offers benefits and methods of risk assessment to ensure food safety Presents cutting-edge encapsulating systems to improve the quality of functional compounds Provides a variety of methods, such as high-shear stirring, high-pressure homogenizers, self-emulsification, phase transitions and phase-inversion, to further research in this field

Emulsions

Emulsions
  • Author : Tharwat F. Tadros
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-21
  • Total pages :242
  • ISBN : 9783110452242
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Summary : Chapter 1 General Introduction Definition of emulsions and the role of the emulsifier. Classification based on the nature of the emulsifier. Classification based on the structure of the system. General instability problems with emulsions : creaming/sedimentation, flocculation, Ostwald ripening, coalescence and phase inversion. Importance of emulsions in various industrial applications. Chapter 2 Thermodynamics of Emulsion Formation and Breakdown Application of the second law of thermodynamics for emulsion formation : Balance of energy and entropy and non-spontaneous formation of emulsions. Breakdown of the emulsion by flocculation and coalescence in the absence of an emulsifier. Role of the emulsifier in preventing flocculation and coalescence by creating an energy barrier resulting from the repulsive energies between the droplets. Chapter 3 Interaction Forces between Emulsion Droplets Van der Waals attraction and its dependence on droplet size, Hamaker constant and separation distance between the droplets. Electrostatic repulsion resulting from the presence of electrical double layers and its dependence on surface (or zeta) potential and electrolyte concentration and valency. Combination of the van der Waals attraction with double layer repulsion and the theory of colloid stability. Steric repulsion resulting from the presence of adsorbed non-ionic surfactants and polymers. Combination of van der Waals attraction with steric repulsion and the theory of steric stabilisation. Chapter 4 Adsorption of Surfactants at the Oil/Water Interface Thermodynamic analysis of surfactant adsorption and the Gibbs adsorption isotherm. Calculation of the amount of surfactant adsorption and area per surfactant molecule at the interface. Experimental techniques for measuring the interfacial tension. Chapter 5 Mechanism of Emulsification and the Role of the Emulsifier Description of the factors responsible for droplet deformation and its break-up. Role of surfactant in preventing coalescence during emulsification. Definition of the Gibbs dilational elasticity and the Marangoni effect in preventing coalescence. Chapter 6 Methods of Emulsification Pipe flow, static mixers and high speed stirrers (rotor-stator mixer). Laminar and turbulent flow. Membrane emulsification. High pressure homogenisers and ultrasonic methods. Chapter 7 Selection of Emulsifiers The hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance (HLB) and its application in surfactant selection. Calculation of HLB numbers and the effect of the nature of the oil phase. The phase inversion temperature (PIT) method for emulsifier selection. The cohesive energy ratio method for emulsifier selection. Chapter 8 Creaming/Sedimentation of Emulsions and its prevention Driving force for creaming/sedimentation: effect of gravity, droplet size and density difference between the oil and continuous phase. Calculation of the rate of creaming/sedimentation in dilute emulsions. Influence of increase of the volume fraction of the disperse phase on the rate of creaming/sedimentation. Reduction of creaming/sedimentation: Balance of the density of the two phases, reduction of droplet size and effect of addition of ''thickeners'. Chapter 9 Flocculation of Emulsions and its Prevention Factors affecting flocculation. Calculation of fast and slow flocculation rate. Definition of stability ratio and its dependence on electrolyte concentration and valency. Definition of the critical coagulation concentration and its dependence on electrolyte valency. Reduction of flocculation by enhancing the repulsive forces. Chapter 10 Ostwald Ripening and its Reduction Factors responsible for Ostwald ripening : difference in solubility between small and large droplets and the Kelvin equation. Calculation of the rate of Ostwald ripening. Reduction of Ostwald ripening by incorporation of a small amount of highly insoluble oil. Reduction of Ostwald ripening by the use of strongly adsorbed polymeric surfactant and enhancement of the Gibbs elasticity. Chapter 11 Emulsion Coalescence and its Prevention Driving force for emulsion coalescence : Thinning and disruption of the liquid film between the droplets. The concept of disjoining pressure for prevention of coalescence. Methods for reduction or elimination of coalescence : Use of mixed surfactant films, use of lamellar liquid crystalline phases and use of polymeric surfactants. Chapter 12 Phase Inversion and its Prevention Distinction between catastrophic and transient phase inversion. Influence of the disperse volume fraction and surfactant HLB number. Explanation of the factors responsible for phase inversion. Chapter 13 Characterisation of Emulsions Measurement of droplet size distribution : Optical microscopy and image analysis. Phase contrast and polarising microscopyDiffraction methods. Confocal laser microscopy. Back scattering methods Chapter 14 Industrial Application of Emulsions 14.1 Application in Pharmacy 14.2 Application in Cosmetics 14.3 Application in Agrochemicals 14.4 Application in Paints 14.5 Application in the Oil Industry

A Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual: Understanding and using emulsions

A Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual: Understanding and using emulsions
  • Author : Asphalt Institute
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1979
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : MINN:30000005157460
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Summary :

Multiple Meson Production in Emulsions Exposed to the Bevatron Beam

Multiple Meson Production in Emulsions Exposed to the Bevatron Beam
  • Author : William R. Johnson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1955
  • Total pages :44
  • ISBN : UOM:39015086484568
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Summary : Stacks of 600-micron Ilford G.5 stripped emulsions have been exposed to the internal beam of the Bevatron at three energies: 3.2, 4.8, and 5.7 Bev. Shower-particle production has been investigated at these energies. (A shower particle is defined as one whose grain density is less than 1.4 times minimum.) At each energy 114 events which had beam protons for primaries were found by area scanning. The average shower particle multiplicities per event were found to be 0.94 ℗± 0.09, 1.30 ℗± 0.11, and 1.62 ℗± 0.11. These results are compared with similar observations by cosmic-ray workers. The various theories of meson production are reviewed and Fermi's calculations for Cosmotron energies have been extended to the energies of this experiment. Production differences in heavy and light nuclei are discussed and compared.

Food Emulsions

Food Emulsions
  • Author : Stig Friberg,Kare Larsson,Johan Sjoblom
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-11-04
  • Total pages :665
  • ISBN : 0203913221
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Summary : Upholding the standards that made previous editions so popular, this reference focuses on current strategies to analyze the functionality and performance of food emulsions and explores recent developments in emulsion science that have advanced food research and development. Written by leading specialists in the field, the Fourth Edition probes the

Study of Emulsions for Photographing Oscilloscope Screens

Study of Emulsions for Photographing Oscilloscope Screens
  • Author : Neil York
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1946
  • Total pages :3
  • ISBN : UOM:39015077318742
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Summary :

The Preparation of Emulsions of Crude Petroleum

The Preparation of Emulsions of Crude Petroleum
  • Author : Thomas Malcolm Price
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1905
  • Total pages :4
  • ISBN : HARVARD:32044107287351
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Summary :

Stars in Photographic Emulsions Initiated by Alpha Particles

Stars in Photographic Emulsions Initiated by Alpha Particles
  • Author : Eugene Gardner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1948
  • Total pages :6
  • ISBN : UOM:39015086447342
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Summary :

Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions

Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions
  • Author : Laurier L. Schramm
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-05-12
  • Total pages :463
  • ISBN : 9783527606887
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Summary : Until now colloid science books have either been theoretical, or focused on specific types of dispersion, or on specific applications. This then is the first book to provide an integrated introduction to the nature, formation and occurrence, stability, propagation, and uses of the most common types of colloidal dispersion in the process-related industries. The primary focus is on the applications of the principles, paying attention to practical processes and problems. This is done both as part of the treatment of the fundamentals, where appropriate, and also in the separate sections devoted to specific kinds of industries. Throughout, the treatment is integrated, with the principles of colloid and interface science common to each dispersion type presented for each major physical property class, followed by separate treatments of features unique to emulsions, foams, or suspensions. The first half of the book introduces the fundamental principles, introducing readers to suspension formation and stability, characterization, and flow properties, emphasizing practical aspects throughout. The following chapters discuss a wide range of industrial applications and examples, serving to emphasize the different methodologies that have been successfully applied. Overall, the book shows how to approach making emulsions, foams, and suspensions with different useful properties, how to propagate them, and how to prevent their formation or destabilize them if necessary. The author assumes no prior knowledge of colloid chemistry and, with its glossary of key terms, complete cross-referencing and indexing, this is a must-have for graduate and professional scientists and engineers who may encounter or use emulsions, foams, or suspensions, or combinations thereof, whether in process design, industrial production, or in related R&D fields.

Food Emulsions

Food Emulsions
  • Author : David Julian McClements
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-12-16
  • Total pages :632
  • ISBN : 9781420039436
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Summary : Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice, and Techniques, Second Edition introduces the fundamentals of emulsion science and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied to better understand and control the appearance, stability, and texture of many common and important emulsion-based foods. Revised and expanded to reflect recent developments, this s

Emulsions

Emulsions
  • Author : Johan Sjöblom
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :302
  • ISBN : 9789401124607
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Summary : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Bergen, Norway, June 24-25, 1991

Emulsion Science

Emulsion Science
  • Author : Jerôme Bibette,Fernando Leal-Calderon,Véronique Schmitt,Philippe Poulin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-07-01
  • Total pages :142
  • ISBN : 9783540708209
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Summary : Emulsions occur either as end products or during the processing of products in a huge range of areas including the food, agrochemical, pharmaceuticals, paints and oil industries. As end products, emulsions allow to avoid organic solvent in processing hydrophobic coatings. Emulsion technology is a suitable approach to vehicle viscous phases. It is also a remarkable mean of targeting actives or capturing specific species. The range of applications of emulsions progresses and their manufacturing becomes more and more sophisticated. Besides this broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physic and chem istry. Indeed, as a class of soft colloidal materials, emulsions science is linked to various aspects of these disciplines: phase transitions, surface forces and wetting, metastability and hydrodynamic instabilities, mechanical properties and flow. The aim of this book is to review the main important concepts governing emulsion science. In Chapter 2, repulsive interactions between liquid films are discussed as well as adhesive interaction related to wetting. In Chap ter 3, consequences of weak and strong attractions are presented, related to the well accepted liquid solid transition analogy. In Chapter 4, the basics of both bulk compressibility and shear elasticity are presented, the role of disorder being the most important aspect of the elastic behavior of these soft systems. In Chapter 5 the central question of the emulsion lifetime related to metastability is discussed.

Emulsions: Structure, Stability and Interactions

Emulsions: Structure, Stability and Interactions
  • Author : Dimiter N. Petsev
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-10-14
  • Total pages :780
  • ISBN : 0080472656
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Summary : Emulsions: Structure, Stability and Interactions is the perfect handbook for scientists looking to obtain up-to-date knowledge about the fundamentals of emulsion science, and those looking to familiarize themselves with the subject in greater detail. As a ‘stand-alone’ source of information, it is also ideal for solving the practical issues encountered daily in the field of emulsion science. While each chapter presents a concise review on a specific topic, the book offers a consistent presentation of the important physical concepts relevant to emulsions. Some of the topics covered include statistical mechanics of fluid interfaces, the structure of fluid interfaces determined by neutron scattering, hydrodynamic interactions and stability of emulsion films, theory of emulsion flocculation, coalescence kinetics of Brownian emulsions, and Brownian dynamics simulation of emulsion stability. Full and comprehensive presentations Rigorous approach to each topic, providing in-depth information Acts as a 'stand-alone' source of information

Emulsions

Emulsions
  • Author : Paul Becher
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :513
  • ISBN : UOM:39015053507490
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Summary : A great introduction to the study and fomulation of emulsions, this book discusses background theory, physical properties of emulsions, theories of emulsion stability and instability, emulsifying agents and their chemistry, formulation procedures and techniques, and industrial applications of emulsification and demulsification.

Particle-Stabilized Emulsions and Colloids

Particle-Stabilized Emulsions and Colloids
  • Author : To Ngai,Stefan A. F. Bon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-13
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9781782620143
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Summary : There has been much scientific interest in the behaviour of colloidal particles at liquid interfaces. From a research aspect they provide model systems for fundamental studies of condensed matter physics. From a commercial aspect they provide applications for making new materials in the cosmetics, food and paint industries. In many cases of colloidal particles at interfaces, the mechanism of particle interactions is still unknown. Particle-Stabilized Emulsions and Colloids looks at recent studies on the behaviour of particles at liquid interfaces. The book first introduces the basic concepts and principles of colloidal particles at liquid-liquid interfaces including the interactions and conformations. The book then discusses the latest advances in emulsions and bicontinuous emulsions stabilized by both solid and soft particles and finally the book covers applications in food science and oil extraction. With contributions from leading experts in these fields, this book will provide a background to academic researchers, engineers, and graduate students in chemistry, physics and materials science. The commercial aspects will also be of interest to those working in the cosmetics, food and oil industry.

Emulsions and Oil Treating Equipment

Emulsions and Oil Treating Equipment
  • Author : Maurice Stewart,Ken Arnold
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-12-30
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 0080559026
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Summary : The problem of removing water which is emulsified with produced oil has grown more widespread and often times more difficult as producers attempt to access more difficult reserves. This practical guide is designed to help engineers and operators develop a "feel" for selection, sizing, and troubleshooting emulsion equipment. These skills are of vital importance to ensure low operating costs and to meet crude export quality specifications. The book is written for engineers and operators, who need advanced knowledge of the numerous techniques and the equipment used to destabilize and resolve petroleum emulsions problems. In Emulsions and Oil Treating Equipment: Selection, Sizing and Troubleshooting the author provides engineers and operators with a guide to understanding emulsion theory, methods and equipment, and practical design of a treating system. Comprehensive in its scope, the author explains methods such as: demulsifiers, temperature, electrostatics and non-traditional methods of modulated or pulsed voltage control, as well as equipment such as: electrostatic treater (dehydrator), separator, gunbarr heater-treater and free water knockout. Written in a "how to" format, it brings together hundreds of methods, handy formulas, diagrams and tables in one convenient book. Detailed coverage emulsion equipment and removal methods Tips for selecting, sizing, and operating emulsion equipment Overview of emulsion theory and factors affecting treatment methods Packed with equipment diagrams, worked out calculations covers equipment and removal methods

Emulsions, Foams, Suspensions, and Aerosols

Emulsions, Foams, Suspensions, and Aerosols
  • Author : Laurier L. Schramm
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-27
  • Total pages :492
  • ISBN : 9783527337064
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Summary : Most books on colloid science are either quite theoretical, or focused on a specific types of dispersion, or on specific applications. The second, revised and enlarged edition of this monograph provides an integrated introduction to the classification, formation and occurrence, stability, and uses of the most common types of colloidal dispersion in the process-related industries. Although the initial emphasis covers basic concepts essential for understanding colloidal dispersions, this is done in the context of emulsions, foams, suspensions, and aerosols, and is aimed at providing the necessary framework for understanding industrial and medical applications. Therefore, the first part of the book introduces the fundamental principles, whereas the following chapters discuss a wide range of industrial applications and examples, serving to emphasize the different methodologies that have been successfully applied. Mayor additions to the new edition comprise the field of aerosols providing the neccessary theoretical background as well as a overview on industrial applications and environmental impact.

Encyclopedic Handbook of Emulsion Technology

Encyclopedic Handbook of Emulsion Technology
  • Author : Johan Sjoblom
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-03-16
  • Total pages :760
  • ISBN : 1420029584
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Summary : A discussion of fundamental characteristics, theories and applications for liquid-liquid colloidal dispersions. It profiles experimental and traditional measurement techniques in a variety of emulsified systems, including rheology, nuclear magnetic resonance, dielectric spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, video enhanced microscopy, and conductivity.

Multiple Emulsion

Multiple Emulsion
  • Author : Abraham Aserin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-01-28
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 0470209259
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Summary : The Comprehensive, Single-Source Reference on Multiple Emulsions In theory, multiple emulsions have significant potential for breakthrough applications in food, agricultural, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic industries in which they can facilitate the sustained release and transport of active material. However, in practice, multiple emulsions are thermodynamically unstable. This book presents recent findings that can help formulators understand how to enhance their stability. With chapters contributed by leading experts from around the world, it covers the definition and properties of multiple emulsions, their formation and stability, and potential applications, with an emphasis on medical and pharmaceutical applications. In one definitive resource, it presents recent findings and achievements in the field, including: New theoretical approaches and modeling to characterize the transport mechanism Droplet size reduction and increased shelf life stability through the use of polymeric amphiphiles and complex adducts The use of new emulsification techniques to enhance the monodispersibility of the droplets Potential applications in drug delivery systems where clinical studies have proven their efficacy This is a core, hands-on reference for surface and colloid scientists, physical chemists, chemical engineers, soft materials scientists, food chemists, controlled release scientists, and pharmaceutical scientists in drug delivery applications, as well as for graduate students in these disciplines. The editor and contributors hope this logical consolidation of current information will further the understanding of multiple emulsions and lead to new, practical applications.

Emulsions, Microemulsions and Foams

Emulsions, Microemulsions and Foams
  • Author : Dominique Langevin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-12-21
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9783030556815
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Summary : This book takes an interface science approach to describe and understand the behavior of the dispersions we call emulsions, microemulsions and foams. The one thing all these dispersions have in common is the presence of surface-active species (surfactants) adsorbed at the interfaces between the two fluid phases that make up the emulsions, microemulsions or foams. The interfacial layers formed by the surfactants control most of the properties of the dispersions. The book describes the properties of interfacial layers, thin films and bulk fluids used in the elaboration of the various dispersions and it explains how such properties relate to the dispersion properties of these soft matter systems: structure, rheology and stability. These dispersion properties are far from being fully understood, in particular foam and emulsion stability. In discussing the state of the art of the current knowledge, the author draws interesting parallels between emulsions, microemulsions and foams that enlighten the interpretation of previous observations and point to a deeper understanding of the behavior of these materials in the future.

The Theory of Emulsions and Their Technical Treatment

The Theory of Emulsions and Their Technical Treatment
  • Author : William Clayton,Cyril Gordon Sumner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1954
  • Total pages :669
  • ISBN : UCAL:B4554148
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Summary :