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Entropy Principle for the Development of Complex Biotic Systems

Entropy Principle for the Development of Complex Biotic Systems
  • Author : Ichiro Aoki
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :107
  • ISBN : 0123914930
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Summary : The concept of entropy in thermodynamics is a complex one, though it is fundamental in understanding physics, the workings of the mind, and biology. Entropy is the measure of the quality of energy, and it can also refer to the turn from order to disorder or randomness in isolated systems. In open systems, such as biology, entropy is formulated in terms of production and energy flow. This book establishes a novel view of complex biological systems and the earth using this concept of entropy, encompassing the interdisciplinary area of biology, ecology and physics. This book considers the development over time of a range of biologically complex systems such as plants, animals, humans, and ecosystems, describing them in terms of the second law of thermodynamics, entropy. With its broad coverage of biological systems, this book will be useful for students of environmental science as well as students in biology and physics. Includes discussion of multiple complex systems including the earth and biological systems within it. Suitable for those with little physics background who wish to learn how the laws of physics apply to ecological systems. Clearly organized by system, making information easy to access.

The Sustainable City IX

The Sustainable City IX
  • Author : N. Marchettini,C.A. Brebbia,R. Pulselli,S. Bastianoni
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-09-23
  • Total pages :1766
  • ISBN : 184564820X
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Summary : Containing the proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Urban Regeneration and Sustainability this book addresses the multi-disciplinary aspects of urban planning; a result of the increasing size of cities; the amount of resources and services required and the complexity of modern society. Most of earth’s population now lives in cities and the process of urbanisation still continues generating many problems deriving from the drift of the population towards them. These problems can be resolved by cities becoming efficient habitats, saving resources in a way that improves the quality and standard of living. The process however, faces a number of major challenges, related to reducing pollution, improving main transportation and infrastructure systems. New urban solutions are required to optimise the use of space and energy resources leading to improvements in the environment, i.e. reduction in air, water and soil pollution as well as efficient ways to deal with waste generation. These challenges contribute to the development of social and economic imbalances and require the development of new solutions. Large cities are probably the most complex mechanisms to manage. However, despite such complexity they represent a fertile ground for architects, engineers, city planners, social and political scientists, and other professionals able to conceive new ideas and time them according to technological advances and human requirements. The challenge of planning sustainable cities lies in considering their dynamics, the exchange of energy and matter, and the function and maintenance of ordered structures directly or indirectly, supplied and maintained by natural systems. Topics covered include: Urban strategies; Planning, development and management; Urban conservation and regeneration; The community and the city; Eco-town planning; Landscape planning and design; Environmental management; Sustainable energy and the city; Transportation; Quality of life; Waterfront development; Case studies; Architectural issues; Cultural heritage issues; Intelligent environment and emerging technologies; Planning for risk; Disaster and emergency response; Safety and security; Waste management; Infrastructure and society; Urban metabolism.

Ecological Modeling

Ecological Modeling
  • Author : Hsiao-Hsuan Wang,W. E. Grant
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-14
  • Total pages :302
  • ISBN : 0444641645
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Summary : Ecological Modeling: An Introduction to the Art and Science of Modeling Ecological Systems, Volume 31, presents the skills needed to appropriately evaluate and use ecological models. Illustrated throughout with practical examples, the book discusses ecological modeling as both an art and a science, balancing the qualitative (artistic) side, with its foundations in common sense and modeling practice, against the quantitative (scientific) aspects of the modeling process. This book draws on the authors’ extensive experience in both teaching and using these techniques to provide readers with a practical, user-friendly guide that supports and encourages the appropriate, effective use of these tools. Provides readers with a commonsense understanding of the systems perspective and its foundations in general system theory Highlights the importance of a solid understanding of the qualitative aspects of the modeling process Facilitates the ability to appropriately evaluate and use ecological models Supports learning with a variety of simple examples to instill the desire and confidence to embark upon the modeling experience

Models of the Ecological Hierarchy

Models of the Ecological Hierarchy
  • Author : Ferenc Jordán,Sven Erik Jorgensen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :562
  • ISBN : 0444593969
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Summary : "Based on selected papers covering the presentations at the 7th European Conference on Ecological Modelling, organized by ISEM and hosted by The Microsoft Research--University of Trento Center for Computational and Systems Biology from 30 May to 2 June, 2011 in Riva del Garde, Italy"--P. xi.

Numerical Ecology

Numerical Ecology
  • Author : P. Legendre,Loic F J Legendre
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-07-21
  • Total pages :1006
  • ISBN : 0444538690
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Summary : The book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others. An updated, 3rd English edition of the most widely cited book on quantitative analysis of multivariate ecological data Relates ecological questions to methods of statistical analysis, with a clear description of complex numerical methods All methods are illustrated by examples from the ecological literature so that ecologists clearly see how to use the methods and approaches in their own research All calculations are available in R language functions

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Production of Entropy

Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Production of Entropy
  • Author : Axel Kleidon,Ralph D. Lorenz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-11-18
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9783540224952
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Summary : The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.

ArchæoZoologia

ArchæoZoologia
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary : Vols. for 1987- contain proceedings of the 5th- International Conferences of Archaeozoology.

Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Production of Entropy

Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Production of Entropy
  • Author : Axel Kleidon,Ralph D. Lorenz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-11-18
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9783540224952
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Summary : The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.

Evolution, Development and Complexity

Evolution, Development and Complexity
  • Author : Georgi Yordanov Georgiev,John M. Smart,Claudio L. Flores Martinez,Michael E. Price
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-25
  • Total pages :454
  • ISBN : 3030000753
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Summary : This book explores the universe and its subsystems from the three lenses of evolutionary (contingent), developmental (predictable), and complex (adaptive) processes at all scales. It draws from prolific experts within the academic disciplines of complexity science, physical science, information and computer science, theoretical and evo-devo biology, cosmology, astrobiology, evolutionary theory, developmental theory, and philosophy. The chapters come from a Satellite Meeting, "Evolution, Development and Complexity" (EDC) hosted at the Conference on Complex Systems, in Cancun, 2017. The contributions have been peer-reviewed and contributors from outside the conference were invited to submit chapters to ensure full coverage of the topics. This book explores many issues within the field of EDC such as the interaction of evolutionary stochasticity and developmental determinism in biological systems and what they might teach us about these twin processes in other complex systems. This text will appeal to students and researchers within the complex systems and EDC fields.

Entropy and Bioeconomics

Entropy and Bioeconomics
  • Author : European Association for Bioeconomic Studies. International Conference
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :552
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

A New Ecology

A New Ecology
  • Author : Soeren Nors Nielsen,Brian D. Fath,Simone Bastianoni,Joao C. Marques,Felix Muller,Bernard D. Patten,Robert E. Ulanowicz,Sven Erik Jørgensen,Enzo Tiezzi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-30
  • Total pages :270
  • ISBN : 0444637648
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Summary : A New Ecology: Systems Perspective, Second Edition, gives an overview of the commonalities of all ecosystems from a variety of properties, including physical openness, ontic openness, directionality, connectivity, a complex dynamic for growth and development, and a complex dynamic response to disturbances. Each chapter details basic and characteristic properties that help the reader understand how they can be applied to explain a wide spectrum of current ecological research and environmental management applications. Contains revised, updated or redeveloped chapters that include the most current research and technology Reviews universal traits of ecosystems from multiple perspectives, giving the reader a complete overview of the systems perspective of ecology Offers broad examples of ecology as a systems science, from the history of science, to philosophy and the arts Brings together the systems perspective in a framework of four columns for greater understanding, including thermodynamics, network theory, hierarchy theory and biochemistry Contains new chapter on the application of the theory to environmental management

Towards a Thermodynamic Theory for Ecological Systems

Towards a Thermodynamic Theory for Ecological Systems
  • Author : S.E. Jorgensen,Y.M. Svirezhev,I︠U︡. M. Svirezhev,Yuri M. Svirezhev
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-07-20
  • Total pages :366
  • ISBN : 9780080441672
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Summary : The book presents a consistent and complete ecosystem theory based on thermodynamic concepts. The first chapters are devoted to an interpretation of the first and second law of thermodynamics in ecosystem context. Then Prigogine's use of far from equilibrium thermodynamic is used on ecosystems to explain their reactions to perturbations. The introduction of the concept exergy makes it possible to give a more profound and comprehensive explanation of the ecosystem's reactions and growth-patterns. A tentative fourth law of thermodynamic is formulated and applied to facilitate these explanations. The trophic chain, the global energy and radiation balance and pattern and the reactions of ecological networks are all explained by the use of exergy. Finally, it is discussed how the presented theory can be applied more widely to explain ecological observations and rules, to assess ecosystem health and to develop ecological models.

Global & Regional Ecological Problems

Global & Regional Ecological Problems
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :555
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

Indian Journal of Power and River Valley Development

Indian Journal of Power and River Valley Development
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1987
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

Beyond the Second Law

Beyond the Second Law
  • Author : Roderick C. Dewar,Charles H. Lineweaver,Robert K. Niven,Klaus Regenauer-Lieb
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-02
  • Total pages :434
  • ISBN : 3642401546
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Summary : The Second Law, a cornerstone of thermodynamics, governs the average direction of dissipative, non-equilibrium processes. But it says nothing about their actual rates or the probability of fluctuations about the average. This interdisciplinary book, written and peer-reviewed by international experts, presents recent advances in the search for new non-equilibrium principles beyond the Second Law, and their applications to a wide range of systems across physics, chemistry and biology. Beyond The Second Law brings together traditionally isolated areas of non-equilibrium research and highlights potentially fruitful connections between them, with entropy production playing the unifying role. Key theoretical concepts include the Maximum Entropy Production principle, the Fluctuation Theorem, and the Maximum Entropy method of statistical inference. Applications of these principles are illustrated in such diverse fields as climatology, cosmology, crystal growth morphology, Earth system science, environmental physics, evolutionary biology and technology, fluid turbulence, microbial biogeochemistry, plasma physics, and radiative transport, using a wide variety of analytical and experimental techniques. Beyond The Second Law will appeal to students and researchers wishing to gain an understanding of entropy production and its central place in the science of non-equilibrium systems – both in detail and in terms of the bigger picture.

Chemica Scripta

Chemica Scripta
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1979
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology

Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology
  • Author : Almo Farina
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-01-22
  • Total pages :412
  • ISBN : 1402055358
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Summary : Landscape ecology is an integrative and multi-disciplinary science and Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology reconciles the geological, botanical, zoological and human perspectives. In particular ,new paradigms and theories such as percolation, metapopulation, hierarchies, source-sink models have been integrated in this last edition with the recent theories on bio-complexity, information and cognitive sciences. Methods for studying landscape ecology are covered including spatial geometry models and remote sensing in order to create confidence toward techniques and approaches that require a high experience and long-time dedication. Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology is a textbook useful to present the landscape in a multi-vision perspective for undergraduate and graduate students of biology, ecology, geography, forestry, agronomy, landscape architecture and planning. Sociology, economics, history, archaeology, anthropology, ecological psychology are some sciences that can benefit of the holistic vision offered by this texbook.

The Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

The Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change
  • Author : David E. Reichle
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-12
  • Total pages :388
  • ISBN : 0128217677
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Summary : The Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change examines the global carbon cycle and the energy balance of the biosphere, following carbon and energy through increasingly complex levels of metabolism from cells to ecosystems. Utilizing scientific explanations, analyses of ecosystem functions, extensive references, and cutting-edge examples of energy flow in ecosystems, it is an essential resource to aid in understanding the scientific basis of the role played by ecological systems in climate change. This book addresses the need to understand the global carbon cycle and the interrelationships among the disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics in a holistic perspective. The Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change is a compendium of easily accessible, technical information that provides a clear understanding of energy flow, ecosystem dynamics, the biosphere, and climate change. "Dr. Reichle brings over four decades of research on the structure and function of forest ecosystems to bear on the existential issue of our time, climate change. Using a comprehensive review of carbon biogeochemistry as scaled from the physiology of organisms to landscape processes, his analysis provides an integrated discussion of how diverse processes at varying time and spatial scales function. The work speaks to several audiences. Too often students study their courses in a vacuum without necessarily understanding the relationships that transcend from the cellular process, to organism, to biosphere levels and exist in a dynamic atmosphere with its own processes, and spatial dimensions. This book provides the template whereupon students can be guided to see how the pieces fit together. The book is self-contained but lends itself to be amplified upon by a student or professor. The same intellectual quest would also apply for the lay reader who seeks a broad understanding." --W.F. Harris| Deputy Assistant Director, Biological Sciences, National Science Foundation (Retired); Associate Vice Chancellor for Research, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (Retired) Provides clear explanations, examples, and data for understanding fossil fuel emissions affecting atmospheric CO2 levels and climate change, and the role played by ecosystems in the global cycle of energy and carbon Presents a comprehensive, factually based synthesis of the global cycle of carbon in the biosphere and the underlying scientific bases Includes clear illustrations of environmental processes

Complex Ecology

Complex Ecology
  • Author : Bernard C. Patten,Sven Erik Jørgensen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995
  • Total pages :705
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary : For systems ecologists, modelers, environmental engineers, and theoretical ecologists who are interested in mathematics applied to ecology. An advanced and up-to-date treatment of ecological complexity, emphasizing the need for holistic systems approaches. The book provides a compendium of technically oriented systems approaches to complexity at all levels of ecological organization, presenting microscopic and macroscopic views, descriptions of modeling approaches, feedback and stability, and network approaches to trophic dynamics and optimality issues.

Principles of Systems Science

Principles of Systems Science
  • Author : George E. Mobus,Michael C. Kalton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-10
  • Total pages :755
  • ISBN : 1493919202
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Summary : This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. While the concepts and components of systems science will continue to be distributed throughout the various disciplines, undergraduate degree programs in systems science are also being developed, including at the authors’ own institutions. However, the subject is approached, systems science as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated perspective on the comprehensive nature of systems. It ends with practical aspects such as systems analysis, computer modeling, and systems engineering that demonstrate how the knowledge of systems can be used to solve problems in the real world. Each chapter is broken into parts beginning with qualitative descriptions that stand alone for students who have taken intermediate algebra. The second part presents quantitative descriptions that are based on pre-calculus and advanced algebra, providing a more formal treatment for students who have the necessary mathematical background. Numerous examples of systems from every realm of life, including the physical and biological sciences, humanities, social sciences, engineering, pre-med and pre-law, are based on the fundamental systems concepts of boundaries, components as subsystems, processes as flows of materials, energy, and messages, work accomplished, functions performed, hierarchical structures, and more. Understanding these basics enables further understanding both of how systems endure and how they may become increasingly complex and exhibit new properties or characteristics. Serves as a textbook for teaching systems fundamentals in any discipline or for use in an introductory course in systems science degree programs Addresses a wide range of audiences with different levels of mathematical sophistication Includes open-ended questions in special boxes intended to stimulate integrated thinking and class discussion Describes numerous examples of systems in science and society Captures the trend towards interdisciplinary research and problem solving