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Environmental Factors in Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Environmental Factors in Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Author : Michael Aschner,Lucio G. Costa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-18
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128004074
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Summary : Environmental Factors in Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders presents a state-of-the-art review of the effects of environmental contaminants on the development and degeneration of the human nervous system, brought together by world-leading experts in the field. Part One describes the adverse effects that the environment can have on neurological development, and how these effects may exhibit. Specific contaminants and their possible consequences of exposure are addressed (lead, methylmercury, alcohol), as well as specific disorders and the environmental factors associated with them, such as the effect of diet on attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. Part Two tackles neurodegenerative disorders, specifically addressing their potential neurotoxic origins, and discussing the increasing interest in the effects that early exposure may have in later life. Environmental Factors in Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders is an invaluable reference for those professionals working in the fields of toxicology, environmental health and neuroscience. Provides, for the first time, the cutting-edge theory of environmental impacts on both neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders Written by an international selection of the world’s foremost experts in the field of neurotoxicology Full-colour throughout, providing accurate and illustrative examples of neurotoxic effects in action An invaluable reference for those professionals working in the fields of toxicology, environmental health, and neuroscience

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Author : Shamim I. Ahmad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-03-12
  • Total pages :390
  • ISBN : 9781461406532
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Summary : The editor of this volume, having research interests in the field of ROS production and the damage to cellular systems, has identified a number of enzymes showing ·OH scavenging activities details of which are anticipated to be published in the near future as confirmatory experiments are awaited. It is hoped that the information presented in this book on NDs will stimulate both expert and novice researchers in the field with excellent overviews of the current status of research and pointers to future research goals. Clinicians, nurses as well as families and caregivers should also benefit from the material presented in handling and treating their specialised cases. Also the insights gained should be valuable for further understanding of the diseases at molecular levels and should lead to development of new biomarkers, novel diagnostic tools and more effective therapeutic drugs to treat the clinical problems raised by these devastating diseases.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Health Perspectives
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UIUC:30112043768339
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Summary :

Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders

Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Nervous System Disorders in Developing Countries
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-01-01
  • Total pages :458
  • ISBN : 0309170931
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Summary : Brain disordersâ€"neurological, psychiatric, and developmentalâ€"now affect at least 250 million people in the developing world, and this number is expected to rise as life expectancy increases. Yet public and private health systems in developing countries have paid relatively little attention to brain disorders. The negative attitudes, prejudice, and stigma that often surround many of these disorders have contributed to this neglect. Lacking proper diagnosis and treatment, millions of individual lives are lost to disability and death. Such conditions exact both personal and economic costs on families, communities, and nations. The report describes the causes and risk factors associated with brain disorders. It focuses on six representative brain disorders that are prevalent in developing countries: developmental disabilities, epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and stroke. The report makes detailed recommendations of ways to reduce the toll exacted by these six disorders. In broader strokes, the report also proposes six major strategies toward reducing the overall burden of brain disorders in the developing world.

Genomics, Circuits, and Pathways in Clinical Neuropsychiatry

Genomics, Circuits, and Pathways in Clinical Neuropsychiatry
  • Author : Thomas Lehner,Bruce L. Miller,Matthew W. State
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-07
  • Total pages :796
  • ISBN : 9780128005309
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Summary : This foundational work comprehensively examines the current state of the genetics, genomics and brain circuitry of psychiatric and neurological disorders. It consolidates discoveries of specific genes and genomic regions associated with these conditions, the genetic and anatomic architecture of these syndromes, and addresses how recent advances in genomics are leading to a reappraisal of the biology underlying clinical neuroscience. In doing so, it critically examines the promise and limitations of these discoveries toward treatment, and to the interdisciplinary nature of understanding brain and behavior. Coverage includes new discoveries regarding autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability, dementias, movement disorders, language impairment, disorders of attention, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Genomics, Circuits, and Pathways in Clinical Neuropsychiatry focuses on key concepts, challenges, findings, and methods in genetics, genomics, molecular pathways, brain circuitry, and related neurobiology of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Provides interdisciplinary appeal in psychiatry, neurology, neuroscience, and genetics Identifies key concepts, methods, and findings Includes coverage of multiple disorders from autism to schizophrenia Reviews specific genes associated with disorders Discusses the genetic architecture of these syndromes Explains how recent findings are influencing the understanding of biology Clarifies the promise of these findings for future treatment

EPA's 2008 Report on the Environment

EPA's 2008 Report on the Environment
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :366
  • ISBN : UCR:31210024788141
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Summary : [The report]... provides the American people with an important resource from which they can better understand trends in the condition of the air, water, land, and human health of the United States. This report uses scientifically sound measures, called indicators, to address fundamental questions relevant to the EPA's mission to protect the environment and human health. To accomplish its mission to protect human health and the environment, EPA must pay close attention to trends in the condition of the Nation's environment. This kind of information, which is captured in EPA's 2008 ROE, can help EPA to prioritize its work and to focus on human health and ecological activities that can lead to improvements in the conditions of the Nation's environment.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Author : Michael Fitzgerald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-02
  • Total pages :378
  • ISBN : 9789535120377
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Summary : This book starts with a new sub category of Autism Criminal Autistic Psychopathy and school shootings. It focuses on a number of interventions, including speech and language pathology, speech and language assessment instruments, occupational therapy, improving functional language development in autism with natural gestures, communication boards etc as well as helping people with autism using the pictorial support, training of concepts of significant others, theory of mind, social concepts and a conceptual model for empowering families of children with autism cross culturally. It also examines the issue of hyperandrogenism and evidence-based treatments of autism. In terms of assessment, it focuses on psychological and biological assessment including neurotransmitters systems, structural and functional brain imaging, coping strategies of parents, examines the intertwining of language impairment, specific language impairment and ASD, as well as implicit and spontaneous Theory of Mind reading in ASD. In terms of aetiology, it focuses on genetic factors, epigenetics, synaptic vesicles, toxicity during neurodevelopment, immune system and sex differences. It also examines the link between social cognitive anatomical and neurophysiologic biomarkers and candidate genes. This book will be relevant to all mental health professionals because autism occurs in all the different areas of psychiatry and professionals who will find it helpful will be psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses, teachers and all those working with persons with Autism including parents who nowadays are interested in knowing more and more, at a detailed level about their children or adults with autism.

Neurodevelopment and Schizophrenia

Neurodevelopment and Schizophrenia
  • Author : Matcheri S. Keshavan,James L. Kennedy,Robin M. Murray
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-11-18
  • Total pages :488
  • ISBN : 0521823315
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Summary : This volume explores the link between basic science and clinical insights in the field of schizophrenia research.

From Neurons to Neighborhoods

From Neurons to Neighborhoods
  • Author : Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-11-13
  • Total pages :612
  • ISBN : 9780309069885
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Summary : How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media. How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues. The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurodevelopmental Disorders
  • Author : Bin Chen,Kenneth Y. Kwan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-24
  • Total pages :426
  • ISBN : 9780128144107
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Summary : Neurodevelopmental Disorders, the latest release in the Comprehensive Developmental Neuroscience series, presents the most thorough coverage available, addressing all aspects on how the nervous system and its components develop. This book brings together the latest research in this rapidly evolving field, with section editors discussing the technological advances that are enabling the pursuit of new research on brain development. This volume focuses on neurodevelopmental disorders in humans and experimental organisms. Particular attention is paid to the effects of abnormal development and on new psychiatric/neurological treatments being developed based on our increased understanding of developmental mechanisms. Features leading experts in various subfields as section editors and article authors Presents articles that have been peer reviewed to ensure accuracy, thoroughness and scholarship Covers disorders of the nervous system that arise through defects in neural development

Neuroprotection in Autism, Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease

Neuroprotection in Autism, Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease
  • Author : Illana Gozes,Joseph Levine
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-16
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780128140383
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Summary : Neuroprotection in Autism, Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's Disease provides an up-to-date overview on recent clinical studies and the similarities discovered in the most prevalent brain disorders. The book's content will help shed light on basic mechanisms and provide new avenues for early diagnosis toward disease prevention and disease modification. It is written for researchers, clinicians and medical physicians in neuroscience, neurology and psychiatry. Sections discuss the shared pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie autism, schizophrenia/mood disorders and Alzheimer’s disease, i.e. neurodevelopmental disorders, neuropsychiatric diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Offers an up-to-date overview of basic and clinical studies concerning similarities in the most prevalent brain disorders Helps the reader become familiar with novel neuroprotective mechanisms and experimental treatment modalities in these difficult to treat disorders Written for researchers, clinicians and medical physicians in neuroscience, neurology and psychiatry

Neurological Disorders

Neurological Disorders
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :218
  • ISBN : 9789241563369
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Summary : Although there are several gaps in understanding the many issues related to neurological disorders, we know enough to be able to shape effective policy responses to some of the most common. This book describes and discusses the increasing public health impact of common neurological disorders such as dementia, epilepsy, headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, neuroinfections, neurological disorders associated with malnutrition, pain associated with neurological disorders, Parkinson's disease, stroke and traumatic brain injuries. It provides information and advice on public health interventions that may reduce their occurrence and consequences, and offers health professionals and planners the opportunity to assess the burden caused by these disorders. The clear message that emerges is that unless immediate action is taken globally, the neurological burden is likely to become an increasingly serious and unmanageable.

Congenital Heart Disease and Neurodevelopment

Congenital Heart Disease and Neurodevelopment
  • Author : Christopher McCusker,Frank Casey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-03
  • Total pages :214
  • ISBN : 9780128017920
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Summary : Congenital Heart Disease and Neurodevelopment: Understanding and Improving Outcomes brings together the work of leading researchers from the U.K., Europe, and the U.S. to provide a comprehensive examination of the causes, risks, and neurodevelopmental and psychological outcomes in children with congenital heart disease. The book includes longitudinal studies which have tracked outcomes from birth through late childhood and explores the emergent phenotype and etiologies, risk, and protective factors that strengthen proposed models. Medical and surgical advances have meant that greater numbers of children with even the most severe congenital heart disease (CHD) now survive well into adulthood. Studies over the past 20 years have suggested certain neurodevelopmental and psychological features are common, with clinical interventions being internationally articulated. The U.K. Belfast Center has developed and evaluated unique early intervention programs to circumvent the common problems discerned and promote optimal adjustment and outcomes. The first edition of Congenital Heart Disease and Neurodevelopment: Understanding and Improving Outcomes describes these programs in detail and outlines promising results obtained by researchers worldwide. Such interventions, together with the U.S. consensus statement (Circulation, 2012) on neurodevelopmental screening, hold great promise for clinical interventions. Features input from leading research experts in the field Describes cutting-edge research on longitudinal studies that link neurodevelopmental phenotypes with cutting-edge neuroimaging studies Discusses the first series of early intervention studies developed in Belfast targeted at key developmental transitions—birth and diagnosis, early childhood, and adolescence Includes clinical implications and action points in each section Features generalizable potential of interventions across other pediatric populations

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Author : Daniela Galimberti,Elio Scarpini
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-23
  • Total pages :253
  • ISBN : 9781447163800
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Summary : This book gives an overview of the current knowledge on the most common neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and additional neurodegenerative diseases. Different aspects of each disease are reviewed, including clinical issues, treatments, basic discoveries (genetics and molecular biology), and translation of basic research into biomarkers for early diagnosis. In addition, emerging data indicate that neurodegeneration seems to also be present in classically non-degenerative disorders. Therefore, a chapter about overlapping mechanisms between dementias and psychiatric disorders is included, as well as a description of the role of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. Neurodegenerative Diseases is aimed at clinicians, particularly those working in academic hospitals. This multidisciplinary book will also be of interest to basic researchers in medical fields.

Handbook of Research on Critical Examinations of Neurodegenerative Disorders

Handbook of Research on Critical Examinations of Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Author : Uddin, Md. Sahab,Amran, Md. Shah
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-31
  • Total pages :597
  • ISBN : 9781522552833
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Summary : Neurodegeneration is a key feature of several diseases that are referred to as neurodegenerative diseases. The process of neurodegeneration is not well-understood so the diseases that stem from it have, as yet, no cures. As such, studying the effects of these disorders can provide insight into the treatment, prevention, and future opportunities and challenges in this growing field. The Handbook of Research on Critical Examinations of Neurodegenerative Disorders is a critical scholarly resource that provides an extensive explanation of various neurodegenerative disorders based on existing studies to clarify etiology, pathological mechanisms, diagnosis, therapeutic interventions, as well as current status and future opportunities and challenges. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as dementia, mitochondrial dysfunction, and risk factors, this book is geared towards neurobiologists, neuropsychologists, neurophysiologists, neuropathologists, medical professionals, academicians, and researchers seeking research on the complexity of neurodegenerative disorders.

Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Author : Marie-Francoise Chesselet
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-10-19
  • Total pages :410
  • ISBN : 9781592590063
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Summary : With the unprecedented identification of new mutation mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases and the emergence of common mechanisms among diseases that were once considered unrelated, neurobiologists are poised for the development of new therapies based on high throughput screenings and a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration. In Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, MD, PhD, and a panel of leading researchers and neurologists from industry and academia critically review the most recent advances from different yet complementary points of view. Focusing on Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and CAG triplet repeat diseases, the authors show how studies of cellular and genetically engineered animal models have enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and may lead to the development of new therapeutics. Topics include the role of Ab toxicity, glial cells, and inflammation in Alzheimer's disease; the formation of abnormal protein fragments across several diseases, the impact of dopamine and mitochondrial dysfunction on neurodegeneration; and the potential of genetics to identify the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Authoritative and insightful, Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases synthesizes the novel ideas and concepts now emerging to create a fresh understanding of neurodegenerative disorders, one that promises to lead to powerful new therapies that prevent, delay the onset, slow the progression, or even cure these cruel diseases.

Neurotechnology and Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurotechnology and Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders
  • Author : Lindsay M. Oberman,Peter G. Enticott
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-27
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : 9780128127780
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Summary : Neurotechnology and Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders provides a comprehensive overview of neurotechnological devices as potential treatments for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. Many neuropsychiatric disorders are covered such as Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, Depression, Tourette’s Syndrome, and OCD. Different device-based treatments are discussed such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Deep Brain Stimulation, Chronotherapy, and Neurofeedback. Provides an overview of neuromodulatory devices as potential treatments for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents Gives evidence-based recommendations for non-drug interventions that may be effective for treatment options Discusses different neuromodulatory treatment options, including TMS, tDCS, DBS, chronotherapy and neurofeedback

Child Neuropsychology

Child Neuropsychology
  • Author : Margaret Semrud-Clikeman,Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-06-15
  • Total pages :487
  • ISBN : 0387889639
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Summary : During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, resulting in a considerable impact on conceptualization, diagnostics, and practice. The second edition of Child Neuropsychology: Assessment and Interventions for Neurodevelopmental Disorders brings readers up to speed clearly and authoritatively, offering the latest information on neuroimaging technologies, individual disorders, and effective treatment of children and adolescents. Starting with the basics of clinical child neuropsychology and functional anatomy, the authors present a transactional framework for assessment, diagnosis, and intervention. The book carefully links structure and function—and behavioral and biological science—for a more nuanced understanding of brain development and of pathologies as varied as pervasive developmental disorders, learning disabilities, neuromotor dysfunction, seizure disorders, and childhood cancers. This volume features a range of salient features valuable to students as well as novice and seasoned practitioners alike, including: Overview chapters that discuss the effects of biogenic and environmental factors on neurological functioning. New emphasis on multicultural/cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychology and assessment. Brand new chapters on interpretation, neuropsychological assessment process, and report writing. An integrative model of neurological, neuroradiological, and psychological assessment and diagnosis. Balanced coverage of behavioral, pharmacological, and educational approaches to treatment. Case studies illustrating typical and distinctive presentations and successful diagnosis, treatment planning, and intervention. Important practice updates, including the new HIPAA regulations. Child Neuropsychology, 2nd Edition, is vital reading for school, clinical child, and counseling psychologists as well as neuropsychologists. The book also provides rich background and practical material for graduate students entering these fields.

The DNA, RNA, and Histone Methylomes

The DNA, RNA, and Histone Methylomes
  • Author : Stefan Jurga,Jan Barciszewski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-28
  • Total pages :624
  • ISBN : 9783030147921
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Summary : This book reviews the chemical, regulatory, and physiological mechanisms of protein arginine and lysine methyltransferases, as well as nucleic acid methylations and methylating enzymes. Protein and nucleic acid methylation play key and diverse roles in cellular signalling and regulating macromolecular cell functions. Protein arginine and lysine methyltransferases are the predominant enzymes that catalyse S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methylation of protein substrates. These enzymes catalyse a nucleophilic substitution of a methyl group to an arginine or lysine side chain nitrogen (N) atom. Cells also have additional protein methyltransferases, which target other amino acids in peptidyl side chains or N-termini and C-termini, such as glutamate, glutamine, and histidine. All these protein methyltransferases use a similar mechanism. In contrast, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are substrates for methylating enzymes, which employ various chemical mechanisms to methylate nucleosides at nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and carbon (C) atoms. This book illustrates how, thanks to there ability to expand their repertoire of functions to the modified substrates, protein and nucleic acid methylation processes play a key role in cells.

Rosenberg's Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disease

Rosenberg's Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disease
  • Author : Roger N. Rosenberg,Juan M. Pascual
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-28
  • Total pages :1464
  • ISBN : 9780124105492
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Summary : Rosenberg’s Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease, Fifth Edition provides a comprehensive introduction and reference to the foundations and key practical aspects relevant to the majority of neurologic and psychiatric disease. A favorite of over three generations of students, clinicians and scholars, this new edition retains and expands the informative, concise and critical tone of the first edition. This is an essential reference for general medical practitioners, neurologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, and related professionals, and for the neuroscience and neurology research community. The content covers all aspects essential to the practice of neurogenetics to inform clinical diagnosis, treatment and genetic counseling. Every chapter has been thoroughly revised or newly commissioned to reflect the latest scientific and medical advances by an international team of leading scientists and clinicians. The contents have been expanded to include disorders for which a genetic basis has been recently identified, together with abundant original illustrations that convey and clarify the key points of the text in an attractive, didactic format. Previous editions have established this book as the leading tutorial reference on neurogenetics. Researchers will find great value in the coverage of genomics, animal models and diagnostic methods along with a better understanding of the clinical implications. Clinicians will rely on the coverage of the basic science of neurogenetics and the methods for evaluating patients with biochemical abnormalities or gene mutations, including links to genetic testing for specific diseases. Comprehensive coverage of the neurogenetic foundation of neurological and psychiatric disease Detailed introduction to both clinical and basic research implications of molecular and genetic understanding of the brain Detailed coverage of genomics, animal models and diagnostic methods with new coverage of evaluating patients with biochemical abnormalities or gene mutations

Environmental Neuroscience

Environmental Neuroscience
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-01-22
  • Total pages :86
  • ISBN : 9780309683098
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Summary : Humans are potentially exposed to more than 80,000 toxic chemicals in the environment, yet their impacts on brain health and disease are not well understood. The sheer number of these chemicals has overwhelmed the ability to determine their individual toxicity, much less potential interactive effects. Early life exposures to chemicals can have permanent consequences for neurodevelopment and for neurodegeneration in later life. Toxic effects resulting from chemical exposure can interact with other risk factors such as prenatal stress, and persistence of some chemicals in the brain over time may result in cumulative toxicity. Because neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders - such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease - cannot be fully explained by genetic risk factors alone, understanding the role of individual environmental chemical exposures is critical. On June 25, 2020, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a workshop to lay the foundation for future advances in environmental neuroscience. The workshop was designed to explore new opportunities to bridge the gap between what is known about the genetic contribution to brain disorders and what is known, and not known, about the contribution of environmental influences, as well as to discuss what is known about how genetic and environmental factors interact. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.