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Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)

Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)
  • Author : Burcu Özcan,Ilhan Öztürk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-13
  • Total pages :162
  • ISBN : 9780128167960
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Summary : Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC): A Manual provides a comprehensive summary of the EKC, summarizing work on this economic tool that can analyze environmental pollution problems. By enabling users to reconcile environmental and economic development policies, Environmental Kuznets Curve studies lend themselves to the investigation of the energy-growth and finance-energy nexus. The book obviates a dependence on outmoded tools, such as carrying capacity, externalities, ecosystem valuation and cost benefit analysis, while also encouraging flexible approaches to a variety of challenges. Provides a comprehensive summary of EKC studies, including advances in econometrics, literature reviews and historical perspectives Outlines solutions to common problems in applying EKC techniques by reviewing major case studies Explores frequently-utilized proxies for environmental quality

Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)

Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)
  • Author : Burcu Ozcan,Ilhan Ozturk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-15
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9780128167977
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Summary : Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC): A Manual provides a comprehensive summary of the EKC, summarizing work on this economic tool that can analyze environmental pollution problems. By enabling users to reconcile environmental and economic development policies, Environmental Kuznets Curve studies lend themselves to the investigation of the energy-growth and finance-energy nexus. The book obviates a dependence on outmoded tools, such as carrying capacity, externalities, ecosystem valuation and cost benefit analysis, while also encouraging flexible approaches to a variety of challenges. Provides a comprehensive summary of EKC studies, including advances in econometrics, literature reviews and historical perspectives Outlines solutions to common problems in applying EKC techniques by reviewing major case studies Explores frequently-utilized proxies for environmental quality

Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis and Carbon Dioxide Emissions
  • Author : Katsuhisa Uchiyama
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-13
  • Total pages :63
  • ISBN : 9784431559214
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Summary : This book investigates the relationship between environmental degradation and income, focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from around the world, to explore the possibility of sustainable development under global warming. Although many researchers have tackled this problem by estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), unlike the approach to sulfur dioxide emissions, there seems to be little consensus about whether EKC is formed with regard to CO2 emissions. Thus, EKC is one of the most controversial issues in the field of environmental economics. This book contributes three points with academic rigor. First, an unbalanced panel dataset containing over 150 countries with the latest CO2 emission data between 1960 and 2010 is constructed. Second, based on this dataset, the CO2 emission–income relationship is analyzed using strict econometric methods such as the dynamic panel model. Third, as it is often pointed out that some factors other than income affect CO2 emission, several variables were added to the estimation model to examine the effects of changes of industrial structure, energy composition, and overseas trade on CO2 emission.

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)
  • Author : Genan Sana Itani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :152
  • ISBN : UCAL:X62127
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Summary :

The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainability: A Panel Data Analysis

The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainability: A Panel Data Analysis
  • Author : Anissa Chaibi,Sana Mrizak,Christophe Rault
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :20
  • ISBN : OCLC:879424290
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Summary :

An Empirical Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) Hypothesis for the Ecological Footprint

An Empirical Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) Hypothesis for the Ecological Footprint
  • Author : Moonsun Youn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1134646279
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Summary :

Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Canada

Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Canada
  • Author : Da-Hae Chong
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :88
  • ISBN : OCLC:897843052
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Summary : The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates an inverted U-shaped relationship between measures of environmental degradation and per capita income. This paper empirically tests the validity of the EKC hypothesis in Canada for per capita emissions of green house gases (GHG), CO2, NOX, SOX, CO, and total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. The regression equations estimated are quadratic and cubic functions of per capita GDP. The type of data used are provincial and territorial level cross-sectional panel data and country level time-series data. The study finds that per capita emissions of GHG and CO exhibit inverted-U relationships with per capita GDP. In contrast, per capita SOX and TPM emissions follow a U-shape curve, In addition, per capita CO2 emissions may follow either an inverted U or an N shape curve. Furthermore, this study finds insufficient empirical evidence of an EKC for per capita NOX emissions.

Environmental Sustainability

Environmental Sustainability
  • Author : Raghbendra Jha,K.V. Bhanu Murthy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-09-27
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9781134227334
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Summary : With globalization fast becoming an irreversible process, it is necessary to pay increased attention to the implications for environmental sustainability. However, the so-called environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) argument implies that rapid economic growth in many developing countries should be environmentally unsustainable. Environmental Sustainability addresses this dichotomy and articulates a notion of consumption sustainability that is both universal and pertains to the indefinite future. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance of addressing a broad spectrum of sources of environmental degradation and relates this measure to an index of economic achievement more complete than per capita income. As well as the EKC, authors Jha and Murthy also critique the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) and empirically substantiate the proposition that a certain type of development in the presently high-income countries is primarily responsible for global environmental degradation. Several policy conclusions for global environmental management are also advanced. Throughout, Jha and Murthy comprehensively evaluate existing approaches to environmental sustainability and critically review empirical studies of environmental degradation, and economic development, making this an invaluable source of information for those concerned with environmental economics and political economy.

Natural Resources and Economic Development

Natural Resources and Economic Development
  • Author : Edward B. Barbier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-19
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9781107179264
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Summary : The second edition of this landmark book explores how natural resources contribute to development in poor economies.

Economic Growth and Environmental Quality

Economic Growth and Environmental Quality
  • Author : Nemat Shafik,Sushenjit Bandyopadhyay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992
  • Total pages :50
  • ISBN : 1230987654XX
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Summary :

Empirical Tests and Policy Analysis of Environmental Degradation at Different Stages of Economic Development

Empirical Tests and Policy Analysis of Environmental Degradation at Different Stages of Economic Development
  • Author : Todor Panaĭotov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :27
  • ISBN : 9221087964
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Summary :

Green Cities

Green Cities
  • Author : Matthew E. Kahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-04-01
  • Total pages :160
  • ISBN : 9780815748144
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Summary : What is a green city? What does it mean to say that San Francisco or Vancouver is more "green" than Houston or Beijing? When does urban growth lower environmental quality, and when does it yield environmental gains? How can cities deal with the environmental challenges posed by growth? These are the questions Matthew Kahn takes on in this smart and engaging book. Written in a lively, accessible style, Green Cities takes the reader on a tour of the extensive economic literature on the environmental consequences of urban growth. Kahn starts with an exploration of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)—the hypothesis that the relationship between environmental quality and per capita income follows a bell-shaped curve. He then analyzes several critiques of the EKC and discusses the implications of growth in urban population and surface area, as well as income. The concluding chapter addresses the role of cities in promoting climate change and asks how cities in turn are likely to be affected by this trend. As Kahn points out, although economics is known as the "dismal science," economists are often quite optimistic about the relationship between urban development and the environment. In contrast, many ecologists and environmentalists remain wary of the environmental consequences of free-market growth. Rather than try to settle this dispute, this book conveys the excitement of an ongoing debate. Green Cities does not provide easy answers complex dilemmas. It does something more important—it provides the tools readers need to analyze these issues on their own.

Non-homothetic Growth Models for the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Non-homothetic Growth Models for the Environmental Kuznets Curve
  • Author : Katsuyuki Schibayama,Iain M. Fraser
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:839749940
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Summary : In this paper, we study the impact of the economic growth on the environment. First, we show that, at each income level, n determines the direction of environmental degradation, where n is the elasticity of substitution between consumption and the environment. That is, for n large enough, as income increases people accept environmental degradation by enjoying more consumption as compensation, and vice versa. Intuitively, there are two effects operating; the income effect encourages the demand for better environmental quality simply because the environment is a normal good, whereas the substitution effect discourages it because maintaining the environment becomes more expensive as technology improvement increases the production of the general consumption good per unit of emission. The strength of the substitution effect is governed by n. Hence, the impact of economic growth on the environment crucially depends on n. Second, we demonstrate that exponential utility generates the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) under a wide class of models without adding any other peculiar assumptions. Under exponential utility, n is decreasing in income; intuitively, when a country is poor (large n), people seek more consumption at the cost of environmental degradation, but, once it becomes rich enough (small n), they seek increased environmental quality. -- Environmental Kuznets Curve ; Economic Growth ; Non-Homothetic Preferences ; Generalized Isoelastic Preferences.

Cross-Border Resource Management

Cross-Border Resource Management
  • Author : Rongxing Guo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-07-25
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 008046081X
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Summary : This essay is about the management of natural and environmental resources in cross-border areas. It explores a group of geographical, political, legal, economic and cultural factors that arise when political units (such as sovereign countries, dependent states and other administrative units) seek to utilize natural and environmental resources efficiently and equitably while minimizing the resultant damages (for example, prevention of resource degradation and preservation of the physical environment). * Examines various types of cross-border areas at both international and sub-national levels throughout the world as well as their geographical, political, economic and cultural influences on the cross-border resource management * Uses the latest international and area data, resulting in new findings for cross-border environmental activities * Contains a large number of case studies throughout the world including four in-depth case studies of cross-border resource management

Environmental Kuznet Curve Hypothesis Revisited

Environmental Kuznet Curve Hypothesis Revisited
  • Author : Lan Xu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :362
  • ISBN : MINN:31951P00831635T
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Summary :

Revisiting the Environmental Kuznet's Curve in the Presence of Trade

Revisiting the Environmental Kuznet's Curve in the Presence of Trade
  • Author : Biva Arani Mallik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018
  • Total pages :119
  • ISBN : OCLC:1135021712
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Summary : In my research I have investigated the impact of trade on the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). I investigate the impact on the level and curvature of the EKC by varying the degree of export and import. In my first paper, I have revisited the Andreoni and Levinson (2001) model in the presence of trade. In their original work, they conclude that the desired relationship between pollution and income can be traced only when there exists increasing returns to abatement technology. I have built upon the model by introducing trade and heterogeneity in abatement technology. I conclude when pollution sources from production and countries engage in trade, increasing returns to abatement technology no longer remains a necessary condition for a country to experience the EKC. When countries experience CRS or DRS, engaging in trade with countries with IRS enables them to attain the EKC. This however is possible only in the case of transboundary pollutants. For my second paper, I look at the impact of trade on the multi-country framework of EKC developed by Diamantoudi and Filippiadis (2010). Introducing trade shows that pollution dependence among countries can exist even when the nature of pollutants is local in addition to the case of global pollutants. Results show that the impact of trade is more favorable for local pollutants both for the shape of the EKC and the scope for pollution substitution. My third paper is an extension of my second paper where I investigate the impact of trade on the multi-country framework when technology is heterogeneous. When countries of different levels of technology engage in trade with each other, it is found that the relative level of technology has an impact on the scope of pollution substitution as well as the EKC. Results of this paper reveal that when the level of technology of the foreign country is better, engaging in imports, and when the level of technology of the home country is better, engaging in exports helps the scope of pollution substitution as well as the shape of EKC.

Handbook on Trade and the Environment

Handbook on Trade and the Environment
  • Author : Kevin Gallagher
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-01-01
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9781848446045
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Summary : Handbook on Trade and the Environment is a good source for those looking for a better understanding of political issues, of legal debates, and of the state of discussion between government, industry, NGO, and private sector groups on topics that are not often treated elsewhere. Judith M. Dean, World Trade Review I would recommend the book to anyone concerned with the interaction of trade and the environment. John Goodier, Reference Reviews In this comprehensive reference work, Kevin Gallagher has compiled a fresh and broad-ranging collection of expert voices commenting on the interdisciplinary field of trade and the environment. For over two decades policymakers and scholars have been struggling to understand the relationship between international trade in a globalizing world and its effects on the natural environment. The authors in this Handbook provide the tools to do just that. The editor s well-worked introduction synthesizes the emerging themes of the collection, which is divided into three sections: trade and environmental quality, trade and environmental politics, and trade and environmental policy. Topics include the extent to which trade liberalization creates pollution havens where dirty industries flock to poorer countries with lax environmental standards, and conversely, how multinational corporations bring cleaner environmental technologies to developing countries when they choose to move abroad. The volume also addresses the extent to which national environmental policy and/or global environmental agreements clash with the emerging rules of the World Trade Organization and whether such environmental policies hinder export competitiveness. Finally, numerous political economy analyses of the complex political coalitions that arise to adapt to and mitigate changes in trade and environmental policy are provided. In addition to broader overviews of the field, in-depth case studies of nations and regions are offered, including the United States, the European Union, China, India and Mexico as well East Asia, Latin America, and Africa. The volume will serve as a guide for scholars new to the field as well as students and policy-makers needing a quick reference to the research on the interface between trade and the environment.

Demystifying the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Demystifying the Environmental Kuznets Curve
  • Author : Theodore Panayotou
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :31
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105021634238
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Summary :

Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement

Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement
  • Author : Gene M. Grossman,Alan B. Krueger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991
  • Total pages :39
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822007843683
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Summary : In general, a reduction in trade barriers will affect the environment by expanding the scale of economic activity, by altering the composition of economic activity and by initiating a change in the techniques of production. We present empirical evidence to assess the relative magnitudes of these three effects as they apply to further trade liberalization in Mexico. We first use comparable measures of three air pollutants in a cross-section of urban areas located in 42 countries to study the relationship between air quality and economic growth. We find for two pollutants (sulphur dioxide and 'smoke') that concentrations increase with per capita GDP at low levels of national income, but decrease with GDP growth at higher levels of income. We then study the determinants of the industry pattern of US imports from Mexico and of value added by Mexico's maquiladora sector. We investigate whether the size of pollution abatement costs in US industry influences the pattern of international trade and investment. Finally, we use the results from a computable general equilibrium model to study the likely compositional effect of a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on pollution in Mexico.

Environment and Development

Environment and Development
  • Author : Stavros G. Poulopoulos,Vassilis J. Inglezakis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-23
  • Total pages :594
  • ISBN : 9780444627438
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Summary : Environment and Development: Basic Principles, Human Activities, and Environmental Implications focuses on the adverse impact that human activities, developments, and economic growth have on both natural and inhabited environments. The book presents the associated problems, along with solutions that can be used to achieve a harmonic, sustainable development that provides for the co-existence of man and natural life. Chapters provide detailed information on a range of environments including: atmospheric, aquatic, soil, natural, urban, energy, and extraterrestrial, as well as the relationship between the environment and development. In addition, this comprehensive book presents the latest research findings and trends in global environmental policy for each issue. Offers a discussion of the extraterrestrial environment and waste in earth orbit as one of the distinctive topics of the book Addresses global environmental policy issues and policies Presents tabulated data to support the analysis and explain the issues presented Includes case studies covering many topics of current interest Analyzes environmental issues and proposes solutions grounded in recent research findings Discusses the various interpretations of the development concept as well as alternative pathways to sustainable development

Lessons from Quantile Panel Regression Estimation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Lessons from Quantile Panel Regression Estimation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve
  • Author : Dimitrios Kapetanakis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:665097824
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Summary : ABSTRACT: The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) estimates the income-environmental degradation relationship, typically employing measures of per-capita income and the concentration of pollutants in the air, such as NO[subscript]x (nitrogen oxide) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide). The literature has concentrated on estimation of the EKC at the mean employing longitudinal data on countries or U.S. states. The typical finding is an inverted U-shaped relationship, implying that pollution is increasing in income up to a turning point beyond which pollution decreases. Estimation at the mean, however, likely masks heterogeneities that can be present at higher and/or lower quantiles of the emissions' distribution. This study applies methods for quantile regression estimation of panel fixed effects models to the estimation of the EKC on U.S. state-level data on NO[subscript]x and SO2 pollutants over the period 1929-1994. Our results indicate that methods that focus on the mean provide too optimistic estimates about emissions reduction of NO[subscript]x, as quantile methods reveal that the rate of reduction is usually smaller; while the opposite holds for SO2 The differences arise due to the robustness of quantile regression to outlying observations. These results have implications for policies advocating economic development as a means for improving the environment.