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Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis and Carbon Dioxide Emissions
  • Author : Katsuhisa Uchiyama
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-13
  • Total pages :63
  • ISBN : 9784431559214
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Summary : This book investigates the relationship between environmental degradation and income, focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from around the world, to explore the possibility of sustainable development under global warming. Although many researchers have tackled this problem by estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), unlike the approach to sulfur dioxide emissions, there seems to be little consensus about whether EKC is formed with regard to CO2 emissions. Thus, EKC is one of the most controversial issues in the field of environmental economics. This book contributes three points with academic rigor. First, an unbalanced panel dataset containing over 150 countries with the latest CO2 emission data between 1960 and 2010 is constructed. Second, based on this dataset, the CO2 emission–income relationship is analyzed using strict econometric methods such as the dynamic panel model. Third, as it is often pointed out that some factors other than income affect CO2 emission, several variables were added to the estimation model to examine the effects of changes of industrial structure, energy composition, and overseas trade on CO2 emission.

The Dynamics of Growth in Emerging Economies

The Dynamics of Growth in Emerging Economies
  • Author : Arzu Akkoyunlu Wigley,Selim Çağatay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-19
  • Total pages :340
  • ISBN : 9780429790744
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Summary : How can Turkey increase its medium- and long-term growth potential? Despite episodes of fast growth, this has become a vital question for the Turkish economy, in order to avoid being stuck in a middle-income trap. There has been an increase in the number of studies presenting growth in Turkey and quantifying the sources of economic growth, however, due to the difference in the main underlying assumptions and the time period covered in these studies, the results differ. The second strand of literature on growth in Turkey identifies the relative underperformance of the Turkish economy by developing models with microeconomic foundations. Given the fact that there are a large number of studies investigating the macro dynamics of growth in Turkey, the book’s unique focus on the "neglected" issues in growth discussions closes the gap in the existing literature. It addresses the micro, macro, regional, and gender aspects, the environment–energy–growth nexus, as well as the microeconomic dynamics of growth. It also analyses the other significant determinants of long run growth in Turkey such as import dependency and saving-investment decision. The authors provide a macro overview of all of the precluded subjects in order to evaluate them in relation to one other, as well as to derive policy conclusions from them. This book primarily targets academics as well as graduate and undergraduate social sciences and humanities students both in Turkey and other countries. It is also a must read for researchers and policy makers not only in Turkey but also in other developing economies and is of interest to specialists of non-governmental and non-profit organizations.

Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)

Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)
  • Author : Burcu Özcan,Ilhan Öztürk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-13
  • Total pages :162
  • ISBN : 9780128167960
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Summary : Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC): A Manual provides a comprehensive summary of the EKC, summarizing work on this economic tool that can analyze environmental pollution problems. By enabling users to reconcile environmental and economic development policies, Environmental Kuznets Curve studies lend themselves to the investigation of the energy-growth and finance-energy nexus. The book obviates a dependence on outmoded tools, such as carrying capacity, externalities, ecosystem valuation and cost benefit analysis, while also encouraging flexible approaches to a variety of challenges. Provides a comprehensive summary of EKC studies, including advances in econometrics, literature reviews and historical perspectives Outlines solutions to common problems in applying EKC techniques by reviewing major case studies Explores frequently-utilized proxies for environmental quality

Environmental Kuznets Curves

Environmental Kuznets Curves
  • Author : Michael P. Vogel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :201
  • ISBN : 9783642585173
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Summary : Environmental Kuznets Curves - one of the most controversial issues of current environmental economics - suggest that economic growth may lead to environmental quality improvements. Why and under which circumstances this may be so, are the questions addressed in this book. The approach taken is formal, using techniques of static and dynamic optimisation. In addition, the main assumptions, arguments and conclusions are also presented in a non-formel way.

Contemporary Issues in Sustainable Development

Contemporary Issues in Sustainable Development
  • Author : Tanika Chakraborty,Deep Mukherjee,Sarani Saha
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-12-29
  • Total pages :410
  • ISBN : 9781000330632
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Summary : This book analyzes different perspectives around sustainable development, risk management and managing demand across various sectors in India. Diverse theories and analytical methods from various disciplines, as well as case studies, are brought together to present an in-depth study. The book discusses the challenges of achieving sustainability, the role of quantitative research to assess current scenarios, and the role of policy making to bring improvements in the Indian context. It examines the socioeconomic ways of pursuing sustainable development in the areas of agriculture, climate change and energy; the environment and natural resources; health and society. It also analyzes important quantitative models for sustainability policy analysis and provides case studies to understand the practical implementations of the models. This book will be a great reference manual that covers a whole gamut of analytical techniques that are useful for students, research scholars and practitioners of economics, environmental studies, development studies, sociology, South Asian studies and public policy, among others.

Economic Growth and Environmental Quality

Economic Growth and Environmental Quality
  • Author : Nemat Shafik,Sushenjit Bandyopadhyay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992
  • Total pages :50
  • ISBN : 1230987654XX
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Summary :

Energy and Environmental Strategies in the Era of Globalization

Energy and Environmental Strategies in the Era of Globalization
  • Author : Muhammad Shahbaz,Daniel Balsalobre
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-21
  • Total pages :439
  • ISBN : 9783030060015
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Summary : This book provides readers with cutting-edge techniques that can be applied to energy and environmental economics. Further, it highlights the effects that both globalization and economic growth have on the environment. In addition to offering a broader perspective on the relationship between environmental pollution, energy consumption and economic growth, the book studies the relationship between economic growth and environmental damage by drawing on the theoretical hypothesis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The book presents new econometric techniques and innovative approaches to the study of the energy economy. Accordingly, it can be used to help analyse the current state of the energy economy, the environment and globalization, and can serve as a theoretical reference manual for doctoral students and academics seeking new analytical techniques.

Empirical Tests and Policy Analysis of Environmental Degradation at Different Stages of Economic Development

Empirical Tests and Policy Analysis of Environmental Degradation at Different Stages of Economic Development
  • Author : Todor Panaĭotov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :27
  • ISBN : 9221087964
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Summary :

Trade and the Labor Market

Trade and the Labor Market
  • Author : Kojiro Sakurai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-04
  • Total pages :106
  • ISBN : 9789811059933
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Summary : This book presents an integrated overview and evidence, taking Japan as an example, on how international trade, especially with developing countries, affects labor market in developed countries, which has been keenly debated among international and labor economists since the late 1980s. The unique point of this book is that it integrates international trade and labor market into the same framework. The analysis includes both theory and empirical study. It especially pays attention to wage inequality between skilled and unskilled labor represented by nonproduction and production workers, and college graduates and high-school graduates. The estimation method used is to analyze input-output tables containing 55 manufacturing industries during the period 1995-2005, and to measure factor content of trade using these tables. Main results are as follows: First, both relative wage and relative employment of nonproduction to production workers, and college graduates to high-school graduates increased as a trend since the 1980s, suggesting a relative demand shift toward skilled labor. Second, analysis using input-output tables revealed that employment reduction due to increased imports is greater in production workers than in nonproduction workers, and that employment increase due to increased exports is greater in nonproduction workers than in production workers, suggesting the comparative advantage being at work in line with the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson model. Third, analysis using factor content of trade revealed that increased trade during 1995-2005 especially with Asian countries raised the relative wage of nonproduction to production workers in the aggregated manufacturing sector by 0.023 points (1.400 to 1.422), or by 1.6 percent in terms of rate of change. This estimation result suggests that increased trade in this period played a certain role in widening wage inequality between nonproduction to production workers. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the effect of globalization on labor market in the field of economics.

Dr. Osamu Shimomura's Legacy and the Postwar Japanese Economy

Dr. Osamu Shimomura's Legacy and the Postwar Japanese Economy
  • Author : Kozo Horiuchi,Masayuki Otaki
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-10
  • Total pages :113
  • ISBN : 9789811057625
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Summary : This book elucidates the economic conditions and policies during the post War Japanese economy from the view point of an influential policy maker. Dr. Osamu Shimomura is one of the most eminent economists in Japan. He entered the Ministry of Finance and played a crucial role in actualizing the High-Growth era from the late 1950s to the early 70s. "The Doubling Income Plan", which is issued by the Ikeda cabinet, originates from him. It should be noted that while most economists held pessimistic view on the future, Shimomura is brave and foresighted. Shimomura’s theory is not merely one of the pioneer works in macroeconomics, but also suits the economic conditions of Japan. Shimomura extends the principle of effective demand, which means that his theory includes effects of capital accumulation to production capacity. While one may argue that Harrod (1939) and Domar (1946) have already achieved that, Shimomura’s theory centers policy recommendations for sustaining the high economic growth against the productivity growth that would cause excess supply in the market. Succinctly, Shimomura is a Keynesian who believes the vigor in its private sector but recognizes that Japanese economy urgently needs the government’s auxiliary macroeconomic policies. This book emphasizes that the rapid Japanese growth owes mainly to affluent entrepreneurship filled in the economy not to the sheer government’s planning. Dr. Shimomura’s theory endorses our assertion.

Keynes’s General Theory Reconsidered in the Context of the Japanese Economy

Keynes’s General Theory Reconsidered in the Context of the Japanese Economy
  • Author : Masayuki Otaki
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-18
  • Total pages :98
  • ISBN : 9784431559153
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Summary : This book reconsiders Keynes’s The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money and establishes a new interpretation. In contrast to the existing models, this book finds that the stickiness in the nominal wage is not crucial for his theory. Moreover, the author has also succeeds in capturing the concept of liquidity in a rigorous mathematical model. In conjunction with the development of the concept of liquidity, the separation of the decision between savings and capital investment, which plays a key role in the principle of effective demand and denies Say’s law, is exactly and originally formulated. The theory thus developed is applicable to elucidating some serious political economic causes that entrap the long-stagnated Japanese economy. For example, an analytical explanation is provided about why disinflation/deflation incessantly progresses despite the exorbitant expansionary monetary policy (ijigen kin-yuu seisaku) by the Bank of Japan. This phenomenon is an unsolvable question from the quantity-theoretic approaches (e.g., monetarism and new Keynesianism) which, although they differ in assumptions concerning the length of adjustment periods, commonly assume that the price level sooner or later rises in proportion to the quantity of money. Owing much to Keynes, the author’s approach considers that the price level is mainly governed by its marginal prime cost which is equal to the nominal wage as a first approximation. As such, the drastically sagging wages during the past 10 years provoke serious disinflation/deflation. It should be noted that this discussion never depends on the quantity of money.

The Economics of Sustainable Development

The Economics of Sustainable Development
  • Author : Aaron L. Halpern
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995-02-24
  • Total pages :314
  • ISBN : 0521469570
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Summary : Examines the implication for orthodox economic theory of explicitly considering resource depletion, pollution abatement and sustainability.

Rationality and Operators

Rationality and Operators
  • Author : Susumu Cato
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-16
  • Total pages :124
  • ISBN : 9789811018961
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Summary : This unique book develops an operational approach to preference and rationality as the author employs operators over binary relations to capture the concept of rationality. A preference is a basis of individual behavior and social judgment and is mathematically regarded as a binary relation on the set of alternatives. Traditionally, an individual/social preference is assumed to satisfy completeness and transitivity. However, each of the two conditions is often considered to be too demanding; and then, weaker rationality conditions are introduced by researchers. This book argues that the preference rationality conditions can be captured mathematically by “operators,” which are mappings from the set of operators to itself. This operational approach nests traditional concepts in individual/social decision theory and clarifies the underlying formal structure of preference rationality. The author also applies his approach to welfare economics. The core problem of ‘new welfare economics,’ developed by Kaldor, Hicks, and Samuelson, is the rationality of social preference. In this book the author translates the social criteria proposed by those three economists into operational forms, which provide new insights into welfare economics extending beyond ‘new welfare economics.’

Economic Signals

Economic Signals
  • Author : Masaoki Tamura
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-30
  • Total pages :50
  • ISBN : 9789811089381
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Summary : This Brief sheds new light on three specific aspects of economic behavior – companies offering prize promotions, individuals making anonymous donations, and politicians creating political advertisements. These are considered signals that firms send to consumers, donors send to others, and politicians send to voters, respectively. The author shows why firms, donors, and politicians employ these behaviors, and what their social consequences are from an economic theory perspective. This book is intended for readers who are interested in industrial organization, the economics of giving, and political economics. Each topic can be seen as an application of simple economic theory to an unusual subject matter in economics. Thus, for students, this work also offers an introduction to analytical methods in time-inconsistency and involving asymmetric information. The problems and economic settings behind these topics are firms’ time-inconsistency in a monopoly, asymmetric information in individual altruism, and asymmetric information regarding types of politicians.

The Economics of Climate Change

The Economics of Climate Change
  • Author : Nicholas Stern,Nicholas Herbert Stern,Great Britain. Treasury
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-01-04
  • Total pages :692
  • ISBN : 9780521700801
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Summary : Independent, rigorous and comprehensive analysis of the economic aspects of climate change.

The Skeptical Environmentalist

The Skeptical Environmentalist
  • Author : Bjørn Lomborg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-08-30
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781139643696
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Summary : The Skeptical Environmentalist challenges widely held beliefs that the environmental situation is getting worse and worse. The author, himself a former member of Greenpeace, is critical of the way in which many environmental organisations make selective and misleading use of the scientific evidence. Using the best available statistical information from internationally recognised research institutes, Bjørn Lomborg systematically examines a range of major environmental problems that feature prominently in headline news across the world. His arguments are presented in non-technical, accessible language and are carefully backed up by over 2500 footnotes allowing readers to check sources for themselves. Concluding that there are more reasons for optimism than pessimism, Bjørn Lomborg stresses the need for clear-headed prioritisation of resources to tackle real, not imagined problems. The Skeptical Environmentalist offers readers a non-partisan stocktaking exercise that serves as a useful corrective to the more alarmist accounts favoured by campaign groups and the media.

Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement

Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement
  • Author : Gene M. Grossman,Alan B. Krueger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991
  • Total pages :39
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822007843683
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Summary : In general, a reduction in trade barriers will affect the environment by expanding the scale of economic activity, by altering the composition of economic activity and by initiating a change in the techniques of production. We present empirical evidence to assess the relative magnitudes of these three effects as they apply to further trade liberalization in Mexico. We first use comparable measures of three air pollutants in a cross-section of urban areas located in 42 countries to study the relationship between air quality and economic growth. We find for two pollutants (sulphur dioxide and 'smoke') that concentrations increase with per capita GDP at low levels of national income, but decrease with GDP growth at higher levels of income. We then study the determinants of the industry pattern of US imports from Mexico and of value added by Mexico's maquiladora sector. We investigate whether the size of pollution abatement costs in US industry influences the pattern of international trade and investment. Finally, we use the results from a computable general equilibrium model to study the likely compositional effect of a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on pollution in Mexico.

Environmental Kuznet Curve Hypothesis Revisited

Environmental Kuznet Curve Hypothesis Revisited
  • Author : Lan Xu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :362
  • ISBN : MINN:31951P00831635T
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Summary :

Cross-Border Resource Management

Cross-Border Resource Management
  • Author : Rongxing Guo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-07-25
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 008046081X
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Summary : This essay is about the management of natural and environmental resources in cross-border areas. It explores a group of geographical, political, legal, economic and cultural factors that arise when political units (such as sovereign countries, dependent states and other administrative units) seek to utilize natural and environmental resources efficiently and equitably while minimizing the resultant damages (for example, prevention of resource degradation and preservation of the physical environment). * Examines various types of cross-border areas at both international and sub-national levels throughout the world as well as their geographical, political, economic and cultural influences on the cross-border resource management * Uses the latest international and area data, resulting in new findings for cross-border environmental activities * Contains a large number of case studies throughout the world including four in-depth case studies of cross-border resource management

Procyclical Fiscal Policy

Procyclical Fiscal Policy
  • Author : Toshihiro Ihori,Keigo Kameda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-28
  • Total pages :68
  • ISBN : 9789811329951
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Summary : Conventional wisdom dictates that a fiscal policy should be counter-cyclical. However, contrary to this conventional views, recent research has demonstrated that fiscal policy is actually procyclical in most developing countries. In this book, we attempt to propose a new interpretation of this procyclicality after reviewing theoretical and empirical evolution of the research. In particular, by incorporating the political effort behavior of private agents into a weak government model, we explore how income fluctuations affect the optimal budget deficits in a political economy. If the government can control the political behavior, normally, the optimal budget deficit should rise in a recession as a first-best case; however, interestingly, a recession does not necessarily prompt an increase in the budget deficits in a second-best political economy. The response of the budget deficits to income fluctuations mainly depends on the efficiency of political effort, which may correspond to the degree of democracy and bureaucratic efficiency of the governments. We test the prediction of the pro-cyclical fiscal policy and find it applicable for democratic countries with semi-efficient governments including Japan.

OECD Insights Economic Globalisation Origins and consequences

OECD Insights Economic Globalisation Origins and consequences
  • Author : Huwart Jean-Yves,Verdier Loïc
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-11
  • Total pages :156
  • ISBN : 9789264111905
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Summary : This publication reviews the major turning points in the history of economic integration, and in particular the pace at which it has accelerated since the 1990s. It also considers its impact in four crucial areas, namely employment, development, the environment and financial stability.