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Equitable Access to High-Cost Pharmaceuticals

Equitable Access to High-Cost Pharmaceuticals
  • Author : Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-02-27
  • Total pages :238
  • ISBN : 9780128119624
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Summary : Equitable Access to High-Cost Pharmaceuticals seeks to aid the development and implementation of equitable public health policies by pharmaco-economics professionals, health economists, and policymakers. With detailed country-by country analysis of policy and regulation, the Work compares and contrasts national healthcare systems to support researchers and practitioners identify optimal healthcare policy solutions. The Work incorporates chapters on global regulatory changes, health technology assessment guidelines, and competitive effectiveness research recommendations from international bodies such as the OECD or the EU. Novel policies such as horizon scanning, managed-entry agreement and post-launch monitoring are considered in detail. The Work also thoroughly reviews novel pharmaceuticals with particular research interest, including cancer drugs, orphan medicines, Hep C, and personalized medicines. Evaluates impact and efficacy of current access policies and pricing regulation of high-cost drugs Incorporates existing guidelines and recommendations by international organizations Compares and contrasts how different countries fund and police high-cost drug access Explores novel and emergent policies, including managed entry agreement, analysis of real world data and differential pricing Reviews novel pharmaceuticals of current research interest

Making Medicines Affordable

Making Medicines Affordable
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Care Services,Committee on Ensuring Patient Access to Affordable Drug Therapies
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-01
  • Total pages :234
  • ISBN : 9780309468084
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Summary : Thanks to remarkable advances in modern health care attributable to science, engineering, and medicine, it is now possible to cure or manage illnesses that were long deemed untreatable. At the same time, however, the United States is facing the vexing challenge of a seemingly uncontrolled rise in the cost of health care. Total medical expenditures are rapidly approaching 20 percent of the gross domestic product and are crowding out other priorities of national importance. The use of increasingly expensive prescription drugs is a significant part of this problem, making the cost of biopharmaceuticals a serious national concern with broad political implications. Especially with the highly visible and very large price increases for prescription drugs that have occurred in recent years, finding a way to make prescription medicinesâ€"and health care at largeâ€"more affordable for everyone has become a socioeconomic imperative. Affordability is a complex function of factors, including not just the prices of the drugs themselves, but also the details of an individual's insurance coverage and the number of medical conditions that an individual or family confronts. Therefore, any solution to the affordability issue will require considering all of these factors together. The current high and increasing costs of prescription drugsâ€"coupled with the broader trends in overall health care costsâ€"is unsustainable to society as a whole. Making Medicines Affordable examines patient access to affordable and effective therapies, with emphasis on drug pricing, inflation in the cost of drugs, and insurance design. This report explores structural and policy factors influencing drug pricing, drug access programs, the emerging role of comparative effectiveness assessments in payment policies, changing finances of medical practice with regard to drug costs and reimbursement, and measures to prevent drug shortages and foster continued innovation in drug development. It makes recommendations for policy actions that could address drug price trends, improve patient access to affordable and effective treatments, and encourage innovations that address significant needs in health care.

Pharmacy Practice Research Methods

Pharmacy Practice Research Methods
  • Author : Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-21
  • Total pages :265
  • ISBN : 9789811529931
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Summary : The first edition of Pharmacy Practice Research Methods provided a contemporary overview of pharmacy practice research, discussing relevant theories, methodologies, models and techniques. It included chapters on a range of quantitative, qualitative, action research and mixed methods as well as management theories underpinning change in pharmacy practice. This new edition of the book is much broader and more diversified. It includes the quality improvement methods in pharmacy practice research, focusing on the key differences between high and low-income countries with regard to pharmacy practice research, as well as the main challenges faced when conducting such research – areas of significant global interest. In addition, a number of the chapters covering fast-moving fields where new methods have been developed and published have been updated. Featuring seven new topics and presenting future trends, the book also explains in detail methods used in covert and overt observations in pharmacy practice, as well as methods involved in realist research, which are important to countries seeking to produce evidence-based information in this area.

Encyclopedia of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy

Encyclopedia of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-28
  • Total pages :2358
  • ISBN : 9780128127360
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Summary : Encyclopedia of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy covers definitions, concepts, methods, theories and applications of clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice. It highlights why and how this field has a significant impact on healthcare. The work brings baseline knowledge, along with the latest, most cutting-edge research. In addition, new treatments, algorithms, standard treatment guidelines, and pharmacotherapies regarding diseases and disorders are also covered. The book's main focus lies on the pharmacy practice side, covering pharmacy practice research, pharmacovigilance, pharmacoeconomics, social and administrative pharmacy, public health pharmacy, pharmaceutical systems research, the future of pharmacy, and new interventional models of pharmaceutical care. By providing concise expositions on a broad range of topics, this book is an excellent resource for those seeking information beyond their specific areas of expertise. This outstanding reference is essential for anyone involved in the study of pharmacy practice. Provides a ‘one-stop’ resource for access to information written by world-leading scholars in the field Meticulously organized, with articles split into three clear sections, it is the ideal resource for students, researchers and professionals to find relevant information Contains concise and accessible chapters that are ideal as an authoritative introduction for non-specialists and readers from the undergraduate level upwards Includes multimedia options, such as hyperlinked references and further readings, cross-references and videos

Medicare Prospective Payment for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services

Medicare Prospective Payment for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1985
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : NWU:35558001335492
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Summary :

Access to Medicine in the Global Economy

Access to Medicine in the Global Economy
  • Author : Cynthia Ho
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-21
  • Total pages :410
  • ISBN : 9780195390124
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Summary : Access to medicine is an important topic for all citizens of the world. While most people know that patents can increase the cost of medicine, important nuances of international laws that require nations to provide patents are frequently unknown or misunderstood. In Access to Medicine in the Global Economy, Professor Cynthia Ho introduces this issue to a diverse group of readers, including scholars, students and policy makers. While the focus of the book is the international arena, the book begins by explaining how drugs are developed and marketed to provide relevant context. It explains and interprets important international agreements, beginning with the landmark Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS), but also including more recent free trade agreements and the pending Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). Controversial topics are included, such as when a nation can provide a compulsory license, as well as whether a nation may suspend in-transit generic goods. The book also discusses how patent-like rights (such as data exclusivity") provide an independent barrier to the entry of lower-cost generic medicines in the marketplace, together with strategies for minimizing harm of such rights. The topics are made accessible through clear explanations and diagrams, frequently asked questions, and case studies. The case studies also provide a theory of patent perspectives that may shed light on why access to medicine is an agreed upon goal with a thus far elusive solution."

Growth that Works for All

Growth that Works for All
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :210
  • ISBN : UCR:31210025328731
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Summary :

Health Technology Assessment of Medical Devices

Health Technology Assessment of Medical Devices
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-25
  • Total pages :39
  • ISBN : 9241501367
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Summary : WHO and partners have been working towards devising an agenda, an action plan, tools and guidelines to increase access to appropriate medical devices. This document is part of a series of reference documents being developed for use at the country level. The series will include the following subject areas: * policy framework for health technology * medical device regulations * health technology assessment * health technology management * needs assessment of medical devices * medical device procurement * medical equipment donations * medical equipment inventory management * medical equipment maintenance * computerized maintenance management systems * medical device data * medical device nomenclature * medical devices by health-care setting * medical devices by clinical procedures * medical device innovation, research and development. These documents are intended for use by biomedical engineers, health managers, donors, nongovernmental organizations and academic institutions involved in health technology at the district, national, regional or global levels. HTA is the systematic evaluation of properties, effects, and/or impacts of health technology. Its main purpose is to inform technology-related policy-making in health care, and thus improve the uptake of cost-effective new technologies and prevent the uptake of technologies that are of doubtful value for the health system. It is one of three complementary functions to ensure the appropriate introduction and use of health technology. The other two components are regulation, which is concerned with safety and efficacy, and assessment of all significant intended as well as unintended consequences of technology use; and management, which is concerned with the procurement and maintenance of the technology during its life-cycle. The performance of health systems is strengthened when the linkages and exchange among these elements are clearly differentiated but mutually supportive. This document integrates health technology assessment into the WHO framework for evidence-informed policy-making. Health systems are strengthened when HTA is integrated into the human and material resources, data, transparent decision- and policy-making, and linked to the overall vision of equity and accountability. Good governance can rely on health technology assessment to provide a policy approach that is accountable for its decisions to the population.

Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation - Intersections between Public Health, Intellectual Property and Trade

Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation - Intersections between Public Health, Intellectual Property and Trade
  • Author : World Intellectual Property Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :257
  • ISBN : 9789280523089
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Summary : This study has emerged from an ongoing program of trilateral cooperation between WHO, WTO and WIPO. It responds to an increasing demand, particularly in developing countries, for strengthened capacity for informed policy-making in areas of intersection between health, trade and IP, focusing on access to and innovation of medicines and other medical technologies.

Food, Drug, Cosmetic Law Journal

Food, Drug, Cosmetic Law Journal
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105061410432
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Summary :

A Practical Approach to Pharmaceutical Policy

A Practical Approach to Pharmaceutical Policy
  • Author : Andreas Seiter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-06-17
  • Total pages :238
  • ISBN : 0821383876
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Summary : This book offers policy makers a hands-on approach, tested in the World Bank’s field work in many countries, for developing policies that improve access to safe, effective medicines in health systems of low- and middle-income economies.

Pharmaceutical Prices in the 21st Century

Pharmaceutical Prices in the 21st Century
  • Author : Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-05
  • Total pages :411
  • ISBN : 9783319121697
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Summary : This book provides an overview of the global pharmaceutical pricing policies. Medicines use is increasing globally with the increase in resistant microbes, emergence of new treatments, and because of awareness among consumers. This has resulted in increased drug expenditures globally. As the pharmaceutical market is expanding, a variety of pharmaceutical pricing strategies and policies have been employed by drug companies, state organizations and pharmaceutical pricing authorities.

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCAL:B5128254
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Summary :

Ensuring Value for Money in Health Care

Ensuring Value for Money in Health Care
  • Author : Corinna Sorenson,Michael Drummond,Panos Kanavos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :156
  • ISBN : 9789289071833
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Summary : This report addresses the concepts and controversy surrounding health technology assessment in Europe, with a particular focus on selected Member States including Sweden, the Netherlands, Finland, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. It is intended to identify and address current considerations regarding HTA methodological and process issues related to the prioritization and financing of modern health care. In particular, it describes the processes and challenges for identifying and prioritizing assessments; assesses and compares current assessment methods and procedures; and highlights the barriers to effective implementation. The report also ascertains the roles and terms of engagement of key stakeholders, and captures the opportunities and challenges for the use of HTA guidance in general priority-setting, decision-making and health-care provision.

Pharmaceutical Market Access in Developed Markets

Pharmaceutical Market Access in Developed Markets
  • Author : Güvenç Koçkaya,Albert Wertheimer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-22
  • Total pages :324
  • ISBN : 9788897419747
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Summary : Market access is the process by which a pharmaceutical company gets its product available on the market after having obtained a marketing authorization from a regulatory agency and by which the product becomes available for all patients for whom it is indicated as per its marketing authorization. It covers a group of activities intended to provide access to the appropriate medicine for the appropriate group of patients at the appropriate price (in most countries). Market Access may also be seen as activities that support the management of potential barriers, such as non-optimal price and reimbursement levels, the restriction of the scope of prescribing for the drug or complicated prescription writing or funding procedures. Since there are cultural differences among countries, any Market Access strategy needs to be culturally sensitive. Pharmaceutical Market Access in emerging markets has been extensively discussed in our previous book, published in 2016. The present book focuses on developed markets with the goal of helping students, academics, industry personnel, government workers, and decision makers understand the environment in developed markets.

Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs

Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Understanding the Global Public Health Implications of Substandard, Falsified, and Counterfeit Medical Products
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-20
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9780309269391
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Summary : The adulteration and fraudulent manufacture of medicines is an old problem, vastly aggravated by modern manufacturing and trade. In the last decade, impotent antimicrobial drugs have compromised the treatment of many deadly diseases in poor countries. More recently, negligent production at a Massachusetts compounding pharmacy sickened hundreds of Americans. While the national drugs regulatory authority (hereafter, the regulatory authority) is responsible for the safety of a country's drug supply, no single country can entirely guarantee this today. The once common use of the term counterfeit to describe any drug that is not what it claims to be is at the heart of the argument. In a narrow, legal sense a counterfeit drug is one that infringes on a registered trademark. The lay meaning is much broader, including any drug made with intentional deceit. Some generic drug companies and civil society groups object to calling bad medicines counterfeit, seeing it as the deliberate conflation of public health and intellectual property concerns. Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs accepts the narrow meaning of counterfeit, and, because the nuances of trademark infringement must be dealt with by courts, case by case, the report does not discuss the problem of counterfeit medicines.

Medicare Issues Under Health Care Reform

Medicare Issues Under Health Care Reform
  • Author : United States,United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Finance
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995
  • Total pages :121
  • ISBN : UCR:31210014050619
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Summary :

Educating Everybody's Children

Educating Everybody's Children
  • Author : Robert W. Cole W. Cole
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-15
  • Total pages :295
  • ISBN : 9781416612490
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Summary : Designed to promote reflection, discussion, and action among the entire learning community, Educating Everybody's Children encapsulates what research has revealed about successfully addressing the needs of students from economically, ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse groups and identifies a wide range of effective principles and instructional strategies. Although good teaching works well with all students, educators must develop an extensive repertoire of instructional tools to meet the varying needs of students from diverse backgrounds. Those tools and the knowledge base behind them are the foundation of this expanded and revised second edition of Educating Everybody's Children. Each strategy discussed in the book includes classroom examples and a list of the research studies that support it. The most important thing we have learned as a result of the education reform movement is that student achievement stands or falls on the motivation and skills of teachers. We must ensure that all teachers are capable of delivering a standards‐based curriculum that describes what students should know and be able to do, and that these standards are delivered by means of a rich and engaging "pedagogy of plenty." By these two acts we can ensure that all schools will be ready and able to educate everybody's children.

Drug Safety

Drug Safety
  • Author : Nigel S. B. Rawson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-08
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : 9781460291009
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Summary : With "Big Pharma" garnering an increasing number of negative headlines due to reports of adverse drug reactions and a surge in prescription drug addiction and overdose deaths, many people are increasingly skeptical about the safety of modern pharmaceutics and the moral integrity of the pharmaceutical industry. This book was written to provide a balanced perspective on drug safety risks. No therapeutic prescription drug is entirely risk-free. Before receiving marketing approval, new drugs go through arduous and expensive testing processes that can take up to a decade and cost over two billion dollars. While not perfect, the process is far from a "Wild West" environment where big pharmaceutical companies ride roughshod over government regulators. However, author and pharmacoepidemiologist Nigel Rawson argues, the antipathy that is common between governments, pharmaceutical industry and academic experts in Canada needs to change to an environment of collaboration and partnership to enhance our ability to respond in a timely fashion to future pharmaceutical crises. While directed mainly at students in the health sciences and pharmaceutical professionals, this book will be of interest to anyone, including lay people and policy makers, who would like to know more about the evolution of the prescription drug evaluation and risk assessment process. Although the book focuses primarily on Canada, it makes comparisons with the United States and Europe, and several of the author's recommendations for how to improve the prescription drug evaluation process are applicable worldwide....

Price Setting and Price Regulation in Health Care

Price Setting and Price Regulation in Health Care
  • Author : OECD,World Health Organization,Barber Sarah L,Lorenzoni Luca,Ong Paul
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-26
  • Total pages :298
  • ISBN : 9789264508866
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Summary : The objectives of this study are to describe experiences in price setting and how pricing has been used to attain better coverage, quality, financial protection, and health outcomes. It builds on newly commissioned case studies and lessons learned in calculating prices, negotiating with providers, and monitoring changes. Recognising that no single model is applicable to all settings, the study aimed to generate best practices and identify areas for future research, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. The report and the case studies were jointly developed by the OECD and the WHO Centre for Health Development in Kobe (Japan).

Pharmaceutical Policy in Countries with Developing Healthcare Systems

Pharmaceutical Policy in Countries with Developing Healthcare Systems
  • Author : Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-27
  • Total pages :430
  • ISBN : 9783319516738
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Summary : A comprehensive and granular insight into the challenges of promoting rational medicine, this book serves as an essential resource for health policy makers and researchers interested in national medicines policies. Country-specific chapters have a common format, beginning with an overview of the health system and regulatory and policy environments, before discussing the difficulties in maintaining a medicines supply system, challenges in ensuring access to affordable medicines and issues impacting on rational medicine use. Numerous case studies are also used to highlight key issues and each chapter concludes with country-specific solutions to the issues raised. Written by highly regarded academics, the book includes countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and South America.